How does an Electric Car work ? | Tesla Model S

Electric cars are making big waves in the automobile world These noise-free, pollution-fre and high-performance] vehicles are expected to make their IC engine counterparts obsolete by 2025 This video will unveil the hidden technologies behind the Tesla model S which recently became the world’s fastest accelerating car We will see how electric cars have achieved superior performance by analyzing the technology behind the induction motor, inverter Lithium-Ion battery Power source, and, above all, the synchronized vehicle mechanism, in a logical step-by-step Manner The powerhouse of the tesla car is an invention made by the great scientist Nikola Tesla around 100 Years back: the induction motor The induction Motor has two main parts: the stator and the rotor You can see the construction details of the motor here The rotor is simply a collection of conducting bars short-circuited by end rings A three-phase AC power input is given to the stator The three-phase alternating current in the coils produces a rotating magnetic field. The tesla motor produces a four-pole Magnetic field. This rotating magnetic field that induces current on the rotor bars to make it turn In an induction motor the rotor always lags behind the RMF. An induction motor has neither brushes nor a permanent magnet. At the same time it is robust and powerful. The beauty of an induction motor is that its speed depends on the frequency of the AC power supply. So just by varying the frequency of the power supply, we will be able to alter the drive wheel speed This simple fact makes electric car speed control easy and reliable The motor Supply is from a variable frequency drive, which in turn controls motor speed. The motor speed can range from Zero to 18,000 rpm. This is the most sizable advantage electric cars have when compared to internal combustion cars. An Internal Combustion engine produces usable torque and power output only within limited speed range Therefore, directly connecting the engine rotation to the drive wheel is not a clever idea. A transmission must be introduced to vary the drive wheel speed On the other hand an induction motor will work efficiently in any speed range Thus no speed varying transmission is needed for an electric car moreover an IC engine does not produce direct rotational motion The linear motion of the piston has to be converted to rotational motion This causes major problems for mechanical balancing Not only is the internal combustion engine not self-started like an induction motor further, the power output of an IC engine is always uneven Many accessories are needed to solve these issues On the other hand you will have direct rotational motion and uniform power output with an induction motor many components in the IC engine can be avoided here As a result of these factors, a great response rate and higher power to weight ratio comes naturally to an induction motor resulting in superior vehicle Performance But from where does the motor receive power? From a battery pack the battery Produces DC power so before supply get to a motor it has to be converted to AC An inverter is used for this purpose This power electronic device also controls the Ac power frequency thus controlling the motor speed Moreover the Inverter can even vary the amplitude of the ac power which in turn will control the motor power output Thus the inverter acts as the brain of the electric car Now let’s turn our focus to the battery pack You will be amazed to find that they are just a collection of common lithium-ion cells similar to those used in your daily life The cells are connected in a combination of series and parallel to produce the power required to run your electric car Glycol coolant is passed through metallic inner tubes through the gap between the cells This is one principal innovation of Tesla by using many small cells instead of a few big cells Effective cooling is guaranteed This minimizes thermal hot spots and even temperature distribution is achieved leading to higher battery pack life The cells are arranged as detachable modules There are 16 such modules in the battery pack constituting around 7,000 cells The heated Glycol is cooled down by passing through a radiator, which is fitted at the front of the vehicle Moreover you can see how such a low height battery pack when fitted close to the ground level will lower the vehicle center of gravity The lower of gravity improves the stability of the car considerably The large battery pack is also spread across the floor offering structural rigidity against side collisions Now let’s get back to Tesla’s drivetrain The power produced by the motor is transferred to the drive wheels via a gearbox As previously discussed, tesla model s uses a simple Single speed transmission because the motor is efficient in a wide range of operating conditions You can see that output speed from the motor is reduced in two steps Even achieving the reverse gear is quite easy in an electric car. Just change the order of the power phase for this The only purpose of electric car transmission is speed reduction and associated torque multiplication The second component in the Gearbox is a differential The reduced speed drive is passed to it You can see this is a simple open differential. However, open differentials, have a problem of traction control But why does such an advanced car use an open differential rather than a limited slip differential? The answer is that the open differential is more rugged and can carry more torque A problem that occurs in an open differential can effectively be overcome with help of two methods:
selective braking and cutting the power supply In an Internal combustion engine this power supply cut by cutting the fuel is not so responsive In an induction motor, however, the power supply cut is quite responsive and an effective means for obtaining traction control In the tesla this can all be accomplished using a state-of-the-art algorithm with help from Sensors and controllers In short, Tesla Motors has replaced a complex mechanical hardware system with smart, responsive software Did you know an electric car could be driven efficiently with the help of just one pedal? This is due to its powerful regenerative braking system That means saving the huge kinetic energy of the car in the form of electricity without wasting it as heat In an electric car, as soon as you release the accelerator pedal the regenerative braking comes into action The interesting thing is that during the regenerative braking the same induction motor acts as a generator Here the wheels drive the rotor of the induction motor We know in an induction motor the rotor speed is less than the RMF speed To convert the motor to a generator. You just have to make sure that the rotor speed is greater than the RMF speed The inverter plays a crucial role here in adjusting the input power frequency and keeping the RMF speed below the rotor speed This will generate electricity in the stator coils, which is way higher than the supplied electricity The generated electricity can then be stored in the battery pack after the conversion An opposing electromagnetic force acts on the rotor during this process, so the drive wheels and the car will slow down This way vehicle speed can be accurately controlled during the drive using a single pedal The brake Pedal can be applied for a complete stop As you might already be aware, electric cars are much safer than internal combustion cars The cost of maintaining and driving an electric car is much lower than that of an IC engine car With the drawbacks of the electric car evaded through the advent of improved technology, electric cars promise to be the cars of the future We think mr.. J. Who Garcia an electric car expert and youtuber for his technical support for this video? Your support at is highly appreciated. It enables us to make additional free educational videos for you. Thank you

