How To Accept Payment On Draft Orders || Shopify Help Center 2019

After you create a draft order, you decide
how to accept payment for it. A draft order is converted to an order after
you accept payment. To accept payment for a draft order, click
Orders, and then click Drafts. Open the draft order you want to accept payment
for. You can accept payment for your draft order
by emailing your customer an invoice, or by selecting a payment method and status. If you want to invoice your customer, click
Email invoice. The invoice provides your customer with a
link to a checkout for the current order so they can enter billing information, select
a shipping method, and submit payment. After the customer completes the checkout
process using the link, the draft order becomes an order and is automatically marked as Paid. Make sure that you’ve added all the products
to the order before you send your customer the invoice. If you add a product to an order after you
email an invoice, shipping rates won’t update to show the cost of shipping the new product. In the Send invoice pop-up, enter a message
to include in the invoice. Click Review email. Review your email and click Send notification. If you don’t want to email your customer
an invoice, then select a payment method or payment status. Depending on the type of payment provider
that you use, you have up to three methods available for accepting payment. Click Mark as paid if you already received
payment for the order. When you mark the order as paid, no payment
is collected for the order and an order confirmation email is sent to the customer. Do not mark as paid if you’ve sent your
customer an invoice and want them to pay through checkout. The checkout link in the invoice won’t work,
and the customer can’t complete the checkout process. To finish marking the order as paid, click
Create Order. The draft order becomes an order that you
can view from your Orders page. Click Mark as pending if you are waiting for
payment on the order. When you do receive payment for the order,
you can mark it as paid from your Orders page. Until then, its payment status stays as Pending. To finish, click Create Order. Click Pay with credit card if you are entering
credit card details manually. Note that the credit card information is not
saved in Shopify. This payment method requires a direct payment
provider, like Shopify Payments. For more information on direct payment providers,
see the link in the description. After you click Pay with credit card, enter
your customer’s billing information. To charge your customer’s card, click Charge. If you’re using Shopify Payments, then you
don’t pay any transaction fees other than your regular card rate when processing credit
card purchases manually in your Shopify admin. If you’re using a direct credit card payment
provider, then you pay the same transaction fees when processing credit card purchases
that you pay for online orders. After you accept payment for your draft order,
or mark it as paid, it becomes an order on the Orders page in your Shopify admin. To view the order, go to your Orders page
and click the order number. After you create an order, fulfill it as you
would any other order. For more videos on how to grow your business,
subscribe now! If you still have questions, comment below
or contact the Shopify support team directly.

