FREE Cannabis Software Selection Template by Aviva Spectrum


Sonia Luna here over at Aviva Spectrum
I wanted to share a template that we created to help you decide and score
properly the right accounting software for you and your team take a look at step 1 which is making
sure you involve your team not only your internal team but anybody outside of
your team that you get a lot of advice from let me go through the template and
how it works to incorporate all these stakeholders now in the template there’s three Excel
tabs this first tab to fill out is called ERP selection tasks and there’s a
couple of things that need to be done and you can check the status of where
you’re at if you’ve completed them if they’re in progress is something to be
scheduled etc and there were a couple of criteria it takes about 30 minutes to
complete and it does highlight what kind of software package should the team even
evaluate for demonstration which we’ll get into step number two after step one you’re gonna select a few
vendors hopefully three to check out their demos of how their software works
you’re going to evaluate them on nine criteria and you’re going to rate them
from one two three one being the worst three being the best now when you rate them you’re gonna look
at nine very specific critical criteria that I have seen in working so on some
of the largest accounts but also in the mid market accounts meaning the smaller
emerging companies that have a high growth potential these are the same nine
critical criteria I would highly recommend for you to evaluate when
you’re picking your accounting package so what is the scoring when you get to
step two here you’re going to see one of the three or one of the the first three
of the nine criteria which is adherence to what you wanted to ask from the
software vendor getting their company information that’s number two number
three is does the vendor understand the project of what you’re trying to achieve
for your goals for getting an accounting package and you’ll see for the adherence
to the instructions you asked from the software vendors okay you would want to
know what kind of scoring you would give each of them in timeliness completeness
of them giving you information the quality and professionalism in
representing their software company and on the right you’ll see column E is a
basis for your score you can write in text here to describe how did you score
one two three what was the criteria for you or even some notes that
differentiate let’s say between vendor one or three and so forth now we all know that certain businesses
have unique revenue sources or supply chain management issues in the nine that
I mentioned earlier this is item five that you’ll be scoring each of the
software vendors and I’ve highlighted in yellow some of the criteria that you can
either eliminate in the template or augment to your liking based on the
actual services that you provide to your customers now once you’ve finished the first two
tabs of the template you’re going to get to a scorecard it does allow a lot of
flexibility in scoring it also allows the team and you’ll see in the various
areas that their concerns were not only heard but they could actually object
objectively evaluate where their pain points were addressed by each of the
three vendors that you take a look at and I’ll it’ll also highlight some of
the shortcomings that you want to identify and where you’re going to need
to augment your business processes to address those shortcomings that some
software packages may have now this is the scorecard summary tab
that I’ve circled here and this is what the template looks like you see the
number one through nine here when it comes to the criteria and you’ll see
that this weight actually can be adjusted my only request is that you
keep this summary score at a hundred and if you want to change this to fifteen
but you want to make this ten wonderful you’ll see that the unweighted score
this is all linked to the tab that you you conducted for vendor 1 or vendor 2
so the beauty of this template is there’s already links to the summary
total of what you scored for each criteria now the weighted score the
weighted score takes these scores that you had okay
multiplied by this weight this is how important you thought it was this
adherence to instructions etc okay and then you’re going to divide it by three
because that’s the maximum value you had so an inventor’s one one he had a two
divided by 10 divided by three get to three point three the overall weighted
score is 61 points out of a hundred now vendor two got eighty two point
eight points out of a hundred and so most of you can see how vendor two when
you weight what you felt was important and you can
change this up as you wish vendor two outshined vendor one hands
down we’re to download it go to our website
at Aviva spectrum comm and there’s a section called downloads and you can get
access to this excel spreadsheet template as well as our other templates
that we provide to our community now I’m hoping that you would have seen
some of our other videos and connected with me Sonia Luna on LinkedIn but just
to give you a general overview of the firm we have well over thirteen years of
experience we are definitely one of the thought leaders when it comes to know
not only accounting packages but mobile device and its security when it comes to
accounting and patient data client data vendor data we are also the number one
LinkedIn recommended firm I myself have over 50 written
recommendations and our CPAs typically have a CPA a CIA designations and eight
plus years on average experience we have all the insurance requirements that you
would expect from a high-caliber consulting firm I myself am a former
advisor to the Securities Exchange Commission and I am an active California
CPA as well I want you today to email me at [email protected] with a
subject header called “Accounting Software Analysis” it is complimentary to
the community I hold it twice a month and we go over not only this template
but some of your other business concerns to make sure that you find the right
accounting fit for your organization we know you have a lot of choices in
selecting a CPA firm to help you with your accounting and auditing needs we
hope that one of those that you look to is Aviva Spectrum thank you and we look
forward to connecting with you soon! Best Cannabis CPAs

What is Amazon Business?


We are cool people just like you are! So
why not to hang out with us on social media and discover even more cool deals?
Also, to make sure you are notified when we post a new video, subscribe and hit
the notification bell below now! Hello guys! This is Sally and in this short
video you will discover what is Amazon Business, how it could help your small
business and where to create your free account. Amazon Business is changing the
way companies buy supplies. For most small businesses, buying supplies can be
time-consuming and frustrating. Finding the best product at the best price with
the most convenient payment terms can be a challenge especially when they have
other tasks that need to be completed. Amazon Business is the solution and
brings big benefits to businesses of all sizes and industries. For more
information on how to get your free account, visit our exclusive Amazon link
in the description below this video now! Thanks for watching and have a great day!
Amazon has reinvented the way we shop, making it easy to purchase almost
anything and know that it will be delivered quickly and reliably. What if
it were just as easy to shop on Amazon for work? Good news! it is! Introducing
Amazon Business. It’s everything you love about Amazon, for your business.
With a free Amazon Business Account there’s no more tracking down multiple
suppliers because you have access to hundreds of millions of products at
great prices delivered quickly and predictably. It’s the same Amazon you
know plus tools and solutions to make business purchases easier and more cost
effective than ever before. Track Orders, Approve Spending, Assign PO
Numbers, Choose Who Can Place Orders and take advantage of Shared Payment
Accounts and Shipping Addresses. Plus, enjoy benefits like available unlimited
Fast Free Shipping and Special Pricing on select items. If you make purchases
for a business, any business, then Amazon Business is right for you. Whether you
work at a four person startup or a large corporation, whether you’re stocking the
supply room or buying laptops for the whole company, it’s everything you love
about Amazon, for your business. Get started today! That’s all for now guys!
Why don’t you subscribe to our cool Youtube channel and hit that
notification bell! Finally, do not forget to like and share this awesome video
with your awesome friends on these awesome sites. It helps us a lot!
Until next time… Save More and Shop More!

Do You Have An Amazon Business/Import Business? How To Protect Yourself!


Hey everyone Alex Ryan here the
import-export coats welcome back to another video as you can see they’re
watching the unloading and loading off containers I don’t whether you see that
in the background it’s quite unique it’s actually quite an interesting thing to
watch I love watching this stuff it’s like you know I don’t plain spot I was
just sort of stuff you can see now it’s heading to heading to Tokyo but
the time and I see heading there a few days opening to knock the Sun but it’s
amazing these things and a question I get asked a lot is insurance how do you
how do you make sure that your goods are insured what if there’s a storm because
occasionally in a South China Sea there are a lot of storms as tsunamis
riders and armies the storms as gale winds container ships you’re locked in
that and it’s not uncommon to happen a lot happened in New Zealand about four
or five years ago when it containers just fell in the ocean right they lost
their life savings and you know how insurance works on most tips is if your
container is at the bottom of it and the ones at the top to fall in right other
people’s containers your container is safe you still have to contribute to the
loss of the containers above I don’t know whether you know about that that
it’s an old maritime law right at that city so speak to a shipping agent if you
think about the important containers you want to make sure that they are in
protected keep that in mind because you don’t want to lose your life savings or
you don’t want to be up for a lot of a lot of more looking after other people’s
containers so keep that in mind getting good shit be an agent get someone who
can really help who knows their thing like if you look at all these containers
here right there’s thousands of tens and thousands of a Brian I’m visiting a lot
of ports I’m actually here visiting quite a few for toss in a different
country yesterday looking at their port but uh you know these containers they
have to be insured they actually have to be insured and there’s is big money in
it but you know insurance you need insurance if you’re doing anything that
to do with containers you need insurance guys to keep that in mind alright that’s
it for me and I make this a very short video hope you enjoyed today’s video
guys if you want to get more tips visit my website I’ve got a free video program
there showing you how to choose hot products how to import from China how to
start an Amazon business and if you’re looking to standard yeah if you look at
start an Amazon business guys make sure that and you’re looking to do containers
like this make sure that you are choosing a good product for starters and
the shipping rates make sure you’re getting a great ship and rate talk do
shipping agent 40 capsules Berger about that alright so have an awesome day guys
talk to you real soon see you