100 Replies to “How does an Electric Car work ? | Tesla Model S

  1. i am a layman when it comes to mechanics, but with so many moving parts, won't the maintenance cost be higher? will these parts not require replacement very often? i am planning on buying an electric car, so please educate me. which parts should i expect would require continuous maintenance or frequent replacement?

  2. Very interesting and excellently realized video. Many thanks!

    As a passive safety engineer myself, I would like to add that the presence of the battery pack increases the torsional stiffness for sure, but not so much for lateral impact safety (the battery structure must be protected, thus the intrussions are to be managed via the body-in-white rocker structure mainly).
    Also for the front unit crumple zone, yes, it is largely increased (if a front motor does not exist), but in counterpart, the rear crumple zone is more difficult to manage comapred to an ICE car (the rear motor and invertor must be protected in the case of rear impact).

    Thanks again, hope my comments would be accepted as constructive opinion. No intention of critisism.

  3. There's no point in planning long term for ICE vehicle mass production anymore. Show this video to anyone who argues against electric vehicles.

                          CORRESPONDING FOR 100% ELECTRIC CARS
                                           (Tesla Model S: P 100 D)

    C = Battery capacity in (kWh)

    c = Average consumption of an electric car = 20 kWh / 100 km = 20,000 Wh / 100 km
    = 200 Wh / km!

    0.95 = Battery availability coefficient! (5% of the battery is always stored for Tesla computer interventions!)

    A = Autonomy in (km)

    1000 x C (kWh) = c (Wh / km) x A (km) x 0.95 (Basic equation)

    A (km) = 1000 x C (kWh) / c (Wh / km) x 0.95 = (km)

    Example: Tesla Model S: P 100 D; C = 100 kWh

    Average autonomy = 1000 x 100/200 x 0.95 = 1000/2 x 0.95 = 1000 / 1.9 = approx. 526 km!

    V = Average speed (km / h)

    Autonomy corresponding to an average speed of about 90 km / h (city, state, highway 20%)

    Calculation of the constant: K = A (km) x V (km / h) = (km2 / h) (Hyperbolic function!)

    K = 526 km x 90 km / h = 47.340 km2 / h (Constant to remember to calculate speed or autonomy!)

    Up to the speed of 130 km / h we can perform the following calculations ….
                 (Beyond the resistance of the air, the calculations are complicated!)