How safe is contactless payment? || How does RFID & NFC work? || EB#40

Nowadays, it is becoming more and more common to use a service like for example Google Pay to… like the name implies Pay for something in a store without using cash. Even I use a contactless payment methods with my Girocard. Which I only have to hold in front of card reader in a store for a couple of seconds to make a payments. But, of course when it comes to money, there will always be safety concerns. So, in this video Let’s learn a bit about RFID and NFC which are the technologies used for contactless payments. And at the end Let’s determine how safe this payment methods truly is? And whether it makes sense to use the RFID and NFC technology in our own simple Arduino projects. LET’S GET STARTED! This video is sponsored by JLCPCB who manufacture 10 PCBs with dimensions of up to 10 × 10 centimeters for just $2! Their boards of a good quality and feature 24-hour fast turnarounds. And best of all, their batch PCBs are cheaper than from most other PCB companies. When we search for “RFID Reader Arduino” on eBay We get quite a big selection of boards to choose from. But they boil down to three popular ICs. Those are the RDM6300, PN532, and RC522. To not miss out on anything. I ordered all three of them which luckily all came with either an RFID tag or card. But how do we use them? To find that out, I hooked up the RC522 board to Arduino UNO development boards. According to the wiring scheme, which was presented in the dump in full sketch of the RC522 Arduino library. As soon as the connections were established and the example code was uploaded. I opened up the serial monitor. Who after bringing the tag close to the boards sped out a whole lot of information. But why did that happen? And what does the information mean? Well, RFID stands for “Radio Frequency IDentification” which means it has to do with wireless communication. When we have a closer look at the PCB of the reader we can see that the features an antenna which we can draw simplified as a coil. Now, the reader IC in combination with some passive components pushes a sinusoidal current through the antenna which therefore creates a magnetic fields around the coil. The most-used frequencies are either 13.56 MHz (HF) (HF – High Fequency)
The most-used frequencies are either 13.56 MHz (HF) which the PN532 or the RC522 used. And 125 KHz (LF) (LF – Low Fequency)
And 125 KHz (LF) which RDM6300 used. The tag guts which we can clearly observe in this transparent housing consists of an antenna or coil as well and a small chip. Which, for example can be the Mifare Classic 1K (NXP). (Or it can be NXP iCode SLI)
Which, for example can be the Mifare Classic 1K (NXP). When the tag coil enters the magnetic field of the reader it uses a voltage into it and thus also occurrence which powers the IC. This is called “Wireless Energy Transfer”. And if you have never heard of it I recommend you to watch my wireless charging video as well as my DIY wireless energy transfer system video. Now the tags IC is powered and as we can see in its datasheet holds 1 KB of data that it wants to tell us, But how? To find that out, I formed the loop with my oscilloscope probes ground wire and had a closer look at the magnetic fields of the reader. As you can see here. It truly uses a frequency of 13.56 MHz and we can also observe that the amplitude of the sine wave changes quite a bit while the reader and tag communicates with one and other The reason is, that as soon as the tag IC is properly powered It uses a build-in transistor to short its coil according to the data it wants to send over. This short circuits secondary currents temps the carrier wave currents and thus can be observed as slight changes in the amplitudes. And that is how the RFID tag talks with the reader. I will not go into detail though what the exact steps of the data exchange are. Since there are plenty of tutorials out there that cover this. And we do not want to get too technical. What is important is that as soon as a RFID tag gets too close to a RFID reader it will spit out all of its information. Which means it is pretty dumb. But more about that later. Because contactless payments does not use RFID, But instead NFC which stands for “Near Field Communication“. Only problem is that NFC is a type of RFID. Only difference is that we got more standardized rules stated in for example, ISO 14443, ISO 18092, ISO 21481 (also, ISO 15693)
stated in for example, ISO 14443, ISO 18092, ISO 21481 Most Importantly though. We only use high Frequency So, a distance of a couple of centimeters between reader and tag is mandatory. And you can also use a reader as a tag to exchange more complex data. (Android Beam, S Beam, etc.)
to exchange more complex data. But let’s take a quick break from NFC and let’s go back to the Arduino example. We can use the reader to also write new data to the RFID tag. And of course use a part of the text data as an identification password too. For example, light up a LED That means such an Arduino RFID reader and tag is great for projects where you need permission for something to happen. Which I will keep in mind for future projects. Okay, quick break over… So let’s ask the question: How easy it actually is to read the data from my Girocard? No matter what I tried or what kind of code I utilized the The RC522 not recognized my card. And by utilizing the PN532 board which can handle more kinds of RFID tags. I was also not capable of reading any data. But that does not mean that there is no way to do that. Because every modern smartphone nowadays comes with NFC functionality. By installing the “NFC Tools” app (SubMaker: I also recomment NXP TagInfo)
By installing the “NFC Tools” app we can for starters scan the previously use tag to see some general information. But also read out its entire memory. Now, this time my Girocard got recognized. And apparently it is an ISO 14443-4 compliant tag. But while trying to read its memory the app said that this type is not supported yet. The reason is probably that while it is true that RFID tags will send out that data pretty carelessly. That does not mean that it is not encrypted. By for example, a shared key. Combine that with the effects letter close proximity is mandatory and you mostly got a payment limits Contactless payment is not as dangerous as most people might think. And if you want to be super safe You can always get yourself an anti skimming card holder for a couple of bucks. It’s metal material jams the radio frequencies and thus let circuits not interact with an RFID reader. And with that being said, RFID is an important technology. Which, for example allows me to own a card that opens my youtube channel if I bring it close to my smartphone. I hope you enjoyed this video and learned a thing or two. If so, don’t forget to like share and subscribe. STAY CREATIVE AND I’LL SEE YOU NEXT TIME! (Subtitle : PolaX3)

