How does a Lightsaber work?

The Star Wars universe is filled with amazing ships, weapons and machinery. Whether it’s the light side, or the dark side; there’s always something new to explore. Of all the technology that you see, perhaps the most fascinating is the Lightsaber. As the story goes, only the Jedi can use a Lightsaber. You can’t just go out and buy a Lightsaber. Each Jedi must construct their own; this is why they can vary so much in appearance. Some Lightsabers can be shorter, like Master Yoda’s. Some will be curved like Count Dooku’s. And there’s even some out there that will be double-sided like Darth Maul’s. This is Luke Skywalker’s Lightsaber; the first Lightsaber we see in the original Star Wars movie. There’s a lot of different parts that make this work. A Jedi will usually take several weeks to build their own Lightsaber. One mistake, and the whole thing can explode. Pay close attention here, so the same thing doesn’t happen to you. The Lightsaber can be split up into three different sections; Let’s go through these one by one. The first section is called the Power Assembly. At the center of it, is the Diatium Power Cell; it’s kind of like the battery of the Lightsaber. It’s naturally recharging, so the Jedi won’t have to worry about it for a long time. Surrounding the Power Cell, is the Power Field Conductor and the Power Vortex Rings. These both work together to move energy up the Lightsaber. Surrounding all of this is the Inert Power Insulator; which contains all of this energy, and ensures that none of it is wasted. This next section is called the Crystal Energy Chamber; A the end of the Power Cell, we have the Primary Crystal Mount. The Energy Gate is what transmits the energy to the crystals; these are called Kyber crystals, and the Lightsaber usually has two of them. They are found on the planet Ilum. This is the Primary crystal, and it converts energy from the Power Cell and transfers it to the Focusing crystal. The Focusing crystal is the one that colors the blade. The last section is called the Emitter Assembly. All of the energy flows from the Focusing Crystal into the Blade Energy Channel. Here the crystal energy gets converted from Crystal energy to Arc Wave energy. On either side of the Blade Energy Channel, you’ll find the Cycling Field Energizers; they help the conversion of energy; One side directs the energy towards the blade, and the other side recycles that energy. These two bright lights are called Energy Modulation Circuits. They provide feedback to drive the Cycling Field Energizers. Finally, we have the Blade Arc Tip. This is where all of the Arc Wave Energy becomes a visible blade; Some Lightsabers have what’s called the Blade Emitter Shroud; it can protect a Jedi from accidentally touching the blade; hopefully this kind of accident doesn’t happen very often. Okay, so Lightsabers they’re just fictional right? I can’t really build something like this, but it’s kind of fun to think about.. Hey guys, my name’s Jared Owen and this is what I do. I create 3d animations and I show you how things work. I normally make videos about things from this galaxy… but this video, I branched out a little bit. Let me know what you think in the comments below. If this is your first time here, I would love to have you subscribe and stick around. Thanks for watching, and I’ll see you next time.

How do Child Proof Caps work?

Childproof caps. You’ve probably got a few of
these in your medicine cabinet. They can be a little annoying at times to open, but the reality is that they save lives every year. I’m going to go over four
different kinds here: line up the triangles and open, push the tab down and turn, squeeze sides and turn, and push the cap down and turn. Let’s start with the easy one. There’s two triangles here, one on the cap and one on the bottle. These have to be lined up before the bottle will open. On the bottle, this ridge goes all the way around,
except for this gap right here. On the lid there’s three tiny notches on the inside; this notch is smaller than the other two. You’ll notice that it lines up with the triangle. These notches are normally underneath the rim on the bottle which prevents the cap from being taken off. When the triangles are lined up, this notch goes in between the opening; now we can pop off the cap. For this bottle to open, you’ve got to push down on this tab, and then twist the cap like normal. On the bottle, there’s a tiny angled piece sticking up. When the tab is press down, the angled piece goes down too. On the cap, you’ll see two notches on the inside. Watch what happens when I twist on the cap; Now it’s stuck in place and I can’t open it. Push down on the tab, and it opens once again. Try and turn this cap and it won’t budge. The cap has a smooth surface here, and on the opposite side. If you squeeze on both sides and then turn, it comes right off. On the bottle there’s a slope notch here,
and on the opposite side. On the cap, there’s also notches sticking out. The reason you have to squeeze the cap while turning, is so that the notches on the cap avoid the notches on the bottle. Turn this cap and it spins, but nothing happens. You have to push down and then turn; and now it comes off just fine. The bottle and the cap look similar to the others, but the secret is in the cap. There’s an inside layer that is completely separate; the grooves go all the way around on the top here. On the outer layer, you’ve got notches all the way around. When closing the bottle, both layers make contact and they move as one. When you open the bottle, if you don’t push down firmly, the outer notches are going to slide right over the inner grooves. Once you push down and turn, both layers move as one, and you can finally open the bottle. You’ll never look at any of these bottles the same again. Are there any kinds of childproof caps
that I didn’t cover in this video? If there are, let me know in the comments below. My name’s Jared Owen, thanks for watching!

How does a Nerf Gun work?