    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 60 km / h; A = 47.340 / 60 = 789 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 80 km / h; A = 47.340 / 80 = 592 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 100 km / h; A = 47.340 / 100 = 473 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 120 km / h; A = 47.340 / 120 = 394 km!
    A (km) = K / V (km / h); V = 130 km / h; A = 47.340 / 130 = 364 km!

    What maximum speed for 690 km?

    V (km / h) = K / A (km) 47.340 / 690 km = 68.6 km / h (about 70 km / h)


    For the very high speeds the range is inversely proportional to the speed cube!
    This means that if we double the speed from 130 km / h to 260 km / h (German motorways!) The autonomy is not divided by two …
    but for two cubed that is: 2 power 3 = 2 x 2 x 2 = 8 and the km become: 364/8 = 45.5 km!
    We fully discharge the battery in: T (time) = Space / Speed ​​(km / km / h = h) 45.5 km / 260 km / h = 0.175 h = 0.175 x 60 = 10.5 minutes = 10 minutes 30 seconds!

    Attention, the best is yet to come … for all speeds from 130 to 260 km / h !!!

                                                            Constant speed !

    The equation is as follows: A = K x 130 squared / V in the cube!

    V = 130 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/130 x 130 x 130 = 47.340 / 130 = 364 km!

    V = 140 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/140 x140 x 140 = 292 km!

    V = 160 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/160 x 160 x 160 = 195 km!

    V = 180 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/180 x 180 x 180 = 137 km!

    V = 200 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/200 x 200 x 200 = 100 km!

    V = 220 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x130 / 220 x 220 x 220 = 75 km!

    V = 240 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/240 x 240 x 240 = 58 km!

    V = 260 km / h … A =?

    A (km) = 47.340 x 130 x 130/260 x 260 x 260 = 45.5 km!

    Unit formula = km2 / h x km2 / h2 / km3 / h3 = km4 / h3 / km3 / h3 = km! C.Q.F.D.

    I will do all these calculations to verify: Tesla model 3 performance!

    Giulia Quadrifoglio: Mass: 1524 kg / 510 HP (375 kW) = 2.98 kg per CV! or: 1524 kg / 375 kW = 4.06 kg per kW!
    Tesla S 100 D: Mass: 2200 kg / 367 hp (270 kW) = 5.99 kg per HP! or: 2200 kg / 270 kW = 8.14 kg per kW!