How to Reupholster an Office Chair

Hi, I’m Clara from Online Fabric Store. Giving your office chair a makeover is an easy way to bring personality to your workspace. Of course there are many different styles of office chairs, but this one is pretty typical. Since the back and bottom cushions are separate, it’s a simple project with no sewing required. So let’s get started. The materials you’ll need are: 1 yard of decor fabric, I’m using P. Kaufman Interlace Vapor, a staple gun, spray paint (which is optional), I’m using RustOleum painter’s touch satin aqua, and a screwdriver or a tool to remove the screws. Take apart the chair so the back and seat cushions are separate. If you have a complicated chair, it’s a good idea to take pictures beforehand so you know how to put it back together. Look for screws and use common sense to figure out how to take apart your particular chair. Many chairs have this black plastic covering on the back cushion, and sometimes also the bottom cushion. If you don’t see screws on the back, you can usually pop off the cover. You can choose to spray paint parts of the chair if you want. The back on this chair is scuffed up, so a fresh coat of paint will do it good. I’m going to leave the rest as is, but you could also spray paint the base. To ensure a good bond, give it a quick sanding, especially if there are scratches. Then wipe off the dust from sanding. In a well ventilated area, spray several coats of paint on the chair parts Upholster the cushions while the paint dries. Lay out the fabric with the right side facing down and place one of the cushions on top. Make sure you have plenty of material to wrap around the back, and cut out the fabric. Place one staple in the center of one of the sides, then pull taut and staple the opposite side. Do the same for the remaining sides. Continue stapling, working your way out towards the corners on all sides. At the corners, gather the fabric as you staple so it looks as smooth as possible on the front. Repeat for the other corners. Trim the excess fabric. Make sure the fabric isn’t blocking any screw holes. Repeat for the other cushion. Put the pieces back together and your new office chair is done. Most medium to heavy weight décor fabrics will work, but if you use your office chair a lot, an upholstery fabric like this will give you the most durability. Thanks for watching this OFS project.

Learn English – Asking About Occupations, What is your Job?

Welcome to’s “English
in Three Minutes”. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn English. Hey everyone, I’m Alisha! In this series, we’re going to learn some
easy ways to ask and answer common questions in English. It’s really useful, and it only
takes three minutes! In this lesson, you’re going to learn how
to ask what someone’s job is in natural English. Of course, you *can* just say, “What is
your job?” This is correct English, but it sounds too direct and awkward. Native English
speakers almost never say this in a social situation. Instead, they use a different question. But before we master that, we need to compare
it to a very similar question. “What are you doing?” “I’m presenting a video about English!” “What do you do?” “I’m an English teacher!” Do you see the difference? These two questions – “What are you doing?”
and “What do you do?” sound similar, but mean different things. The first one is asking what you are doing
right now, this minute. You answer it using an -ing verb. “What are you doing?” “I’m reading!” “I’m watching TV!” … While the second is actually a shortened
version of “What do you do for a living?”. This is how we ask “What is your job?”
in natural English. Let’s practice this question. “What do you do?” “What do you do?” When native speakers of English ask this question,
it can come out very fast, and sound more like “Whadd’yado?” In order to tell it apart from “what are
you doing?”, just listen for the “ing” sound on the end of the question – if it’s
not there, then you’re being asked what your job is! So how would you answer this question? Just think of it as if the other person is
asking you “What is your job?” You could answer with “I am”, plus your job. “I’m a teacher.” I’m a teacher or, “I’m an engineer.” If you want to learn more job names, go to and check out the Core Word Lists. These cover job vocabulary and
more, and include a picture and audio to help you perfect your pronunciation. You can also mention the place that you work
at, starting with “I work at”. I work at a hospital. I work at a hospital. I work at a law firm. I work at a law firm. If you work for a big company that is well-known,
you can say “I work for”, and then the name: “I work for Microsoft.” I work for Microsoft. I work for The New York Times. I work for The New York Times. Now it’s time for Alisha’s Advice! When you ask the question “What do you do?”
and the other person tells you their job, it’s polite to make some kind of positive
comment about his or her job – for example, “How interesting!” or “That must be
exciting” or even “Oh, really!”. Remember to sound sincere! Do you know how native English speakers ask
each other what their hobbies are? Hint: we don’t use the word “hobbies”!
Find out next time in the third English in 3 Minutes Lesson! See you next time!