Peter Thiel talks anti-conservative bias in Silicon Valley


THE NUCLEAR PROGRAM AND AT SOME POINT WE WEREN’T. MARIA: QUITE SIGNIFICANT THAT CHINA’S INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES HAVE BEEN FEEDING PEOPLE INTO AMERICAN COMPANIES, WHAT’S GOING ON IN SILICON VALLEY, WHAT’S HAPPENING WITH CHINESE NATIONALS WORKING WITHIN OUR INSTITUTES, WHAT’S YOUR TAKE ON ALL OF THAT?>>WELL, THIS GETS VERY SPECULATIVE, IT WOULD BE ODD IF THERE WASN’T LIKE THIS GOING ON, TO ZERO IN ON THE GOOGLE EXAMPLE WHERE THE AI DEEP MIND EFFORT WAS DESCRIBED BY ITS OWN FOUNDER AS MANHATTAN PROJECT FOR AI, EVEN THOUGH IT WAS MEANT AS PROBABLY MARKETING HYPERBOLE IN A WAY, I THINK THAT, YOU KNOW, PEOPLE OUTSIDE THE U.S. MIGHT VERY WELL TAKE THAT LITERALLY AND SO IF YOU GO AROUND SAYING, HERE IS MANHATTAN PROJECT FOR AI, PAY ATTENTION, WORLD, I THINK THAT WOULD ATTRACT THE ATTENTION OF FOREIGN GOVERNMENTS, FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE AGENCIES AND I THINK IN PARTICULAR THE QUESTION ABOUT CHINESE INTEREST AND THIS IS ONE THAT NEEDS TO BE LOOKED AT MUCH MORE CAREFULLY AND I ARGUE THAT THE FBI OR CIA SHOULD BE LOOKING AT THIS. MARIA: DO YOU GET PRESSURE BECAUSE YOU’VE SUPPORTED PRESIDENT TRUMP?>>YEAH, A LOT — I THINK THERE’S ALWAYS AN INSIDE AND OUTSIDE QUESTION, THE OUTSIDE QUESTIONS WHAT ARE COMPANIES DOING WITH CHINA, ARE THEY CENSORING SPEECH, AND — AND THE TWITTER MCCONNELL THING, YOU CAN SAY INNOCENT ACCIDENT OR IS IT INTENTIONAL ACTIVE POLITICAL SABOTAGE, WHICH OF THE TWO IS IT, ONE OF THE REASON IT IS REPUBLICANS ARE SO SKEPTICAL OF THE — OF THE EXCUSES BIG TECH HAS FOR THE REPEATED ACCIDENTS, THE INSIDE STORY IS NOT GOOD, BECAUSE ON THE INSIDE TWITTER IS NOT A COMPANY WHERE YOU HAVE LOTS OF PEOPLE WRITING CHECKS TO SENATOR MCCONNELL, IF YOU HAD A LOT OF CAMPAIGN DONATIONS FROM SENATOR MCCONNELL, WE MIGHT SAY TO SENATOR MCCONNELL, THIS IS INNOCENT MISTAKE AND WE WON’T COMPLAIN ABOUT IT TOO MUCH, THAT’S NOT WHAT’S ACTUALLY GOING ON AND — AND IT HAS — IT HAS SORT OF THIS THE FEEL OF A VERY UNHEALTHY ONE-PARTY STATE IN A WAY THAT’S NOT GOOD FOR SILICON VALLEY OR THE POLITICS OF THIS COUNTRY. MARIA: I MEAN, THE PRESIDENT CAN’T HAVE A FUNDRAISER WITHOUT, YOU KNOW, THE PEOPLE GETTING BULLIED ABOUT THE FUNDRAISER. IT’S GONE — IT’S ACTUALLY CRAZY, IT’S REAL TRUMP DERANGEMENT SYNDROME HAPPENING.>>RIGHT, AND IT IS ALWAYS, YOU KNOW, I’M SORT OF — THE MAIN OUTSPOKEN SPORTER OF PRESIDENT TRUMP INSIDE SILICON VALLEY AND MANY OTHER PEOPLE INSIDE SILICON VALLEY THAT SUPPORT THE PRESIDENT BUT THEY ARE NOT GOING SAY, THAT’S ALWAYS THE PROBLEM, UNANIMITY DOESN’T MEAN THAT

Hudson’s Bay Company: From Fur Trading to Retail


When you think of department stores, you probably
think of elevator music and holiday sales. You probably don’t think of frontier warfare,
forbidden romance, and the rugged heroes of Manifest Destiny. But maybe you should, because today we’ll
be looking at the Hudson’s Bay Company. This video is brought to you by Tab for a
Cause, a free browser extension that donates money to charity with every new tab open without
costing you a single dime. The Hudson’s Bay Company is best known today
as a Canadian retail conglomerate. It owns department store brands like Lord
& Taylor, Saks Fifth Avenue, and of course Hudson’s Bay. HBC has stores all over Canada, the US, and
parts of Europe, with annual sales of almost $7 billion CAD. But it didn’t start out that way. In fact, it started before department stores
even existed, all the way back in the tail end of the 17th Century. In 1659, two French fur traders got a tip
from the native Cree that Hudson’s Bay was a rich opportunity for fur trading. They sought backing from the French, who controlled
the Canadian fur trade at the time, to set up a fort in the Bay to reduce the cost of
transporting their goods. After being refused, they set out anyway,
and upon their return they were arrested for trading without a license. They were fined, and their furs were confiscated
by the government, not the optimal start. But still, they were convinced the Bay was
the place to be for a fur trader looking to strike it rich. Stonewalled by the French, they approached
a group of Boston businessman, looking for investment, and with the help of their benefactors
set off to England to secure more support. In 1670, King Charles II granted the group
a trading charter, and incorporated their venture as the Governor and Company of Adventurers
of England trading into Hudson’s Bay. George’s cousin, Prince Rupert, was installed
as the company’s first Governor. They were granted nearly 1.5 million square
miles of Canadian territory to explore, including modern-day Ontario and Quebec. The Canadian fur trade was heating up, but
the region was fraught with danger and the constant threat of warfare. The HBC relied on Native trappers to supply
many of their pelts, but various Native tribes were often at war with one another, and expeditions
had a tough time making it to the trading forts, which were concentrated in the Bay,
without being attacked by rival tribes. Henry Kelsey, a Hudson’s Bay apprentice
who would later become company governor, made serious inroads with the local Cree, learning
their language and adopting their customs, in an effort to promote peace among the tribes. In fact, Hudson’s Bay employees integrated
quite often into local Cree culture. Many HBC traders married Cree women and had
children known in local parlance as “Half-Breeds”. This was, of course, considered illegal by
the company, but it happened nonetheless. Eventually the HBC eliminated its regulations
against intermarriage, and the children of these mixed-race couples became employees
of the Company. It wasn’t just the local Native tribes that
presented a problem for the HBC, though. Skirmishes with the French forces looking
to establish dominance in the fur trade were a fact of daily life for much of the HBC’s
first century. In 1759, however, in the middle of the Seven
Years’ War, the British defeated the French at the Battle of Quebec. The French abandoned their nearby forts, but
French-allied Native tribes refused to recognize British authority, burning several forts until
King George III signed a treaty, which established land outside the trapping grounds as protected
territory for the First Nation Peoples. But all this competition only forced HBC to
expand, especially as they strove to outpace their economic rival, the North West Company,
which employed a legendary trapper named Alexander MacKenzie, who once covered a round trip of
3200 miles in just over a hundred days — that’s more than a marathon every 24 hours. Beating a guy like that is pretty good motivation
to expand, and so they did. The next big hurdle for HBC was the gold rush
of 1849. As 40,000 laborers looking to get rich came
west, the massively increased demand made basic goods almost unaffordable. The price of unskilled labor, for example,
doubled. The profits from gold mining offset this enough
to keep things profitable, but new tax and customs laws were a huge inconvenience for
HBC. Their ships, for example, had to sail an extra
350 miles off course just for inspection. In 1881, HBC created its first mail-order
catalogue, the start of what would become its multibillion-dollar department store business. But the 20th Century is when the retail arm
of the Hudson’s Bay Company really started expanding — after all, it was a natural
extension of their experience with trading posts, updated for the modern world. Their trading posts, by the way, were so successful
that now-major Canadian cities sprung up around them, like Winnipeg and Calgary. In 1926 HBC entered the oil and gas business,
which persisted throughout a good chunk of the century, until the crashing oil prices
of the 1980s. But as the urbanization and rising consumerism
of the 20th Century continued to grow, it was HBC’s investment in retail that kept
paying off, and their number of stores and acquisitions increased. By that point its share of the fur trade had
dwindled to almost nothing, and it was the target of consistent attacks by anti-fur advocates,
leading the company to sell off its line of fur auction houses and to abandon the trade
completely. But while the retail division was soaring
above its American rival Sears, in 1994 another American giant entered the Canadian market:
Walmart. An all-out pricing war developed between the
Walton family’s superstores and HBC’s discount arm, Zellers. In just three short years Walmart gained a
45% market share, outpacing Zellers. HBC’s answer was to invest in much larger
Zeller’s locations and they even purchased all the K-Marts in Canada. Zellers was rebranded as a more upscale discount
store, closer to Target than Walmart, and its historically lousy customer service was
actually improved, but low sales persisted. By this time, e-commerce was just starting
to become a viable market, and HBC quickly jumped on board with hbc.com. But the existing competition was just too
much — sales remained stagnant, and the stock price began to plunge. In 2005, South Carolina billionaire and takeover
artist Jerry Zucker launched a hostile bid, eventually winning the company for just over
$15 CAD per share. But he died in 2008, leaving the company in
chaos just in time for the Great Recession. Zellers locations were either sold off or
leased out to Target Canada, which declared bankruptcy in 2015. As you can imagine, with Amazon knocking on
the door, the HBC’s management isn’t very confident. In February 2017 they tried to sell out to
Macy’s, but with decreasing profits and an increasingly uncertain future, it probably
won’t be long before the Hudson’s Bay Company joins the fur business in the history
books. Now, before you click off this video and open
a new tab, I want you to check out Tab for a Cause. It’s a free browser extension that modifies
your new tab page so that every time you open a new tab, you raise between a tenth and a
third of cent for your favorite charity. That might not seem much, but it actually
adds up. In fact, since the last time we talked about
Tab for a Cause, they’ve raised over $13,000 for charity. You can support numerous causes across the
world, by simply browsing the web as you’ve always done. When it comes to charity, every little bit
helps, and collectively we can make a big difference. That’s why I want you to visit the link
in the description and to download their free browser extension. Of course, I want to give huge thanks to all
my patrons on Patreon and to you for watching. Make sure to follow me on Facebook, Twitter
and Reddit, and as always: stay smart.