    In the long run, however, I am not convinced that storage of energy in batteries makes sense given the unfavorable relationship between the weight of the battery and the power supplied. In this respect, gasoline engines have a much better relationship! C.Q.F.D.
    Words of the engineer and inventor Elmar Mock (inventor of the Swatch!)
    Beautiful and extraordinary demonstration and explanation! of the Tesla Model … I think the best VIDEO about what's on YouTube! Thank you very much for showing us all the secrets of the most advanced electric car in the world! We could almost believe the movie the best of all worlds !!!
    Unfortunately in your presentation you forget to talk to us about the basics … Two Anglo-Saxon geniuses of physics: ISAAC NEWTON and COLIN CHAPMANN the father of the formula 1 who said a very heavy sentence for Tesla … Give power to a car and you will go quickly in a straight line …. but remove it from the weight and you will go everywhere!
    ISAAC NEWTON the father of the most important equation of the dynamics of an automobile: F = M * a (kg * m / s2 = Newton)
    You tell us about Tesla the father of the electric motor whose efficiency is 95% either …. Its simplicity of construction is … Its small footprint is … virtually no maintenance is … its mass of 31.8 kg for a power of 270 kW giving a power / mass ratio = 270 / 31.8 = 8.5 kW / kg! Magnificent figure … but wrong … You can not in your calculation … Forget the weight of the battery without which your Tesla would not roll!
    Dimensions and battery life of the Tesla model S 100 D, its battery has a capacity: E of 100 kWh = 100,000 Wh!
    We know that the capacity of a lithium-ion battery is given by the relation: E = d * M (Wh / kg * kg = Wh) d = 200 Wh / kg (energy density) M = mass in kg of the drums
    hence M = E / d = 100,000 Wh / 200 Wh / kg = 500 kg!
    Calculation of the average autonomy in km of a Tesla model S 100 D; we know that the average consumption is: 20 kWh per 100 km …
    So its average autonomy will be: 100 kWh / 20 kWh = 5 * 100 km = 500 km!
    So the real performance of the most advanced and powerful 100% electric car Tesla S 100 D are:
    Average autonomy = 500 km!
    Mass battery = 500 kg
    Motor mass = 31.8 kg
    Engine power = 270 kW!
    Total mass = motor + battery = 31,8 kg + 500 kg = 531,8 kg! (and the gearbox + the differential + the inverter are not part of the motor mass?)
    True total power / mass ratio for comparison with a heat engine = 270 / 531.8 = 0.50 kW / kg !!! and not … 8.5 kW / kg! (17 x less!)
    Compare then with what is best today with a heat engine: DUCATI V4R of 1000 cm3 of displacement.
    Average autonomy = 800 km! (Consumption = 5 l / 100 km = 40 l / 5 l x 100 km = 800 km!)
    Mass of gasoline = 40 liters x 0.755 = 30 kg!
    Motor mass + box at speed = 60 kg!
    Engine power = 234 HP / 1.36 = 172 kW!
    Total mass = motor + gasoline = 60 kg + 30 kg = 90 kg!
    Total power / mass ratio = 172/90 = 1.91 kW / kg !!!
    Conclusion: despite a 95% efficiency of the electric motor of the Tesla model S 100 D compared to the most efficient gasoline engine … we find that the entire engine + battery is about 4x less efficient than the entire engine + gasoline: 1.91 kW / kg !!! / 0.50 kW / kg !!! = 4 x
    Note :
    Generally the car manufacturers indicate the ratio total mass of the vehicle divided by its power in CV or kW Example:
    Giulia Quadrifoglio: Mass: 1524 kg / 510 HP (375 kW) = 2.98 kg per CV! or: 1524 kg / 375 kW = 4.06 kg per kW!
    Tesla S 100 D: Mass: 2200 kg / 367 hp (270 kW) = 5.99 kg per HP! or: 2200 kg / 270 kW = 8.14 kg per kW!

  6. how much???
    1- where electricty that operate that power bank comes from?
    2- Li batteries pollution in production?
    3- They assume that electricity is cheap now because it comes from carbon based, and when we use solar panels it will costs twice as much …. with the same pollution in production!!!

    I see those tesla are useless ,,,and unless you make a solution that costs as much as oil then please shut up or go do some real R&D

  7. If I follow this correctly, the increase in the amplitude of AC current should increase the torque, while the increase of the frequency should increase the RPM of the induction motor. Is this right?

  8. Tesla is just ready to beat by other companies

    These new Upcoming electric Cars will be best in 2019

  9. “Low cost of maintaining a electric car”
    You do realize that lithium ion batteries degrade and must be replaced with new batteries right?

  10. Is there a video about how the thermal system works? I understand it hooks to the motor and batteries but how is it hooked up to cool or eat the batteries for winter? How do the pumps get hooked up?

  11. I appreciate the hard work on this video which make anyone learn about this new electric concept
    I wish the authors read my reply
    And do a video about the
    Thank you in advance 👋😀

  12. Colaboria encanto en tu patrion, pero el que piedas ayuda en España y tus videos sean en inglés.. Me tiro para atrás en la colaboración y ayuda a tu canal. Saludos

  13. This is a good video but I just couldn't finish watching it, the narrator is quite annoying with the upwards inflection at the end of every sentence, it's as if he doesn't care about or understand what he is reading and ruins the the work that went in to making the video.

  14. Everything you claim for this car is correct except. At present, in the United States this automobile contributes 3 times more CO2 than a comparable gasoline powered auto. The US electric grid is nearly 80% generated from fossil fuels. The electric grid delivers to the charge of the at an overall efficiency of 10% or less. The average generator is 45 years old, the average age of overhead transmission wires is more than 80 years old.