VIP Digital Marketing Course: From Beginner to Advance

if you want to learn digital marketing
and also you want to make money with it you are exactly in the right place. By
the end of this course you will become a professional marketer and also you will
be able to sell any product online, you can start making money as a freelancer
if you like to, or you can start your own social media marketing agency, find
valuable clients, learn how you can convince them, and sign contract with
them and get paid monthly. We’ll talk about all these strategies along the
course. Inside the course you will learn how to do marketing and advertisement on
different platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Pinterest, LinkedIn, Twitter,
YouTube and more channels. Beside that you will also learn how to create an
advanced website with low budget, how to create an online store and sell any
product online, how to rank higher in search engines like Google, how to
capture email leads, do email marketing and sell your product or any other
product using email marketing, copywriting, website optimization, Google
Ads, google analytics, and much more so why you should join this course:
Besides all the things that I mentioned you will also receive an advanced VIP
support personally from me, meaning that if you needed my help or if you had any
questions I will respond to you under 12 hours. We can have one-on-one chat on
private message on Udemy or also you can send me direct messages on Instagram and
we can have a voice chat. In addition we have
weekly VIP live calls where we talk about new updates in marketing, business
and entrepreneurship mindset. You will also receive a group support from other
students like you and other professional marketers in the same group with more
than 3000 members. If a still you are not convinced that this is the best course
for you please go ahead read the thousands of reviews that the students
wrote, not only for this course but for all of my courses and see how happy they
are with the result that they have received, with the quality of the course
and the valuable information inside it, with the support that I gave them
personally and a lot of other things this course is covered by 30 days
money-back guarantee meaning if during the first 30 days you didn’t want the
course for any reason, you can send a refund request and receive 100% of your
money back no question asked, also by the end of the course you will receive your
certificate. Join the course and use the discount that exists today before it
ends. Don’t miss out because you can not find all these valuable information
anywhere online. I’m Pouya your mentor and your friend and this is our VIP digital
marketing master course, see you on the next video