Avianca Airbus A330-300 Business Class Flight Review


– Today’s theme is Airbuses, with Avianca. (gentle pulsing synth music) We are going to fly a new
carrier for me, Avianca. It’s a Star Alliance carrier based here in Colombia, although they
have a Brazil division that apparently isn’t doing too well. They’ve also had a bunch
of strikes recently, and several TPG employees
have had nightmare experiences flying them, being
stranded, flights canceled, taking off without them knowing, so hopefully today will be a lot smoother. We’re going to do an hour of flight from Medellín to Bogotá, two-hour layover, hit up the lounge real quick,
which I hear isn’t that great, and then Bogotá to JFK, about a five-and-a-half-hour flight. If all goes well, we’ll
land just before 7 p.m. in New York tonight. Let’s go check in. (gentle pulsing synth music) I’ll give credit where it’s due, Avianca turned that plane
around really quickly, and we arrived early,
even though the plane wasn’t there even when boarding started. So, so far, so good, Avianca. Now, let’s go to the lounge. (puzzled music) – Segundo?
– [Attendant] Sí. (puzzled music) – [Fan] Can I take a selfie with you? – Yeah, sure, sure! How’s it going? – Oh, thanks! – Thanks, buddy!
– Awesome, yeah! Safe travels. I did not pay him to say that. – [Cameraman] Should have
asked him where the lounge was. – Oh, yeah, that actually
would have been a good idea. (puzzled music intensifies) – [Cameraman] Brian! – A-ha! Right now we’re at the
Avianca Business Class Lounge, which is across from its Elite Lounge, open-air, kinda hot, okay food items, but I wouldn’t consider stocking up on a meal here.
But, better than nothing. And all I really care
about is that our flight is not delayed, and I get home
on time, because I’m tired. True story, these are a guilty pleasure, and, you know, I don’t wanna be seen like, an inexperienced traveler, so I hide them. But I love them. My little secret. Keep it between us. (groovy synth music) This is a 1 p.m. flight, which means you’re not eating until 2:30, and considering I woke up and ate at 6:30, I was getting hangry, and I
got a hamburger in the airport because when I’m hangry, I
enjoy flights a lot less more, and in general, life less more. I’m still gonna eat again, of course. (groovy synth music) Let’s check out the amenity kit. “To me.” How does it look? Ooh, was not expecting
that, branded products! This is hand cream. Sometimes I’ll even use
hand cream on my face because it gets so dry on long flights. Love a lip balm. Good earplugs. They’ve got little earphone
covers for germaphobes. Even branded toothpaste. Colgate. This is a solid amenity
kit for a five-hour flight. Well done, Avianca! (relaxed synth music) – Ah-ha-ha-ha! (relaxed synth music) A canoe test fail of epic proportions. (laughing) How can anyone
fit their feet in there? Oh, well. I’ll survive. (relaxed pulsing synth music) It’s like, indiscernible sauce. It’s just sauce that has some flavor, but you can’t really tell what it is. Chicken that tastes like something. Better than nothing, I guess. Dessert is Oreo cheesecake. That’s good. That’s actually really good. One thing that’s awesome is
meal service was so quick. We’re barely in the
Caribbean, off the coast of Barranquilla, and we’re
completely done with meal service. So, even though the food
was mediocre, the service was very quick, which is
a big plus in my book. (relaxed pulsing synth music) Call me old-school, but
I still like to print blog posts, my reviews, and edit them with good ol’ pen and paper. I dunno. There’s
something about seeing it, not just being on a computer
screen all the time, especially on a plane. Cup of coffee, and in total travel mindset is when I do my best editing, and writing, and coming up with ideas, and planning crazy places
that I’m gonna go next. Where better to do that then in the sky, when no one’s texting? You know, that’s the one
good thing about no Wi-Fi on this flight, I’m
actually pretty focused. If you’ve ever wondered how I
have this beautiful physique, it’s unnecessary meals like this, that go straight here. But I gotta try it for you guys. A little pesto, pita, ham, salt, carbs… I’m not mad about it. (funky synth music) (funky synth music) Three things I liked about
Avianca. Let me think. The Oreo cheesecake. So, Oreo cheesecake, amenity kit, and blanket. Things that I did not like: The lounge, the foot room. I know toddlers that have larger feet than can fit in that space. And, no Wi-Fi. And also,
this remote bus-gate situation in February in JFK. All right, that was four. That’s not nice. But, overall, it was fine. And
I’ll say one more nice thing, we arrived on time. So… If you haven’t seen all of
my Colombian adventures, subscribe to the channel
now and check them out. (smooth funk music)

The Perspective from Africa – Himla Soodyall: So Where Do We Come From?