    There IS a cure. More wind, more solar, and USE the electric auto battery packs as both the storage for the grid, solar and wind are intermittent, and the storage for the automobile. OR,,, build some very large batteries to store the solar and wind for the 'rainy day'.

    In the meanwhile,,, tell the truth,, a Tesla is mostly a coal fired car. Which came first, the chicken or the egg? In this case, the chicken came first, a Tesla, and the egg, renewable electric, better follow it quickly.

  15. O sistema da Tesla é muito bom mas, eu acho que se for colocado um motor diretamente no semi eixo de cada roda reduziria as perdas com a transmissão, desgaste das engrenagens e a necessidade de lubrificação, trazendo menor custo de manutenção e reduzindo a quantidade de componentes mecânicos no carro.

  16. No need for batteries….Tesla did his car, and was 15 days straight running non-stop in the 1900´s ….with no batteries….nobody wanted it

  17. Why is the Giulia running faster at the Nürburgring than the new Porsche Taycan?
    Because of physics … nothing but physics … all physics!
    1) The Giulia has a mass of: 1600 kg! that of Taycan: 2300 kg !!! 700 kg more !!!
    What did my master think Colin Chapman … increase the power of a car and you will go quickly in a straight line … take him off the weight and you will go quickly everywhere …
    2) the battery (physical aberration for a car …) about 100 kWh of capacity! = a power of 136 HP for one hour … 272 ​​HP for half an hour … 544 HP for 15 min … So the delivered power is not constant during the lap of the circuit … the electrons leave but its mass remains what is not the case of the Giulia whose mass decreases with the consumption of gas!
    3) The center of gravity and the moment of polar inertia!
    The provision of all the floor for the batteries certainly lower the center of gravity of the car but this device has not only advantages for a 100% electric car … the two electric motors one in front of the axle before the other behind the rear axle their mass with the transfer case and the differential are very far from the axis of the center of gravity of the car … which results in a noticeable increase in the moment of polar inertia of the whole car … the high-speed handling is not as favorable as the GIULIA TRANSAXLE system
    Engine + gearbox very close to the center of gravity of the car!

  18. Im wondering if a dinamo can be put in place in the car so it could some how charge another battery pack when the other one has run out and with electronic tuning, when one battery pack runs out it automatically will switch over to the other battery pack and then when that one runs out it will switch over to the charged battery that was being charged while the dynamo was working to charge it and a panel could be put in place in the front of the car to show when it has charged so you could switch it off so you don't over charge the batteries giving them longer life and then it will show up on the panel when the 1st battery gets low in energy and then when it runs out, it automatically will switch over to the dynamo charged battery and then you could switch on the dynamo to charge the used second battery so it can now charge while the dynamo is working, then you wont ever have to charge it at a charge point. Also charge points in some countries that have so much sun could be run on solar power


  20. Your video is appreciated, however it has some english speaking flaws.

    Additionally it does not explain if the gears need any oil or lubricants, what the cost of replacing sections of the battery pack might be, nor does it discuss the issue of rats eating the wiring system from below.

  21. At the out set, I wish to compliment the team who has made this video because the presentation is so beautiful that even a non-electrical person can understand. I have following two request to make.Kindly
    (1) Explain the mathematics to arrive at the 270kW output.
    (2)Indicate the life cycle cost vis-a-vis similar internal combustion engine.

  22. Now the next step is to incorporate solar power to recharge batteries and we will be really finally moving forward, until the government finds a way to charge for sunlight

  23. Wouldn't it be great to replace all the vehicles on this planet to be replaced with electric cars? Think 🤔 carefully – there won't be any consumption of petrol or diesel which in turns pollutes the air. No more destruction of this planet. No more relative poverty issues and comparing whether petrol or a diesel car is better. No buying of fuels means no comparison of anybody status whether they can afford it or not.

    Small minds are stuck in this bullshit idea that only having money and status will prove their worth. Pfffff… I really hope that when people mature in years of age their brain also must or should or could mature to understand higher concepts and ideas. No one is leaving this planet alive. Then why make a fuss of it unnecessarily.

  24. So simple yet so much more efficient than ICEs. Easy to implement into ICE to EV conversions, low maintenance, no smog; I love it. Elon you are invaluable.