How does a blockchain work – Simply Explained

Blockchains are incredibly popular nowadays. But what is a blockchain? How do they work, what problems do they solve
and how can they be used? Like the name indicates, a blockchain is a
chain of blocks that contains information. This technique was originally described in
1991 by a group of researchers and was originally intended to timestamp digital documents so
that it’s not possible to backdate them or to tamper with them. Almost like a notary. However it went by mostly unused until it
was adapted by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 to create the digital cryptocurrency Bitcoin. A blockchain is a distributed ledger that
is completely open to anyone. They have an interesting property: once some
data has been recorded inside a blockchain, it becomes very difficult to change it. So how does that work? Well, let’s take a closer look at a block. Each block contains some data, the hash of
the block and the hash of the previous block. The data that is stored inside a block depends
on the type of blockchain. The Bitcoin blockchain for example stores
the details about a transaction in here, such as the sender, receiver and amount of coins. A block also has a hash. You can compare a hash to a fingerprint. It identifies a block and all of its contents
and it’s always unique, just as a fingerprint. Once a block is created, it’s hash is being
calculated. Changing something inside the block will cause
the hash to change. So in other words: hashes are very useful
when you want to detect changes to blocks. If the fingerprint of a block changes, it
no longer is the same block. The third element inside each block is the
hash of the previous block. This effectively creates a chain of blocks
and it’s this technique that makes a blockchain so secure. Let’s take an example. Here we have a chain of 3 blocks. As you can see, each block has a hash and
the hash of the previous block. So block number 3 points to block number 2
and number 2 points to number 1. Now the first block is a bit special, it cannot
point to previous blocks because it’s the first one. We call this the genesis block. Now let’s say that you tamper with the second
block. This causes the hash of the block to change
as well. In turn that will make block 3 and all following
blocks invalid because they no longer store a valid hash of the previous block. So changing a single block will make all following
blocks invalid. But using hashes is not enough to prevent
tampering. Computers these days are very fast and can
calculate hundreds of thousands of hashes per second. You could effectively tamper with a block
and recalculate all the hashes of other blocks to make your blockchain valid again. So to mitigate this, blockchains have something
called proof-of-work. It’s a mechanism that slows down the creation
of new blocks. In Bitcoins case: it takes about 10 minutes
to calculate the required proof-of-work and add a new block to the chain. This mechanism makes it very hard to tamper
with the blocks, because if you tamper with 1 block, you’ll need to recalculate the proof-of-work
for all the following blocks. So the security of a blockchain comes from
its creative use of hashing and the proof-of-work mechanism. But there is one more way that blockchains
secure themselves and that’s by being distributed. Instead of using a central entity to manage
the chain, blockchains use a peer-to-peer network and anyone is allowed to join. When someone joins this network, he gets the
full copy of the blockchain. The node can use this to verify that everything
is still in order. Now let’s see what happens when someone creates
a new block. That new block is send to everyone on the
network. Each node then verifies the block to make
sure that it hasn’t been tampered with. If everything checks out, each node adds this
block to their own blockchain. All the nodes in this network create consensus. They agree about what blocks are valid and
which aren’t. Blocks that are tampered with will be rejected
by other nodes in the network. So to successfully tamper with a blockchain
you’ll need to tamper with all blocks on the chain, redo the proof-of-work for each block
and take control of more than 50% of the peer-to-peer network. Only then will your tampered block become
accepted by everyone else. This is almost impossible to do! Blockchains are also constantly evolving. One of the more recent developments is the
creation of smart contracts. These contracts are simple programs that are
stored on the blockchain and can be used to automatically exchange coins based on certain
conditions. More on smart contracts in a later video. The creation of blockchain technology peaked
a lot of people’s interest. Soon, others realized that the technology
could be used for other things like storing medical records, creating a digital notary
or even collecting taxes. So now you know what a blockchain is, how
it works on basic level and what problems it solves. Want to learn how you can implement a simple
blockchain with Javascript? Then checkout this video here. And as always: thank you very much for watching.

Proof-of-Stake (vs proof-of-work)