(peaceful music) – [Narrator] We are the paradoxical ape. Bipedal, naked, large brained, long the master of fire,
tools and language, but still trying to understand ourselves. Aware that death is inevitable,
yet filled with optimism. We grow up slowly, we hand down knowledge, we empathize and deceive. We shape the future from
our shared understanding of the past. Carta bring together experts
from diverse disciplines to exchange insights on who
we are and how we got here, an exploration made possible by the generosity of humans like you. (peaceful music) – So this is my show and tell. Every single cell in our body
is packaged with my tool kit, which is DNA. And we have two types of DNA
that carries the blueprint that we all walk with and I know to this audience
this is like kindergarten school but I’m showing this to remind us that I’m gonna talk
about two different types of inheritance, the nuclear DNA, which is the chrome
makes up the chromosomes that undergoes mixing at cell
division or recombination, that is now why I am at this
height and at this size. You heard about brain size and
height and weight et cetera, well I am your show and
tell for all of that today. In addition, small is
packaged and dangerous. We have the mitochondrion that
has its own unique set of DNA which over evolution has
come to carry yet another remnant of DNA in every cell. Now the reason why the
mitochondrial DNA is of use is that it is strictly
maternally inherited and carries a trajectory of
our maternal inheritance. So these are my two show and
tell sources of Information and so that I don’t exclude
the males in the audience, yes, you have that little
thing there, the y chromosome. Well genomic inheritance
is known to all of us. We get half our chromosomes
from each of our parents, and they from their parents before and so on and so on and so on. And so with respect to mitochondrial DNA, we would be able to track
what both sons and daughters got from mother, from maternal grandmother and great grandmother and
so on and so on and so on. In males, who have the y chromosome, we have the equivalent mechanism
to trace paternal heritage. But of course the nuclear
DNA carries the contributions from both parental sides and if you go back one
two three generations, you have eight people who potentially contributed to your ancestry and if you wanna go back 20 generations, two to the power 20 would
have contributed to your total genomic information, but you’ll still have a
single maternal ancestor. And it was just by chance
that I chose for my title “So Where Do We Come
From” not knowing that that is among the questions
that Carta looks at. And the reason I chose
that was about 15 years ago I was involved in a
documentary that was produced in South Africa by one of the
TV networks by the same name and in that we showpiece a
whole bunch of local people transcending politics, sport
and all sorts of disciplines and we did their genetic ancestry tests and made a story out of it. And I was going to show
you some clips from that but it would have eaten into
my limited time that I had. But in any event, you’ve
heard about fossils, you’ve heard about tools, you’ve seen a little bit about culture, and basically those
sub-disciplines allow us to track from the past and build up to the present. The genetic tool kit is the reverse. We study the DNA found in living people and we reconstruct the changes over time and for this demonstration
I’m using mitochondrial DNA which is only transmitted
through the mother lines to daughters and only
daughters will pass it on and the sexy thing about this DNA is that it does not shuffle or recombine so you have a mechanism
and a valuable tool to reconstruct the history
of change over time to some point back in the past. And if I were to demonstrate this with a little bit more of a cartoon, so if we were to take mitochondrial DNA, we’d be able to link it to
some point back in the past. We call that the most
recent common ancestor for mitochondrial DNA, and
the reason why I dislike the use of the terminology
mitochondrial Eve, it gives a sense that the
most recent common ancestor was the only female
present in that time zone which is not the case. But in reconstructing the
lineages found in living people, the divergent lines kind of
coalesce or come together at a common point some
in the distance past, dated to between 150
and 200,000 years ago. Now, mitochondrial DNA was made famous by the seminal paper by
Becky Cairn, Mark Stoneking and Allan Wilson, where
they use mitochondrial DNA and in the 80’s, we didn’t have
the sophisticated technology of polymerase chain reaction
to make lots of copies of DNA from small amounts. These authors went out,
collected placenta, which was a rich source
of DNA, extracted the DNA, cut it up with little protein tools called restriction enzymes
and created these maps. And what they found was, when they looked at the relationships of all the different patterns
that made up the lineages, one particular branch was
exclusively containing individuals from Africa. And as you went towards
the rest of the tree, drawn here as the famous
horseshoe shape tree, one found that in the
shallow parts of the tree, individuals from Europe
and Asia were positioned. So this kind of steer headed
the Out of Africa Theory concerning modern human origins. It wasn’t without controversy. There were many many
side chirps around this criticizing the technique
for the dating methodology and so on, but that’s a long story. But several other types of studies started to come to the fore and what was now becoming
more and more apparent was, that as you went further away from Africa, and you know for our
colleagues from east Africa that’s seen as the center of
the evolution of our species, as we went further away from Africa, the amount of genetic diversity was becoming more and more reduced and this was further evidence that our species originated in Africa. I don’t think the world
was still ready for this because just think about it, all the social issues going
on about coming from Africa, and that’s another five lectures to go, but I will spare you that. None the less, as the
technology started to improve and we’ve gone from restriction mapping to the advent of the introduction of polymerase chain reaction, better techniques for genetic sequencing and now we can do whole genome sequencing. The culmination of the
human genome project gave us scientists an open
era of asking questions and trying to resolve that
through analysis et cetera. And so some colleagues
sequenced a few individuals from their whole genome
sequences from southern Africa. It was the first sequences from
the southern African region and it included among those individuals, there were four people
from Namibia who were San, and our famous archbishop Desmond Tutu. And so when we got the results from there, all individuals, with respect
to their mitochondrial DNA, had similar patterns to
that of the San and Khoe, the indigenous people
from southern Africa, and that is what made the news. Even Oprah Winfrey Show
and all the news bulletins were talking about archbishop Desmond Tutu being part and parcel of
ancestry to the first people. This was a whole genome sequence. The mitochondria is yet but
a small component of it and, but the world was talking about the mitochondrial genetic
study showing linkage of archbishop Desmond
Tutu to that of the San. Now what the study brought out was quite an interesting observation. Using the x-axis in a plot of, summarizing all of the data collectively, each individual in a pair wise fashion, you saw that there was one cluster that was associated with African people from the Niger-Congo language family and there was another cluster that contained those four San individuals and those people from
the European regions, can you see it, just
clustered into one spot? So immediately you can see,
just with a few sequences, the vastness and the
diversity present in Africa and if you were wanting to
a magnified view of that, if you just looked at
the African individual, once again, you saw this
increased diversity. But there’s something emerging from here, that people from different
parts of the continent, their genetic structure
was seemingly different. And we had theories about
multi regional theory concerning all human origins and people started to talk
about asking the question about evolution in Africa and so already we’re seeing
this specific patterns in the southern part, in the western part, and in people who were
migrant to the southern part, similar to that in the
wider part of Africa, namely people who were
speaking Bantu languages. And so my group has been
for over three decades now, I have been in this business
from the very beginnings when DNA technology kind of hit the world, and we picked it up in South
Africa almost like a backlash 10 years later, and so
I came into the business when were still using
very simple techniques, to the point of where you can do whole genome sequencing now. And over the years,
through my predecessor, Professor Trevor Jenkins, we’ve been interested in the
history of peoples of Africa and we have always tried
to do it in a holistic way using genetics as our tool but also engaging with colleagues
from other disciplines, linguistics, archeology, paleontology, history and anthropology and so I’m a bit of an
apprentice of all of that and consider myself more
a molecular anthropologist than a hardcore geneticist
because I’m interested in these sorts of questions. In any event, I had a
very bright PhD student, Carina Schlebusch, who was
interested in following up on some of the studies were were doing among the Khoe and the San populations. She’s now doing amazing work with Mattias Jakobsson in Sweden and last week I had the
privilege of being at a meeting there in Sweden where
they brought together the world’s best, working
in the disciplines of linguistics, archeology and genetics to talk about the diversity in Africa. And while we present a very
simplistic overview here, the more recent work is
actually very dynamic, lots and lots of debates and the thing that was
most mind boggling was that the researchers in France now, modeling linguistics,
archeology and genetic data collectively to kind of get
a deeper vision of the past. In any event, we did some
snip chip technology, moving away from just
mitochondria and y chromosome that we’d been busy with for a while and what we found was
that the first branch in the human tree, with
this kind of genomic data, contained populations
that were exclusively Khoe and San speaking peoples. They had genetic information
greater than 100,000 years and the first time there was a divergence from that major branch was
as recent as 45,000 years ago where we see some splits in
populations from central Africa, eastern Africa and west Africa. So that was quite a major observation. We were not the only ones
who made that observation, others have done so as well. Now this is a scary slide, but just allow me to walk you through it. This is another analysis that
people do with genomic data. It’s called structure, and
basically what they’re doing is is looking at each individual, so if we have 500
individuals in our sample, each individual is a data point
across, from left to right, belonging to that branch
where the sample is placed and it’s amount of add mixture, okay? So they’re not pure populations, let’s just get that first
fact out of the way. There are no pure populations. People seem to think, when
you do add mixture mapping, you’re starting with two pure populations and then you’re blending. No. We are moralized ahead of that. And so now when you look
across using structure, it identifies this different
genetic backgrounds, and all I want for you to see, that if you go with the
green being west Africa, the blue Central Africa, and the red, the southern African Khoe and San, if you look from left to right, you can see different
color structural patterns. And so this is what is going on in Africa. There’s a deep structure of
genetic patterns of difference across the populations
on the African continent. And if I were to just summarize that by a very very nice review written by Carina Schlebusch and Mattias Jakobsson published last year, then you would see a summary
of what we’ve seen before, with a difference. What has now happened is, by looking at some ancient DNA samples, both in South Africa
and in central Africa, in studies published by different authors, they’ve now pushed that convergent point of dating the common ancestry in Africa beyond 150 to around 300,000 and that is in keeping with
some of the fossil evidence that’s come from Flores Bud as well. So when you now look
at that genetic pattern I presented earlier, and
you condense it altogether, we see once again, on one branch, the Khoe and the San populations, central Africans, west
Africans and east Africans and a small branch out of that represents what’s come out of Africa. So you can see now why Africa is every expeditioners paradise, because if you want to
do biomedical research, and if you do not understand
what’s come out of Africa, you might as well pack your
bags and go to the beach because this is what
you need to understand. And so we feel very privileged
to be in that region but it is also quite difficult because while I may sound
very enthusiastic about it of course we have to also
work with all the ethical, legal and social issues that come with working with human subjects. Now if I were to just very
quickly summarize graphically in keeping with a map of where those genetic patterns are seen, you see we also have many gaps, so scientists are busy collecting samples to try to fill up those gaps and the data result there, it’s just coming into
the public domain now. So what we see in Africa
is very deep history. What my colleagues ahead of
me have been talking about is that very very deep history but how far back do we
take the genetics in Africa is unlike in Europe
where we’ve got samples from neanderthals from 45,000 years ago. If some of the archeologists
and paleontologists will allow the scientists to
touch the specimens from Africa maybe we could go deeper. We did publish a paper two years ago but specimens dating to
just over 2,000 years ago to try to understand what would have been the genetic structure of individuals, pre the migration of people speaking Bantu languages to the south and that paper was published and I didn’t want to bring it here because I would have taken
20 minutes to explain. So we have very deep structure. We have migrations associated with the spread of Bantu languages from west Africa into southern Africa in the time period spanning
about 3,000 to 5,000 years and then we have a very
interesting pattern with the advent of pastoralism. As people started to acquire
cattle and move to the south, the Khoe, who we’ve sampled in Namibia, carry a genetic pattern, link
with lactase persistence, the ability to consume cow milk, similar to that found
in the Maasai in Kenya. So there’s another very very
interesting adaptive trait that has come into the
southern part of Africa. Now for those of you who’ve
been following this literature, you know that people in Europe have different genetic markers that allow them to process
or to consume milk, but in Africa, different genes. So to the same cultural trait, different genes have been adapted for and so in addition to that
sort of tracking of mobility, we’ve also had input from Europe and Asia into the African continent
at different times. So not only did Africa
give the rest of the world its genetics, those
individuals who were in exile, some have returned, like me. So, couple years ago, as I
started to engage with colleagues outside of my disciple,
to make sense of genetics, I would go to archeological meetings, engage with other colleagues
and it became very apparent that even among our academics, we were talking across each other. I would get people calling me up and say well if you were to go to
a particular grave site where skeletal remains were found, can you tell us if those were
slaves brought from Zimbabwe buried there, and so I would ask, well did you think that Zimbabweans had a different genetic
pattern to other Africans? So we were talking across,
understanding each other and so I was privileged to
have hosted a conference in South Africa, where we
invited multi disciplinary colleagues from within
the country and overseas to participate and I
was able to edit a book. One of the first on the
prehistory of Africa, where it was a collection
of bringing together this kind of interdisciplinary dialogue. And we’ve progressed to being able to talk a little bit more now, so much so that all of our genetic studies has a recent anthropologist or a historian or an anthropologist associated with it. Colleagues, the biggest story is about translation of science. When we sit in our little ivory towers and we communicate just with our peers, we forget that the individuals
that we need to serve are the general public and
so in my own field work, having to work outside of the ivory towers of university boundaries, you rarely rarely get acculturated into what society is all about. And fortunately for me,
there’s always a tree somewhere and I would use the metaphor of a tree to talk about all living
people being a leaf on the tree and your connection through
branches to the common trunk is actually the history of how your DNA links to the common trunk. It has the opportunity
to bring people together to realize that we are one species, bringing human solidarity
into the dialogue and also having the
ability to tell stories. And so I created, with a
company called Jive Media in South Africa, some of these tools where we’re telling stories and as you tell the story,
here the grandmother, the Gogo, is telling her family how her people have come to be where they are. That’s oral history. We, cultural anthropologists
collect information on oral history and we
intertwine the story into this cartoon where
one of the individuals has been to university and he’s
had a genetic ancestry test and so the young buck, the curious little guy
wants to know all about it. And so in unfolding this
story, with different cartoons, we now unpack what a
genetic ancestry test is. Now, because that is
what I was interested in, we use it as an opportunity because lots and lots of people are doing my medical
research in the country and that whole issue of informed consent is not only about the signature. That inform part is actually very powerful and so we try to have tools to be able to take the jargon out of the conversation and bring in a visual to help the process, so I just wanted to put
that little point in and to say that the science that we do, could not stay out of the public domain. It very quickly crept
in with opportunities to engage the public, people demanded to have
genetic ancestry tests, and so we had to set it up and part of that documentary, I even was privileged to
have had the opportunity of testing former
president Nelson Mandela. And his mitochondrial DNA
was present on this branch, so this is my famous tree,
which is actually adapted from the tree that was
published by Behar et al in a schematic way so that we could show how the different branches are related. All the branches with green circles carry mitochondrial lineages
commonly found in Africa and then as you come out of Africa, the M branch is seen in
the Indian subcontinent and into the Americas and through the N, we see most of the branches that are found in Europe and some in Asia
called Eurasian lineages so this is a summary of the
mitochondrial DNA patterns that exists in living humans today. So former president
Nelson Mandela’s lineage was found on this branch, L note, which is the one found most
commonly among Khoe and San. And believe it or not, having now done research
in various communities, one of the things I’ve
tried to do is take back a result, a mitochondrian
y chromosome result to individuals so that they don’t feel that parachute type of
science that you go in, you take the samples and you go out and never to be seen again. So we go back, giving them those results and so now some other
unique thing has come about. People are now calling me
up, almost on a daily basis, to have their genetic ancestry test done, because in some areas, they’ve been told that if
you have your genetic test, it’ll be your certificate to tell you whether you are San or not, and in that way, you may
be able to claim land in the whole land claim
issue that’s going on. So what started off as
a very complimentary way of keeping the relationship going between the science and the communities, it’s now coming back where
there’s opportunistic aspects being brought into it. So one of the, the second fact, the first one was that we
are not pure populations, the second fact that
you must go away with is that a genetic ancestry test does not tell you anything
about your identity. As you sit here, you have
myriads of identities, but not genetic test could
define any one of those, so that’s the second thing I
like to emphasize to people, that genetic ancestry is
not equal to identity. Identity is complex, it’s
multi-faceted and it’s fluid. Your genetic ancestry
is the unbiased record of your genetic heritage
going back in time. So colleagues, genetics,
that was just genetics 101 or genetics 0.05, has
been a very useful tool to try to track movements
of people around the globe. Not only have we used mitochondrial DNA and y chromosome DNA to kind
of plot the final geography of the human journey, the advent of whole genome sequencing and various types of
analysis with that data now is refining theories
concerning our origins. Ancient DNA has allowed a
deeper view into the past and I don’t have time to
talk about those components but it is another way of gaining insights into questions that we would otherwise not have had opportunities for. So in closing, I first of
all want to acknowledge with deep gratitude, the Carta Institute for this opportunity to be here, participants who obviously make us who we are in our careers, various collaborators and funders and I have to give a point
wearing the cap of my new role as the Executive Officer
of the Academy of Science is that science should be done to promote and advance science, evidence based science in serving society. Then there’s science for society, and of course science for policy. So the next time you venture
into your science world, just try to deposit a few coders in each of these three boxes. Thank you very much. (applause) (upbeat music)

CARTA presents Anthropogeny: The Perspective from Africa – Lyn Wadley Sarah Wurz Judith Sealy