  25. If Everyone Converted to an Electric Motor Oil Companies would End or be forced to make renewable energy if they want to survive

  26. Electric Car Conversion should be an overnight BOOM Industry I don't know why it hasn't happened yet…people think they are still powerless with poor performance Instead the Opposite Apply's They Out Perform Petrol Engines Significantly

  27. If you claim that electric cars are pollution free, you're just lying. More electricity, more oil, more waste from producing that electricity.

  28. هل يمكن ان تكون السيارة مولدة للطاقة الكهرباىية خلال سيرها وفي نفس الوقت تشحن البطاريات .. مثلا الدفع بالعجلات الخلفية والشحن بالعجلات الامامية.. مجرد فكرة تحتاج إلى توضيح علمي..

  29. Great that we’re getting on track with EVs, however it is unfortunate that it took so long. Might be the mentality of profit over our planet delayed it I guess.

  30. When buying a TESLA … 3 (three) scenarios are possible …
    – First scenario the Tesla takes FIRE and not being able to go out you grill inside like the poor German in Ticino in Switzerland!
    – Second scenario less dramatic your Tesla takes FIRE in a common garage as in CHINA when charging the battery by putting the Fire to the adjacent cars!
    – Third worst scenario for the environment … still not knowing how to properly recycle the 300 to 500 kg of batteries … each Tesla … the exorbitant cost to do this recycling are to make them grow cemeteries of underground or open air batteries … of our poor planet … which will supplement the current waste of plastic materials … as well as those very dangerous of nuclear origin!

  31. How long does an electric car last ? Will there ever be an "Oldtimer" Tesla one day? Probably not because electric cars are not meant to be repaired. They are meant to be replaced if too many compartments break down .

    Its a fascinating technology but for car enthusiasts theres too many negatives

  32. Great but not an honest video. The weight of the IC engine and transmission are noted but what about the weights of Batteries and Inverter and motor and transmission?

  33. How are battery packs eco-friendly? How are we disposing them off? How are they made? How is Lithium extracted? What about damage we cause to nature while making this all?

  34. How i wish this type of cars was develop in 70s maybe today our planet recovered from that smog produced by ICE long ago.. But its not too late.. Thanks for these video

  35. So I am studying mechanic and boi I see that I need to learn about those car quick or else I would be jobless and homeless and worthless

  36. This video can't be entirely true. Because if you look at Dyno benchmarks of electric cars, even the Tesla, the power drop off happens drastically at the higher end. For example, Formula E cars make 216bhp at max, but at the highest RPM of their electric motors it drops to 145bhp

  37. Great video of a great car. Tesla really do keep mechanical stuff simple and rugged, and the only thing I miss on Tesla compared to other EV's is a more advansed braking system like VW ore Mercedes use that regulates regen before using mechanical brakes.This way its possible to offer driving mode like sailing that saves energy both by not regenerating when not desired, and by inspiring to more relaxed driving style.

  38. La technologie utilisée ici n'est pas top. Le moteur électrique, dit «à induction» probablement pour égarer ceux qui n'y connaissent rien (?) est de type asynchrone, c'est à dire à rotor en cage, bref c'est du pas cher. Le rendement est bien moins bon qu'avec un moteur synchrone, surtout avec un moteur synchrone à aimants au néodyme. Par ailleurs les onduleurs-régulateurs fatiguent énormément au démarrage lorsqu'ils sont chargés par un moteur asynchrone donc l'électronique de cette automobile sera peu fiable sauf sur-dimensionnement. La consommation en ville (nombreux démarrages) doit être assez conséquentes. De plus il y a encore trop de mécanique qui réduisent encore le rendement. Un moteur-roue (4 en fait et de type synchrone à aimants) résoudrait cet autre manque d'ambition technologique.
    Il y a un truc qui m'étonne, c'est qu'aujourd'hui les moteurs synchrones sont partout, par exemple toutes les trottinettes électriques. Alors pourquoi cette technologie dépassée de l'asynchrone sur cette voiture ?

  39. Could they add an alternator to recharge the battery while the can is engaged? This should increase the battery range.

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