Hi there! My name is Xavier and you might have read
articles online saying that cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin uses enormous amounts of energy
to secure their networks. But why is that – and more importantly – what
are the alternatives? Mining new coins takes a lot of computing
power because of the proof-of-work algorithm. The idea was first introduced in 1993 to combat
spam emails and was formally called “proof-of-work” in 1997. However the technique went largely unused
until Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin in 2009. He realized that this mechanism could be used
to reach consensus between many nodes on a network and he used it as a way to secure
the Bitcoin blockchain. However, the proof-of-work algorithm works
by having all nodes solve a cryptographic puzzle. This puzzle is solved by miners and the first
one to find the solution gets the miner reward. This has led to a situation where people are
building larger and larger mining farms like this one. According to Digiconomist, Bitcoin miners
alone uses about 54 TWh of electricity, enough to power 5 million households in the US or
even power the entire country of New Zealand or Hungary. But it doesn’t stop there. Proof-of-work gives more rewards to people
with better and more equipment. The higher your hash rate is, the higher the
chance that you’ll get to create the next block and receive the mining reward. To increase chances even further, miners have
come together in what’s called “mining pools”. They combine their hashing power and distribute
the reward evenly across everyone in the pool. So to sum it up: proof-of-work is causing
miners to use massive amounts of energy and it encourages the use of mining pools which
makes the blockchain more centralized as opposed to decentralized. So to solve these issue’s we have to find
a new consensus algorithm that is as effective or better then proof-of-work. In 2011 a Bitcointalk forum user called QuantumMechanic
proposed a technique that he called “proof-of-stake”. The basic idea is that letting everyone compete
against each other with mining is wasteful. So instead proof-of-stake uses an election
process in which 1 node is randomly chosen to validate the next block. Oh yeah, small difference in terminology there. Proof-of-stake has no miners but instead has
“validators” and it doesn’t let people “mine” blocks but instead “mint” or
“forge” blocks. Validators aren’t chosen completely randomly. To become a validator, a node has to deposit
a certain amount of coins into the network as stake. You can think of this as a security deposit. The size of the stake determines the chances
of a validator to be chosen to forge the next block. It’s a linear correlation. Let’s say Bob deposits $100 dollars into
the network while Alice deposits $1000. Alice now has a 10 times higher chance of
being chosen to forge the next block. This might not seem fair because it favors
the rich, but in reality it’s more fair compared to proof-of-work. With proof-of-work rich people can enjoy the
power of economies at scale. The price they pay for mining equipment and
electricity doesn’t go up in a linear fashion. Instead the more they buy, the better prices
they can get. Economies at scale! But back to proof-of-stake. If a node is chosen to validate the next block,
he’ll check if all the transactions within it are indeed valid. If everything checks out, the node signs off
on the block and adds it to the blockchain. As a reward the node receives the fees that
are associated with each transaction. Okay but how can we trust other validators
on the network? Well that’s where the stake comes in. Validators will lose a part of their stake
if they approve fraudulent transactions. As long as the stake is higher then what the
validator gets from the transaction fees, we can trust them to correctly do their job. Because if not, they lose more money then
they gain. It’s a financial motivator and holds up
as long as the stake is higher then the sum of all the transaction fees. If a node stops being a validator, his stake
plus all the transaction fees that he got will be released after a certain period of
time. Not straight away because the network still
needs to be able to punish you, should they discover that some of your blocks where fraudulent. So the differences between Proof-of-work and
Proof-of-stake are quite significant. Proof-of-stake doesn’t let everyone mine
for new blocks and therefore uses considerably less energy. It’s also more decentralized. How is that? Well in proof-of-work we have something called
mining pools. Those are people who are teaming up to increase
their chances of mining a new block and thus collecting the reward. However these pools now control large portions
of the bitcoin blockchain. They centralize the mining process and that’s
dangerous. If the three biggest mining pools would merge
together, they would have a majority stake in the network and could start approving fraudulent
transactions. Another important advantage is that setting
up a node for a proof-of-stake based blockchain is a lot less expensive compared to a proof-of-work
based one. You don’t need expensive mining equipment
and thus proof-of-stake encourages more people to set up a node, making the network more
decentralized and also more secure. But even proof-of-stake isn’t perfect and
it also has some flaws. You might think: “hold on a minute! If I buy a majority stake in the network,
I can effectively control it and approve fake transactions” and you would be correct. This is called the 51% attack and was first
discussed as a weak point of the proof-of-work algorithm. If a single miner or group of miners can obtain
51% of the hashing power, they can effectively control the blockchain. Proof-of-stake on the other hand makes this
attack very impractical, depending on the value of a cryptocurrency. If Bitcoin would be converted to proof-of-stake,
acquiring 51% of all the coins would set you back a whopping 79 billion dollars. So the 51% attack is actually less likely
to happen with proof-of-stake. But that’s not the only risk. Proof-of-stake algorithms also have to be
careful how they select the next validators. It can’t be completely random because the
size of the stake has to be factored in. But at the same time the stake alone isn’t
enough because that will favor rich people, who will get chosen more frequently, will
collect more transaction fees, become even richer and thus increase their chances of
being chosen as validator even further. There are a number of proposals to fix this
like coin age based selection. Another potential problem is when the network
choses the next validator but he doesn’t turn up to do his job. This could easily be solved by choosing a
large number of backup validators as a fallback. In short: proof-of-stake brings additional
risks when compared to proof-of-work and a lot of research is needed to understand these
risks and to mitigate them. Alright so now that we know what proof-of-stake
is, what benefits it has and what risks are involved, let’s look at real world usage. A few examples of coins that use it right
now are Peercoin, Lisk and Nxt but more cryptocurrencies are likely to follow in the future. Ethereum for instance is working on implementing
a proof-of-stake system which they call Casper. It’s currently deployed on the Ethereum
testnet and is actively being developed. And also the Cardano project has long been
working on creating the a provable secure proof-of-stake algorithm that they call Ouroboros. More about that in this video right here. So that was it for this video. If you liked it, give it a thumbs up and consider
getting subscribed. Thank you very much for watching and I’ll
see you in the next video!