(piano music) – [Man] We are the paradoxical ape, bipedal, naked, large-brained, long the master of
fire, tools and language but still trying to understand ourselves. Aware that death is inevitable yet filled with optimism. We grow up slowly, we hand down knowledge, we empathize and deceive. We shape the future from our shared understanding of the past. CARTA brings together experts
from diverse disciplines to exchange insights on who we are and how we got here. An exploration made possible by the generosity of humans like you. (upbeat music) – Good afternoon, thank you
Bahani, you’re very kind. We all know fire today as a source of heat, light, protection. A technological aid and a social enabler. But it hasn’t always been like that. And at what stage did hominins
lose their fear of fire as something really dangerous? Wildfire must have been a source of fire for early hominins and presumably they grasped
it and used it right there at its source. But lightning is probably
the most common cause of wildfire in Africa and it thus provides a
seasonal source of fire. But a very brief source of fire. So in the early days, when
hominids first made use of fire it would not have been very commonly. We have to distinguish fire use as opposed to the deliberate control
of fire and its creation. So the opportunistic
seasonal collection of fire from a natural source seems
likely for the earliest hominins but what we don’t know is
whether in those early times, they could necessarily transport the fire, feed it once they got
it where they needed it and then maintain the fire
for as long as they needed it. As a sideline, it’s
quite interesting to note that Raymond Dart in 1948 named the three million year-old Makapan fossils Australopithecus Prometheus
and Job already mentioned that, but he named them that
after the mythological giant that had stolen fire from the heavens. And the reason that Dart named it that was because there were some
blackened bones associated with the fossils in the sites. And he thought that perhaps
they were making fire. But unfortunately, chemical
tests quickly showed that this was simply
staining on the burns, and so the name was discontinued until recently resurrected by Ron Clarke as the name for his
new fossil Little Foot. But of course not because Ron believes that those fossils were using fire, but because of the
morphological similarity. We have only rare evidence
for early fire use in Africa, and I’m selecting three of
the most famous of the sites to demonstrate that. Koobi Fora, Swartkrans and Wonderwek. So Koobi Fora is at Lake Turkana in Kenya. And it was excavated
predominantly by Jack Harris. The site is an open site
and I make that point because it’s important. It’s one and a half million years old, and Jack found burnt sediment
in the site associated with burnt stone and burnt bone. Many of the critics would have suggested that perhaps wildfire
swept through the site and burned the traces. But Jack points out that in addition to the burnt bone and stone, there are unburnt bones and
stones in between those patches. And so it seems most likely that hominids exploited fire here, though
perhaps very briefly. And at Swartkrans in Member 3 which is one million years old, Bob Brain found 270 pieces of burnt bone which he believes was evidence for fire, pretty much directly below
the grid that you see there and associated with those burnt bones were bones that had been used as tools. But subsequently Lucinda
Backwell believes were used for extracting termites
out of their mounds. Wonderwerk I think is
particularly interesting because this is a cave and I emphasize that caves are dangerous
places where carnivores live. And it would seem really
unlucky that hominids would be able to move in
there without the use of fire. And I emphasize always the difference between the use of fire as
opposed to the control of fire. There’s very little chance that
fire could have accidentally got into Wonderwerk because
the fire traces here are 30 meters from the entrance. And this implies that the hominins would have transported
fire from its source, perhaps wildfire but the
traces are ephemeral. So fire probably wasn’t
maintained for very long within the site. Here is the stratigraphic
evidence and micromorphology from Stratum 10, one million years old. And if you have a look
over on the left there, within the black box, you’ll
see the layers of ashes that demonstrate that fire. Alongside that also, there
were burnt bits of bone and FTIR, Fourier transform spectroscopy demonstrates that burning of bone. They were actually on hand axes
associated with Stratum 10. Now there were no fossil remains but presumably the actor was Homo erectus, also known sometimes in
Africa as Homo ergaster. Leaving aside those sites for the moment, we must ask a question, what evolutionary changes were
taking place from the time that we see the evidence for fire? And is there any way of linking
these changes to fire use? Homo-erectus appeared in Africa somewhere between two and one-and-a-half
million years ago. That’s certainly before we
see the archeological evidence for the traces of fire that I showed you. But what is interesting is that compared with earlier hominins, the brain size of Homo erectus increased and the teeth and the gut size decreased
as Job showed you earlier. Big brains are expensive tissues and this increased brain size
yet reduced tooth and gut size imply that Homo erectus must have had an enriched diet compared with earlier hominins. Now there are competing
schools of thought about why the physical evolution
took place at this time. The first one is that hominins may have become more
effective at obtaining meat, especially fatty meat. Secondly, that hominins may
have processed food mechanically in the case of plants to break down fiber, in the case of animal
foods to break down tissue. And thirdly, that hominins may have cooked their food sometimes. How likely is it that Homo erectus sometimes used fire for cooking? This claim is made in
“The Cooking Hypothesis” by Richard Wrangham in his
wonderful book “Catching Fire”. And cooking would especially
benefit the young or the aged with deficient teeth. But the sporadic archeological
evidence for fire use doesn’t wholly support
the cooking hypothesis. But as archeologists, we
recognize that evidence may be absent for several reasons not least preservation
in many of the sites. So could she have cooked
dinner some nights? And more importantly could Homo
erectus have roasted tubers like the Hadza do today? O’Connell and colleagues in
their Grandmothering Hypothesis suggests that there sort of being a particularly cogent thing
for older women to do, that they would have improved
the health and the well-being especially of children by collecting tubers and roasting them to break down net fiber. And what is the earliest
archeological evidence that we have for roasting starchy plants? It’s certainly a long
time after the presence of Homo erectus. Now the African Middle Stone Age began about 300,000 years ago and we don’t get direct
archeological evidence for tubers even then. But at Border Cave which
is now being reexcavated under the leadership of Lucinda Backwell, we see a middle Stone
Age archive that begins about 227,000 years ago and continues to about 43,000 years ago. A stunning site as you
can see from this image. And at Border Cave, we have discovered starchy
underground stems and combs that were roasted from at
least 160,000 years ago, perhaps 200,000 years ago. So in Members 5BS down at the bottom and Member 4WA, we have now
more than 60 whole corns or tubers that were roasted and preserved. After about 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens in many parts of the world developed pyrotechnology even further. And this suggests that perhaps
fire was now created at will, that people had control of fire. Perhaps through percussion of rocks, the strike-a-light method
or friction of wood on wood. But African archeology
is silent on this matter. We simply don’t have evidence for that. And yet we see increasingly
sophisticated pyrotechnology appearing through time implying that fire should have been created
whenever it was desired. So I’ve chosen three South African sites just to demonstrate some of that rather complex pyrotechnology. Down in the South,
Pinnacle Point and Blombos. And up on the East Coast, Sibudu. Rocks were heat treated at
Pinnacle Point 164,000 years ago. And there at the bottom left
you see a heat treated biface from the area. The heat treating of rocks
improves their flakability, it makes it possible to
strike longer thinner flakes and it makes it easier
for the stone tool napper to strike those flakes. It also improves the
quality of the rock itself. And Blombos, the heat
treatment of silcrete about 75,000 years ago demonstrates that it facilitated the pressure flaking of points to produce these long thin rather beautiful points. At Sibudu, we see something different but it’s much more recent. By 72,000 years ago, people
were making compound adhesive. And Ramen and EDS spectra
show that both hematite and carbon was part of the recipes. And at 64,000 years ago, gas
and liquid chromatography confirmed that there was coniferous resin on some of the tools mixed
together with hematite. Now, adhesive needs low temperatures for the drying and the hardening. So fire is an important part of the complex adhesive
manufacturing process. And temperatures were controlled
through firewood selection and the knowledge of how
much wood should be used on any given fire. To sum up, the first use
of fire by Homo erectus were seasonally opportunistic. The creation at will by Homo sapiens, the creation of fire
at will by Homo sapiens probably started somewhere between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago
in the Middle Stone Age. And although we don’t have
direct archeological evidence for this, increasingly
sophisticated pyrotechnology from this time suggests that people must have controlled fire. Now in Europe we know that Neanderthals were using manganese oxides
and various rocks to create and strike fire but we haven’t yet found any of that evidence in Africa. I’m sure it’s simply a
question of looking for it and that that’s a story that
will be told in the future. In addition to the heat treatment of rocks and adhesive manufacture, people used fire to create medicinal smoke through the careful choice of fire woods. They used campsite
maintenance by using fire to clean up their bedding for example and clean trash from these sites, which undoubtedly would
have improved the health of the people who lived there. They used fire for
hardening of wooden tools, and Hillary Deacon thought
that they might have stimulated the growth of fresh grass in the felt even during the Middle Stone
Age to lure game to sites. These and other hot topics are fuel for another day so thank you. (audience applauds) – Good afternoon, it’s an honor
and a privilege to be here, thank you very much. So I will talk about Klasies
River main site today. So Klasies River main site is situated in South Africa on the
southern Cape coast. And what you see there
is that it’s situated close to quite a few very well-known caves from which we know quite a lot about especially the evolution of modern humans. On the picture below you can see there’s a picture of Klasies River
and there you can see that it’s right on the coast,
so it’s very picturesque to work there, a very nice environment. Also on that bottom slot you can see that there is a lot of
lush vegetation around it. It consists of forests,
a (mumbles) and thicket. That is enough to see to
all of your plant needs if you had to rely on that for food. So this picture shows you
Klasies River main site and what you may first
see is that it consists of four recesses or caves, that we call by different names. So there with cave 1A, I’ve put
you two little human figures to show you the scale. This is against all of
these cave 21 meters of shell midden deposits formed. And this means it’s one of the largest shell middens in Africa dating to between 120 and 48,000 years ago. Then there was a break in occupation and then after some
erosion of the deposits, later Stone Age or Holocene
people came in again and occupied the site from
4,800 to 2,300 years ago. So this vast amount of
shell midden deposits is one of the best features of the site but it’s also one of the most challenging. Because if you have only one
career, where do you start? So there’s a lot of work to do. So what I want to talk to you about today, being such a large deposit
is just flashes of light on some of the aspects
on which Klasies River can throw some light. So at Klasies River, we
have quite a few hominin or hominid human representatives. I will talk about some evidence that highlight the ecological genius and cultural flexibility and complexity of our early ancestors. And I would like to emphasize
that they achieved this without our current super culture, so they really adapted
to that environment. So who lived at Klasies River? We’ve got more than 50 human
fossils at Klasies River and most of them they, between 120,000 and 90,000 years ago. What we can see from
the remains that we have and in the previous slide you will see that they were quite broken up, small pieces of human remains
so we don’t have a full skull or a complete skeletons
fragmentary remains. But what we can still say from that it’s that it’s a morphologically
variable population with very small individuals as well as larger robust individuals. Interestingly, for Klasies River, we get mostly adults represented. For most of the other (mumbles) sites we find mostly infants
represented, so that is perplexing why is this the case? We do have only three teeth of infants, and in the picture that you see there. that’s the Howiesons Poort deposits dating to around between 70 and 50,000 years ago. So if you find teeth of
infants in a deposit, you have to think that it
was families that lived here. These Howiesons Poort
deposits are the deposits that we can see the highest
density of occupation in this site so that’s quite interesting that we find the infants in this layer. Something that’s really
interesting for Klasies River is that almost all of the human remains, especially the lower deposits, those between 120 and
90,000 years ago are burned as you can probably see from this picture and many of them have cut marks. So what is the logical conclusion, is that it was probably
cannibalism that was practiced. Was it ritual cannibalism? Was it dietary cannibalism? We do not know, it is one of
those issues that we need to, that we hope to throw light on in future. If you look at the
remains on Klasies River and that these are
mostly the food remains, you can see that the deposits
from the lower most layers, 120,000-year layers consist
of dense shell middens with all the foods that went into that, so it’s foods from the
coastal environment, fauna, fireplaces, et cetera. So from this you can see
that in this time range that they followed from 120,000
years to 48,000 years ago, we know that the climates fluctuated. And in that time period they targeted different kinds of foods. Klasies River is often facetiously called the earliest seafood
restaurant in the world because at the site we do find as I said in the lowest layers, these dense shell middens. And this is one of the
earliest occurrences of this very dense shell middens. So here you see a few
of these food remains that we find very often there, still remains a shellfish and fish. This is combined then with
large fauna and small fauna. So I’ve put this very large, we call this above it class
size, size class five. It’s above 900 kilograms,
very large (mumbles). And to be able to hunt
such above it successfully you have to cooperate. So we can see throughout the sequence that they were very successful, intelligent, cooperative hunters. That not only targeted the bigger animals but also very small animals. Interestingly since
I’ve started excavating at this site again of around 2015, the layers that we’re targeting now are about 110,000 years old. And what we observed in these layers are these red and quartzite blocks that we haven’t seen before. These blocks are associated
with leached ashes and food remains. In this picture you see postdoc, she was my postdoc, Sonia Benson who did a lot of experiments on quartzite and how it behaves if it
comes into contact with fire. And what we did determine
then is that probably these quartzite blocks
were used to roast food on, and that’s a very early occurrence
of that kind of behavior. Also at Klasies River
you find many hearths. So what you see here on
this side is cave one where we’re currently excavating. So this is what we call the wetness bulk and these layers go from
about 120,000 to about 90,000. This is the picture
higher up in the sequence where we have the
Howiesons Poort deposits. So you will notice here
the lowermost deposits here are full of hearths, it’s these ashy lines as well as these deposits
here full of hearths. So what has been done
here in collaboration with Susan Mentzer and Cynthia Larbey is to take samples from these hearths. Cynthia Larbey took samples of
the ashy parts of the hearths and the darkened soils under that and it’s scanning
electron microscopy on it. And what she did find in these
slides or in these remains was the remains of starchy tissue of underground storage organs in the ashes of the 120,000-year-old hearths as well as the 60,000-year-old hearths. Susan Mentzer, she did
micromorphology and she also, she also identified
these parenchymous tissue in the sediments next to the ashes that Cynthia has identified. So this is pretty important. So so far it’s the earliest
direct published evidence. We also have very early
evidence from Border Cave for the deliberate
inclusion of starch in diet. We don’t think this is
the earliest evidence for starch inclusion because
the genetic evidence shows that modern humans have
more copies of the gene that produces salivary amylase. That’s the enzyme that breaks down starch and this change seemed to have occurred already 300,000 years ago. So it seems that starch
was an important part of hunter-gatherer diets long
before agriculture developed. So this puts a new
perspective on to the idea that paleo diets consist
just of proteins and fats. So starch was really an important
part of that diet as well. So from this evidence that I
just really discussed with you very superficially we can say that humans at Klasies River followed a balanced diet with starchy cooked foods
and roots and tubers combined with roasted protein
and fat from shellfish, fish small and large fauna. So this complexity and ingenuity
that we see in the diets, we can also link that to
their cultural behavior. So here is a picture of
the stone tools found throughout the Klasies River sequence. So I’ve only put the typical stone tools from between 120 and about
70, 65,000 years ago. But what is interesting that we see just as the humans adapted
their diet through time, they also adapted the way in
which they made stone tools. And it was probably used
for the same kinds of tasks but they used different ways
to manufacture those tools. So this gives us some
inclination of how they thought. We do get clearer snapshots
of cultural complexity during periods of more
intensive occupation, and we think at the site it’s
around 100,000 years ago. For example, Blombos
Cave, 65,000 years ago with Howiesons Poort and 4,800 years ago. So time only allows me
to really quickly focus on some of these aspects. And I’ll do that in relation
to pigments and to bone tools. Because we seem to find
more of these materials during these time periods. So in the 100,000-year-old
levels, we do see this pigment that’s been shaped, or
ochre shaped in a crayon and you can see that it
has these lines on it so it’s been used and
shaped intentionally. Then there’s also this
piece of ochre which has been scorched or engraved, we
don’t think it’s a pattern. We just see, it was
probably used to make powder and this occurs in relation to, in association with these not bone tools made on the ribs of a very
large animal like an eland. And here you can see
some of these notches. We don’t know what it was used for, it is still a mystery but
we are working on that. And then in the 65,000-year-old layers, so we’re jumping up in the
sequence about 12 meters. We do find similar pigments
in the Howiesons Poort but I’ve mentioned earlier that we think it’s one of the highest
occupation parts of the sequence. Here we also find more ochre and here we can see that they
prefer the color red, ochre. They heated some of the ochre,
they also used yellow ochre and interestingly they made
a white material pigment from different materials that
might have contained both. So that’s a quite interesting phenomenon. Also in the Howiesons
Poort, we get bone tools like this bone point. This looks exactly like the
later Stone Age and Holocene and recent Bushmen burn points used in bone and arrow technology and an engraved piece of bone. Then I’m jumping up to
the top of the sequence, the later Stone Age layers, the Holocene layers
dating to between 4,800 and 2300 years ago. So these deposits, we
are very lucky to have it in the same site as the
Middle Stone Age deposits because it gives us a sharper,
much more detailed resolution impression of life ways and behavior. What we do find surprising is that we don’t find a big jump in complexity. The archeological materials, they’re basically the
same types of materials. But what this allowed us is to investigate often neglected part of
our archeological record, sound and our cue music. And in doing this we’ve done
a lot of experimentation and ethnographic research
to try and bring sound back into the Klasies River Cave 1. So this enigmatic implement was found by Singer and Wymer already in 1967 next to lower jaw of a human. It’s a dual hold, two-hold
instrument or implement dating to around 4,800 years ago. So here you see some of the
students doing excavations in that midden, Later Stone Age midden that is on top of the wetness bulk. It’s more or less these layers. And what we found when we looked
at the ethnographic record and by doing some experimentation is that as Singer and Wymer and
others have suggested that this might have
been a musical instrument or an instrument to make sound with. So I don’t know if you
know what a woer woer is or a wirrawirra, it’s just
the sound that it makes. So you put it in the middle
like Joshua is doing here. So we estimated the
length of the rope used by the ethnographic examples. And if you do this it makes a sound. And interesting, the sound is very similar to that made by bees. So we’re investigating this further. So this Klasies River’s archive highlights the kinds of achievements
of African populations that played a prominent role
in the development of humankind of people like us. I would like to thank
everybody for being here and for giving me the
opportunity to speak to you. Thank you. (audience applauds) – So I’m going to talk about behavior and settlement patterns in
Coastal Stone-age communities, the evidence from stable isotopes. And I’m talking about
this because if we look at the long history of our species, we talk quite a lot about
hunting and the role that hunting may have played in human evolution. We talk a bit about gathering plant foods and the importance of that. But we don’t talk very much at all about the importance of coastal resources. And there are interesting questions about when people first began
to use coastal resources, what the implications of this might be? And these questions are interesting because coastal marine areas like this are among the most
productive habitats on earth. And in more recent
times, habitats like this have been very important for hunting and gathering populations. Why have they been important? Well first of all,
coastlines provide abundant, reliable, nutrient-rich
foods like the shellfish. They also provide marine
mammals which are sometimes washed up on the shore. One doesn’t necessarily
even need to hunt them. You can collect beached animals. And when a large animal
like a whale is beached, that provides very large
quantities of food indeed. If coastal communities
have the right technology, they can catch fish. Coastlines provide a range
of stone raw materials and other kinds of raw
materials for making artifacts. Coastlines provide routes for dispersal. So one might expect that
the line leading to humans would have taken advantage
of coastal habitats from early on. I have to say that we don’t have much direct evidence of this,
but that’s at least partly because of issues to do with preservation. So over long timescales, coastlines shift, sea levels rise and fall. And so globally we’ve got
very little archeology of coastal areas that date
to the earlier periods of human evolution. In South Africa though we’re lucky because we’ve got a
relatively stable coastline, at least it’s remained stable over the last several
hundred thousand years. And so we have many
well-preserved coastal sites which make it a good place to investigate these kinds of questions. So in the latter part of the 20th century, most researchers thought
that aquatic resources only became important
relatively late in prehistory. Once populations had already grown and additional sources of food were needed to feed these extra mouths. But today rather different
perspectives are being offered, and some researchers are even suggesting that coastal adaptations
may have played a role in the emergence of our species, and that coastal adaptations may have promoted the
particular behavioral patterns that characterized humans. So what evidence do we actually have for early use of marine foods? Some of the earliest comes
from around the Mediterranean. We’re at the site of Terra
Amata in southern France. We’ve got shellfish that date
to about 300,000 years ago. At Benzu in North Africa, there are shells dating to
about 250,000 years ago. And at the Cave of Lazaret,
also in southern France slightly younger shells. At Terra Amata, these are associated with the shellian hand axes. But there are some disagreements
amongst archeologists as to the dating of some of these sites, as to what these shells
are actually doing there, are they really food remains? So we’re not entirely clear
what we’re actually looking at in these sites. I think there probably are food remains because we know that it’s not just humans that collect and eat marine foods. Non-human primates do it too. And this is a troop of baboons that lives very near Cape Town on the rocks collecting and eating mussels. This particular troop regularly
forages in the intertidal. And they simply pull off
the shellfish from the rocks and bite through them. Here are some more pictures
of them doing that. And this makes an important
contribution to particularly the protein component of their diet. But these baboons don’t do this very much. They spend less than 5% of their
foraging time on the rocks, and the rest of the time they’re
eating terrestrial plants and small animals and so on. Primates do this elsewhere
in the world too. We know that along the Somalian coast, yellow baboons forage for marine foods. In Southeast Asia crab-eating macaques eat intertidal organisms. So this kind of behavior
may we’ll go back a long way in the human lineage. And of course Neanderthals ate shellfish. We know that because they left the shells in caves in Gibraltar and other places on the Iberian Peninsula. So I said earlier that coastal
habitats were productive but we’re only just now
beginning to realize exactly how productive they are. These are some photographs that were taken as part of a research
project in South Africa where the researchers are
working with local communities who collect shellfish to feed themselves. These are relatively
impoverished rural communities and they collect shellfish
as part of their diet. And the researchers were
looking at how long it takes, how much effort it takes
to get a reasonable return in terms of the quantity of food gathered. And the results I think are astonishing. So on average, these
collectors can get almost 1500 kilocalories an hour
by collecting shellfish. And under optimal conditions, so optimal conditions are springload tide, when the seas are calm, they can collect 3400
kilocalories an hour. And if you think that
a sort of medium-sized, moderately active person needs about 2,000 kilocalories a day, this is very productive foraging. And it’s not hard, it’s
certainly a lot easier than trying to hunt down
and kill large game animals. So coastal food resources are rewarding, they are abundant, but they are spatially restricted. They’re restricted to the coast, the sort of linear edge
of the land masses. And so some researchers
are starting to explore the idea that perhaps foraging
in a landscape like this where the human groups would have been sort of aggregated
together might have perhaps promoted the high levels
of social interaction that are characteristic of our species. Here are some images of
the site of Pinnacle Point which is arid in the small
map on the bottom left there. Pinnacle Point has become
famous for the evidence that it preserves of marine
foods at 164,000 years ago. So the lower image here,
that kind of bank of material on the left is a consolidated deposit that has a lot of shells in it, it has a lot of stone artifacts in it and it’s cemented to the wall of the cave. It dates back to about 164,000 years ago. So we’re now back sort of
early-ish in the period of what some people call modern humans. The question is though,
what role did shellfish play in people’s diets at this time? So were the people who lived in this cave collecting shellfish just
occasionally like the baboons do? Or were they focusing
on these marine foods like more recent coastal
hunter-gatherer populations do? Here are a couple of sites
from the same part of the world that date to the last 12, perhaps even more recent than that, the last several thousand years. And you can see that those
are huge shell middens in the upper photograph. All of that gray area that you’re looking at on the ground there,
all of that is shell, that’s hundreds of thousands of shells. On the bottom image you can see very densely packed shell middens. And this is typical of the
kinds of sites that we see in more recent time periods. In older time periods, many of the sites don’t look as dense as this, don’t seem to preserve
this kind of evidence of intensive use of marine food. But it’s often unclear
whether that’s because people were doing something different
further back in the past, or perhaps whether the
evidence is just often not so well preserved. So in order to answer that question, in order to answer the
question of how intensively were people back a hundred
plus, thousand years ago focusing on marine foods, we might turn to a different way of investigating this question. And that is the kind of
thing that I do a lot of which is to measure the
stable isotopes in the bones and the teeth of consumers in order to try to assess what they were eating. So the way this works is
that we measure the ratios of carbon-13 to carbon-12,
nitrogen 15 to nitrogen 14 and those, the two isotopes in the pair, the heavier and the lighter isotope progress at slightly different rates through the reactions that
make up the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. And that happens somewhat
differently on land and in the sea. So we can measure these
isotope ratios in the bones of consumers including humans, and assist more-or-less whether
they were heavily dependent on marine foods or heavily
dependent on terrestrial foods. And these pictures were taken
in our lab in Cape Town. So we’ve done a lot of work like this on more recent coastal populations, because we’ve got a lot more
evidence from more recent times and it makes sense I think to use that more recent evidence that we can interrogate more
closely and then try to see whether we can reflect back
on earlier time periods. So here are the results of
some work that’s been done on coastal communities dating to the last few thousand years. And we have skeletons of
people who died and were buried in the area marked by the yellow ellipse. They have somewhat unusual bone chemistry indicating very intensive use of high trophic level marine foods. Their bone chemistry is
different from the bone chemistry of the people who died and
were buried at the sites marked by the yellow star
although that yellow star is only about 14 kilometers away. The bone chemistry is
sufficiently different that we can infer that there
was a territorial boundary between the two. Those two groups were separate, because we see different chemical
signatures in their bones reflecting diet over many years, probably several decades of their lives. Similarly, on the right,
people who died and were buried in caves marked by the inland green star, the uppermost green star
had a different diet. They ate very little seafood
whereas people who died and were buried on the coast marked by the lower green star were
eating a lot of seafood. So there was another territorial boundary between those sites. Over very small areas of ground. In the middle, we haven’t
got so much evidence so that’s why there’s
a question mark there? We can do even better than this. We can look at diet through life by comparing teeth and bones. So teeth form in childhood
and record the diet that the person was eating as a child, whereas burns continue to resorb
and reform throughout life so they give a longer term average. And by comparing teeth that
form relatively early in life like the first incisor and
the first molars shown here, those teeth complete their
formation pre-puberty. So we can look at a
childhood diet and compare it with an adult diet and we can tell whether people were living
as children in the same area where they died and were buried as adults. In other words we can tell whether people were bringing marriage partners in from outside their own territory or whether they were
getting marriage partners from within their own group. And in this case, the people
with the unusual bone chemistry in the yellow ellipse
were marrying partners from within their own group. So what we’ve got here
in recent time periods are societies that were living out very specialized coastal adaptations. They were specializing in
collecting marine foods and they had a social and a
kind of group organization that supported that way of life. And this kind of intense
coastal specialization is of course documented in many other coastal
hunter-gatherer societies elsewhere in the world, here in
California amongst other places, in other parts of North America,
in Europe and elsewhere. So one of the things we’d like to know is how far back in time does this go? How early in human development can we see this kind of intensive
use of coastal resources and what might that tell us about the way that coastal resources may or may not have factored
into human development. So we’re only just starting to do this but we now have some
results from Klasies River where we’ve, excavators have uncovered a number of human remains. The work that I have done on
these has been on the teeth, not on the bones, because
the teeth preserve better over long time periods like 110,000 years. The teeth are more chemically stable and so we can have more
confidence in the measurements that we make on them. What we’ve found in our analyses
of the teeth from Klasies is that back at about 110,000 years ago, some individuals were indeed
specializing in marine foods. Other individuals were not. And we’re seeing a wide range of variation that pretty much spans
the range of variation that we see in populations
dating to the last couple of thousand years. So it’s clear from this, that
we can push the beginnings of significant reliance on marine foods back beyond 100,000. We don’t know quite how far back yet but towards the earlier
period of the development of modern humans. And we wonder whether if there were marine
specialists back then, does that mean that populations back then were territorial as the same
way that the coastal hunting and gathering populations were in the last few thousand years? Does that mean that
we’ve got the same sort of anthropological correlates that we see in more recent time periods? I don’t know what the answer to that is, we’re working on it and
perhaps in a few years we will have some answers. Thank you very much. (audience applauds) (upbeat music)