Controlling Mechanical 7-Segment Displays?! How RS-485 and UART works! || EB#43

Recently, I received those mechanical seven-segment displays which, like the name implies do not use LEDs to highlight each one of their segments but, instead, they use a small piece of white plastic that moves around. To find out how exactly this display works, I opened one up and found out that each plastic segment has a magnet connected to it, which can either get pushed away or attracted by another magnet. In the case of the commercial display, the required seven magnets are electromagnets, who, by alternatingly hooking them up to 12 volts DC reverse their magnetic polarity and thus control each segments. And, best of all, all the electromagnets keep their magnetic polarity even when current is no longer flowing, meaning that as soon as you are done displaying a number it will stay there without requiring any more electrical energy. As you would expect, though, controlling just four of those displays would either require lots of microcontroller pins and simple code or a more sophisticated microcontroller circuit with complex code. which, in both cases, can be a very time-consuming task. Thankfully, the company, AlfaZeta, which produces those seven-segment displays and sent them to me also sent me a big module with ten of them which are attached to a pretty promising-looking control circuit. So, in this video I will try to find out how this circuit works, how we can tell it what to display through the Arduino’s UART and the RS-485 interface and, finally, I will use it in combination with an ESP8266 to build a subscriber counter for my YouTube channel. Let’s get started! This video is sponsored by AlfaZeta First off, in order to properly examine the control circuit, I removed its two mounting screws and then, lifted it off the seven-segment display PCB. And, judging by the number of used IC’s, I was afraid that this circuit will not be an easy reverse-engineering subject. But, never-the-less, I started searching for all the datasheets of the IC’s, as well as finding out how each component is connected to one another through the help of the continuity function of my multimeter. As it turns out, the head of the operation is the ATmega32A microcontroller which, through the help of of high-voltage source driver IC’s and Darlington transistor array IC’s controls all the electromagnets. As far as I figured it out, it seems like one side of all the electromagnets of one display are connected to one source while the other displays all use different source pins. The other sides of the electromagnets are individually connected to a Darlington transistor array pin. While this time all electromagnets with the same segment control function are connected together. Now, if you watched my video about multiplexing, you should by now understand how the microcontroller can control all the displays. If not, then let me tell you that the source IC only powers one display at a time. And, by activating the [unsure] of transistors we power the required segments to form a number. Then the source IC powers the next output, and we can once again set the fitting transistors to form the next number. This process repeats until all numbers are successfully created This is, of course, only my theory but, since the practical testing of the displays later on revealed that they cannot change numbers simultaneously but, instead, have to change numbers one-by-one I was pretty sure that my theory has to be correct. The only question remaining is, how can we tell the microcontroller to display a specific number? For such communication tasks, the PCB comes with two RJ11 female connectors which, according to the manufacturer feature this pinout. But, what exactly does RS485 mean? Well, RS485 aka TIA485 or EIA485 is an industry standard for asynchronous serial data transfer. And, speaking of data transfer, I already talked about the SPI and I2C communication protocols in previous videos which I will use as a comparison example. Both of them use the clock line which basically tells the receiver when to read the data on the data line. This is called a synchronous communication. The RS485, however, is asynchronous which means there’s no clock line, only data lines. That means when an RS485 transmitter starts sending serial data consisting