Why You Should Start An Online Business (Amazon FBA)


[music] What is going on everyone? Welcome back to my channel today. As you can see, in this video, I am going
to be talking to you guys about why you must start an online business in 2019. I am in Punta Cana right now. This is actually my dream resort. It’s called the Chic Resort in Punta Cana. I remember 5 years ago, I checked out this
resort online and I really wanted to go. However, I was working a 9 to 5 job for the
last 10 years of my life. If you guys who have been following me, know
that I got laid off of my 9 to 5 job in 2017, started Amazon FBA and online business, YouTube,
met all you lovely people, and I never looked back. And I am so glad I did that. That’s why I wanted to do this video for you
guys today, to talk about why you should start your online business. Just to kind of motivate you guys, to get
you into the mood. It’s really sunny here right now so excuse
the shades. I actually got a little sunburnt. But check this out. It’s funny because I am finally getting to
use my new camera right here and people are looking at me funny. I think people in other countries, they haven’t
seen, I guess, well, people recording themselves, walking, talking. But anyway, back on topic. So, I remember trying to come to this resort
5 years ago. And I saw it online and I really wanted to
come but I couldn’t get the time off work, okay? Every time, I remember asking my boss to go
somewhere, take time off work, even to go see the doctor or go to a dentist appointment,
whatever it is, I was always scared to ask for approval, right? Because you know when you work a 9 to 5 job,
you work for someone else. You always have to ask for time off, whether
it’s a doctor appointment or just whatever it is. Even if it’s a medical condition, you have
to ask for time off. And I never got the time to ever travel or
see the world or do whatever I want. However, starting my own online business in
2017, I just knew that I had to make it work. There was absolutely no excuse. I told myself it’s either I make this work
or I am going back to 9 to 5. And I remember trying to hand in my form to
request time off from my 9 to 5 job and they always said no. They said “Tamara, we’re really busy this
season. We’re really busy right now and you can’t
have time off. I am sorry.” And I felt like I was trapped for the last
10 years. So, I remember starting Shopify before I found
Amazon FBA. I lost a lot of money. If you guys watched my recently YouTube video,
I talked about how I actually lost $15,000 before I even started making money. And I know a lot of people, when they’re just
starting their own online business, they’re scared of losing money. But the thing is, you guys, if you don’t take
that chance or opportunity to even get started, you’re never going to get what you want in
life. So, for me, it was freedom, right? It’s not even, I mean yes, making a lot of
money is nice because you get a lot of choices, right? Instead of going to McDonald’s, I can go somewhere
else. But it’s not even about that for me. It’s nice to treat myself. However, for me, it was just getting the time
to do what I want, work on my own schedule without having to hand in a form to ask my
boss, “hey, can I get time off?” Because it really frustrates me that I never
had that time in my 20’s. And now I finally do have the time and I want
to share this experience with you guys. There’s a lot happening right now and I hope
you guys don’t get too distracted by the back. So, online business has changed my life. It has absolutely changed my life for the
better and now I can work from anywhere around the world. I don’t need to ask for any time off. I literally pick up my bags, book a flight,
get the hell out of there. And this is actually my first real time off
that I had since I started my online business in 2017. For myself, I just knew that I had to work
really, really hard before I felt even comfortable booking a flight to go somewhere else. I had to make sure that people that I am mentoring
are getting what they need from me, that I am active every single day. And you know, to be honest, even though…
if I wasn’t so sunburnt, I’ll join those guys. Okay, you know, even though I now have the
opportunity to do what I want on my own terms, work for myself and I’ve reached this point
where I feel I’ve gotten a lot of success online, I still think it’s important for me
to work hard, right? And I know a lot of people, when they see
other YouTubers talk about how glamorous it is to do what you want, travel the world,
and just basically working on your own terms, you still have a lot of responsibilities. I want to be honest with that. For myself, even though I am having my time
off, I am actually celebrating my birthday here. I still feel that I am responsible to get
work done so I am doing this video for you guys, right? I am still talking to my students. I am still mentoring and answering questions,
and being involved with all my members inside my FBA Winners Facebook group. And the truth is, when you own a business,
even though you can make unlimited amounts of money, you see money in a different way. And what I mean by that is when I worked 9
to 5, I didn’t care about what I spent my money on. I made just around $50,000 a year and I would
blow my money on all sorts of useless sh*t. I just didn’t care. I didn’t really value the money. So now when I work for myself, and I pay myself
through my corporation, I value money so much more. So a lot of people look at me and they’re
like, “well it seems like you’re making all this money now online, why don’t you buy this? Why don’t you do this with your money or do
this and that and buy all these things?” The truth is, you start seeing money in a
different way. So, for myself, I like to spend my money on
adventures. And just having the freedom to choose what
I want to do because when I was working 9 to 5, I was penny pinching a lot of things,
I couldn’t afford a lot of things and now, with online business, with Amazon FBA has
really taken off for me, I am able to do whatever I want. And a lot of people make it seem easy, right? So a lot of people online say, “hey, you know
what, Amazon FBA is super easy.” And I am here to tell you, it’s not. It’s really not and I think I worked super
hard to get to where I am now. And I always encourage people to work super
hard. Nothing is ever easy. If anyone ever tells you that any business,
any online business is easy, it’s not. However, things do get more simple as time
goes by. So for myself, it’s not like I went to school
to do this. I didn’t have to go to school. I barely, I think I just graduated high school. I didn’t go to college. I think I went to college for a few months
and I didn’t know what to do with my life; therefore, I was stuck at a 9 to 5 cubicle
desk job for 10 years until I found Amazon FBA and YouTube, and affiliate marketing and
everything else. But, I feel now that I am more responsible. Yes, I do work 7 days a week. So even when I am out here, I still work 7
days a week. That doesn’t mean I am in front of a computer,
trapped in a cubicle for 9 hours a day, it just means that, “hey, if someone is messaging
me, I am going to respond. If one of my students needs help, I am still
going to help them.” If I want to do a YouTube video, which I should
because I miss talking to you guys, I have to do it. That’s just part of my online business. But it gives me the freedom to do whatever
the heck I want, right? If I want to have lunch for 2 hours, I can. If I want to have a few drinks at 2 in the
afternoon, which I did yesterday by the way, I can. And to me, that just makes me feel so fulfilled
and so happy. So this is why you should start an online
business, you absolutely get to do whatever the heck you want, on your own terms and you
can make unlimited amounts of money. If you guys enjoy making money, I know I do,
right? Because money buys freedom. Money buys freedom. Then you should start an online business. How I started was through Amazon FBA. For you guys who have been following me, I
started selling physical products on Amazon since 2017 and it hasn’t been… in the beginning,
it was really hard because I didn’t know what I was doing. If you guys watch a few of my previous YouTube
videos, I talk a lot about my experience. And in the beginning, with any business, it’s
hard. And with any business, it costs a lot of money
to start up, depending on what your definition of a lot of money is. But, with online business, I feel that it’s
actually a lot cheaper to start than to start a physical store selling clothing or having
a coffee shop or a restaurant, whatever it is that you want to start. It’s 20,000 times more expensive to open up
a physical location to start your own business. With online business, Amazon FBA, they hold
all your inventory, you don’t touch your inventory. You just have to find out which of your suppliers
are and how to source products in order to make income, right? In order to make money, in order to make sales
online. You actually don’t touch inventory. You absolutely don’t have to do a lot of the
legwork but you do have to keep an eye out on your products and everything else that
goes behind closed doors. I talk a lot about that on my channel as well
for you guys who are new who are watching me. But to start an online business changed my
life for the better and for anyone who tells you that you need to go to school and get
a degree, graduate, spend $20,000, $30,000, 5 figure in order to get a degree, go to school
and get a good job, they’re lying. And I think that’s a scam. I am actually so glad that I never had to
do that. I never went to university. I barely went to college. And I am so glad that I didn’t. Before, I used to think, wow, maybe there’s
something wrong with me, right? Maybe I am just meant to live this miserable
life at my cubicle desk job and get slaved around for the rest of my life. But when I found Amazon and when I found YouTube
and I met all you lovely people, I noticed that I would rather do this for the rest of
my life. So another thing I wanted to bring up was,
I get a lot of comments from people and they say, “Tamara, I am just comfortable at my
9 to 5 job. I am comfortable because I get a steady pay
check every 2 weeks. But with an online business, you never know
how much money you bring home every 2 weeks.” That is true. However, when you reach a certain point, so
for myself, when I started replacing my biweekly pay check through my online business, through
Amazon FBA, I already felt that was a huge accomplishment, right? Because I was doing everything on my own terms,
doing everything that I love and I was getting paid steadily every 2 weeks. Ever since that happened, I started my own
YouTube channel teaching people how to do the same. However, people are under the impression that
if I work for someone else 9 to 5, I get a steady pay check. But if you really think about it, is your
job really stable? I mean for me, I got fired 5 times in the
last 10 years from my 9 to 5 job. And that wasn’t stable, they literally just
cut me off. They cut me off every 1 or 2 years. They cut me off and said, “Tamara, this position
isn’t right for you or you can find a different job.” Whatever it was, throughout the 10 years,
I thought that there was something wrong with me, right? But, there was nothing wrong with me. I think the world was just telling me that
I was meant to do something else because I was very depressed. And I remember the times when I start at my
cubicle desk, I couldn’t eat, they wouldn’t let me eat. I had to wear a silly uniform and I was told
what to do, all the time. I had to run silly errands, grab coffee for
people, clean meeting rooms. It was just garbage, complete garbage. And where was the stability in that, right? There was absolutely no stability. For people who tell you that if you stick
working 9 to 5, you get stability, no that’s not true. Your employer can let you go at any given
time and you won’t even know. I actually have a friend who actually just
got laid off from his job and he’s in his 40’s. And he’s telling me, “Tamara, I think there’s
something wrong with me.” I said, “no, there’s absolutely nothing wrong
with you. It just took you a while to realize that that
job wasn’t for you. There’s absolutely nothing wrong with you.” If you guys want to stay working at your 9
to 5 job that you absolutely hate, you can but you have to think, there’s a much greater,
bigger life out there that you can enjoy. And online business is the best thing that
has ever happened to me. I keep saying that. I am getting a little distracted by everyone. It’s really hot out here. So bottom line you guys, if you guys want
to live the life that you deserve, you want to live your dream life, if you want your
dream car, your dream mansion, maybe it’s not even that, maybe you just want to spend
more time with your family, your kids, your dogs, your pet monkey, whatever it is, only
you can do that. Only you can hold yourself accountable because
no one else can. No one else can do that for you. When you have your own business, the only
one that can make it profitable and make it work and become successful is yourself, right? There’s absolutely nobody that can help you
get what you want unless you work for it. So I am very blessed and grateful and thankful
for being alive today. I wanted to do this YouTube video for you
guys to give you kind of like an update of where I am and where my head is and how I
am feeling about everything in the last 2 years. Next month, we are going to San Francisco. I am actually doing a meetup with Feedbackwhiz. I am going to be a guest speaker there. So I am super excited about visiting San Francisco. And in June, we’re going to Maui in Hawaii. Never gone to Maui before but I heard it was
amazing and great and everything. So I thought, “why not? Let’s go.” And I’ll be doing some photos and videos for
you guys there as well. But, if you guys are still scared about starting
Amazon FBA, online business, whatever it is, YouTube, whatever it is that you want to start
online, just get started. Find someone who has started, who has the
success and teach you, to get there yourself so you can do what you want in your life. Buy the things that you want. Go to the places that you want. No longer have to work for your boss. It’s all possible and for me, this took about,
I think after a year, I started seeing a lot of stability with the money being made and
coming in and sales going up on Amazon. It was really great. So for me, I think it took at least, I think
it was at least 6 months to a year. But it’s crazy how much changed the last year
and a half. Because it wasn’t until, it was exactly a
year and 4 months ago where I started doing Amazon FBA full time, I am so glad that I
did. But it’s crazy how much can change in such
a short amount of time. Anyways you guys, if you guys enjoyed this
video, please give it a thumbs up. Subscribe to my channel, if you haven’t. And if you have any questions for me about
starting an online business or if you’re still scared or you want to talk to someone about
starting your own whatever it is, leave me a comment below. I respond to everybody. I hope you guys enjoyed this resort. I absolutely just adore this resort. Let me know if you guys want to see more videos
like this. This is just something different for a change. Alright guys, I’ll catch you guys in the next
video.

Attendant Pro for Skype for Business Training: Contact Details Panel (Related Contacts)


In this recording we’re going to take a
look at contact the contact detail panel, which gives you additional
information about any contact that is clicked. It is similar to the Outlook
Skype for Business contact card but with the additional benefit
that it can be used to transfer calls. So if your call you click transfer then
you can click to the voicemail of this contact or the related contacts over
here, which includes the Assistant the Microsoft Exchange Assistant along with
the other organizational people. It allows you to enter a note about this
contact, if you have Exchange Web Services enabled, and it gives you one-click access to a greater number of functionality than most of the
contacts have room for by default. So for example you can send an e-mail or you
can send an email call back reminder or you can open the calendar about this
user and of course see the department title and other information. It also will give you a visual look
quick look at the current and next Outlook appointments which you can
double-click on and open the actual Outlook calendar for this user from here.
Also there is a section of related contacts. We already noted that the
Microsoft Exchange Assistant is available here and if you don’t want to
see one of these organizational people you can always minimize it or collapse
it. Sometimes people want to see the manager of managers you can close that but any of you close
or open. Once again the related contacts can be transferred to just like
a contact up here. So for example if you’re in a call you want to transfer to
the assistant of Japheth Nolt or to his even voicemail a single click right
there will do that. All related contacts can
be used to transfer and act on calls, just like contacts. So for example i can
right click, and do a transfer, open so let’s say I can send an IM
even if the button isn’t on the contact card. I can pop out the contact
details. So for Jessica if I work with her a lot transfer calls to her, I can pop her out
along with as many as I want, can better use my multiple monitors and just place
her on there and if I want to transfer to her assistant or her manager very easy
to do. The contact details for one more you can open and pop them out and use
your extra monitors more efficiently and contact details can also be turned off
just by going either into the options or right up here on the main screen and
turn it off. Most people like it on because it gives
a nice insight into that contact by doing nothing by clicking on the
contacts. All right, Attendant Pro contact details. Thank you.