of 1’s and 0’s to a receiver the receiver has to synchronize itself by recognizing the first voltage edge and then using its own clock and set baud rate in order to sample the sent data at the correct time. The transmitter of course also has to use its clock with the exact same baud rate in order to generate the serial data. Otherwise, both of the components will not understand each other. It is also very important to note that, unlike SPI or I2C, which are proper protocols the RS485 only defines the electrical properties of the communication signals. It is not a protocol, nor does it define connection plug arrangements. That is why when you work with RS485 you have to get the proper communication protocol and hardware pinout from the manufacturer which mine kindly provided. Before testing the code, however, I want to name the most important electrical properties of the system. It typically uses one twisted pair of wires where one carries the non-inverted data signal and the other carries the inverted data signal. The receiver then creates the original data signal by creating the difference between those two. That sounds needlessly complicated at first, but the data wires use symmetrical voltage levels, and thus, injected common mode noises equally exist on both lines and therefore get rejected by the differential receiver inputs which makes the system pretty interference-free. Of course, there are more electrical properties but, before boring you to death, and since you can easily look those up online let’s continue with the coding. Now, the given protocol seems simple enough. Just the start command followed by the address of the module, the actual 10 numbers I want to display, and then a stop command. To control the display, I want to first use the Arduino Nano, which luckily comes with a USART interface. If we ignore the letter ‘S’, it stands for Universal Asynchronous Serial Receiver Transmitter which certainly sounds promising when it comes to functioning with the RS485 interface. So, as a simple test, I set the baud rate of the Arduino to 9,600 just like I did for the control PCB and typed in the serial data with the last numbers to display being ‘1234’. After uploading the code to the Arduino, we can hook up an oscilloscope to the serial transmit pin of it in order to find out that it sends out the data we just typed in, in software. And, while this does look promising, we still have the problem that this one data line does not match the RS485 standard. That is when such a MAX485 break-out board comes in to play. This IC can basically turn our microcontroller serial data into RS485 standardized serial data. So, I hooked it up to my Arduino according to this schematic which only utilizes the write functionality of the IC, and not the read functionality, created a twisted wire pair through the help of my electric drill, soldered one side of it to the control PCB’s ‘A’ and ‘B’ line and hooked up the other side to the MAX485 breakout board, and finally, after all this theory it was time to power the control boards as well as the Arduino in order to find out that code does in fact work Brilliant! And if we look at the RS485 data lines with the oscilloscope we can see the non-inverted and inverted data signals pretty clearly. Now, the manufacturer also sent me a bit of example code to display any digit I want which I used to create a simple counter mode. After uploading the code, and me being quiet for a few seconds, you can enjoy the true beauty of mechanical displays. Needless to say, I do love the sound and look of it which is why I decided to use it as a subscriber counter for my channel All I had to do was to connect the serial interface of an ESP8266 to the MAX485 breakout board and merging the Arduino YouTube API library with the 7-segment control board code in order to create this rather lengthy piece of software. After uploading it we can not only see through the serial monitor that the ESP grabbed my YouTube data successfully but we can also see that the 7-segment display shows my subscriber number correctly as well! And with that being said, I hope you enjoyed this small mechanical display RS485 UART adventure and learned a bit along the way. If so, don’t forget to like share, subscribe, and hitting the notification bell. Stay creative and I will see you next time!