– [Jared] The Nerf Gun
is an important part of every toy collection, good for target practice, Nerf battles, and reverse engineering them
so we can see how they work. Let’s get ready to have some fun. (electronic zapping)
(dramatic music) (cheerful electronic music) This specific Nerf Gun is
called the Nerf Elite Disruptor. Six darts can be loaded in at one time, pull back on the cocking mechanism, aim, and pull that trigger. (cheerful electronic music) You’ll see on the left side of the gun, a bunch of holes for the screws. If we take them all out, we can get a good look at what’s inside. (cheerful electronic music) Naturally, let’s start with the trigger. You can see it’s connected to a spring. You can pull the trigger back, but as soon as you let it go, it will spring back into
its original position. You can see a bunch of extra plastic here. This connects with another piece which I’m gonna call the vertical slider. This is normally held up by a spring. When the trigger gets pulled, the vertical slider comes down. I’m gonna come back to this in a second. This is the piston. It fits inside the tube
along with a powerful spring. The spring inside of here wants to keep the piston all the way forward. This is where the cocking
mechanism comes into place. Notice the small block sticking out here. When you pull it back,
the piston comes with it. You can definitely feel that the spring is resisting as you try and pull. Pull it back far enough and it engages with the vertical slider
and hooks in right here. Now your Nerf Gun is
loaded and ready to go. One thing I want to point out is that when your gun is loaded, this orange strip will
be visible from behind. Okay, here we go. Pull the trigger, the
vertical slider comes down, which then releases the piston, which quickly springs back into place, all of the air inside
the tube is immediately forced out the front onto the dart. Houston, we have ignition. Now after the dart fires, the cylinder rotates and the
next dart goes into place. Now how does that work? There’s a few more pieces below the piston to help this work. There’s some supporting black plastic, white rotating cam, and the cam bar. When the piston comes out far enough, it will latch on to the cam bar. When the trigger is pulled, the piston is released
and the dart is fired, just like we’ve seen before. Followed closely behind that, the cam bar comes forward
again which rotates the cam, which then rotates the
cylinder with all the darts. Let’s focus on just the
cam and the cam bar. You can see each time the
bar goes forward again, the cam rotates. The magic happens on the other side. (cheerful electronic music) the bar has a circular
tip at the end here. The tip fits right inside
these grooves here on the cam. As the bar goes back and forth, the tip will slide right through here. Now the bar is positioned in such a way that there’s a little bit of pressure. It wants to go into the cam. As the bar comes back, it
will pass over this edge and go further into the groove. When the bar goes forward again, instead of returning to
where it was straight ahead, it will follow along this side. When that happens, the
cam is forced to rotate. Let’s watch that again. Slides, back, pops down, comes forward again,
and follows the curve. Mechanical devices like this fascinate me. I can only imagine how much
work this must have been to design something like this and make sure it works correctly. Currently, you can get
one of these Nerf Guns off of Amazon for about 12 U.S. Dollars. I’ll put a link in the description below. My name’s Jared and I’m a
3-D animator here on YouTube. Check out my videos to
learn about how things work. If you’d like to help me
make more videos like this, then visit my Patreon page. Thanks everyone. I’ll see you next time. (cheerful electronic music)

How does a Combination Lock work?

– [Narrator] In this video,
we’re gonna use 3D animation to show the inside of a combination lock. I’m gonna go over exactly why putting in a three-digit combination
allows us to open the lock. Let’s check it out. (electricity crackling) This video is sponsored by CG Boost. Stay tuned at the end of this video to discover how you can
create your own 3D animations using a free program called Blender. (upbeat electronic music) During most of my teen years, I used a combination lock at
school to open up my locker. Before making this video, I really didn’t understand how it worked. So I did some research,
looked at a few patents, and then opened one up to
see what’s on the inside. Let me show you what I learned. (bright music) Here’s the case that
holds all of our parts. This metal curved bar
is called the shackle. It won’t come out until the
right combination is put in. Then, it pops right open. This piece is called the lever. It slides right onto the bar here. The lever can rotate counterclockwise. This piece of metal wants to flex outward. Once it’s bent inside of here,
the tension makes the latch want to spring back to
its original position. Normally, the latch would just keep going, but the rotation will be
stopped by this tiny bump. The lever also has a tiny latch here that is spring loaded from the inside. The shackle comes down,
pushes the latch in, and then the latch fits
right into the groove, and we are locked. When the shackle is pulled out, the latch is forced to rotate to allow the shackle to
come all the way out. Then, the lever springs back into place. Let’s watch that again. The shackle can’t come all the way out because of the shackle collar. It guides the shackle
as it slides along here. But it stops us once we hit the very top. Okay, the reason that the
locking mechanism works is that, if the latch can’t rotate, then the shackle won’t come out. This is where the three
cams come into play. Let me show you. The back place has a bar sticking out. It holds the three cams,
washers in between, and a spring at the end. The spring ensures that the three cams and the washers are all pressed together. Cam two and three can spin freely. But cam number one is
actually attached to the dial. So when the dial spins,
this cam spins too. This is what it looks
like al put together. Each cam has an indentation in them. The lock will open when all
three of them are lined up. You can see how the lever can now rotate, which allows the shackle to open. When these three indentations
are not lined up, the lever can’t rotate, which means the shackle can’t come out. So how do we line up the cams
by only turning this dial? Let’s look a little closer. Each cam has at least one of
these teeth sticking off of it. You can see them better
from this point of view. If we turn cam one far enough, the tooth on cam one will
contact the tooth on cam two. And then if we keep turning,
all three cams move together. In fact, this is the first
step to opening up the lock. Let’s walk through this
process on the inside. This time we’re looking
at it from the front, so all three cams will
need to line up here. We turn the dial clockwise
three times to clear it. All three cam teeth are
in contact with each other and move as one. Now let’s keep turning the dial until we hit the first
number in the combination, which in this case is 21. Notice how cam three is now lined up right where it should be. Now let’s work on the second
number in the combination. This time we turn counterclockwise
one full rotation. Watch as the teeth from cam one come in contact with came
two on the other side. Notice how this doesn’t touch cam three, which is still right where it should be. Now we keep spinning the dial until we hit the second
number, which is 34. Now cam two and cam three are lined up. For the last number in the combination, just rotate the dial clockwise until it lines up with the third number. And there we go. All three cams are lined
up, the lever rotates, allowing the shackle to come out. As the shackle is pushed back in, it comes down with a bit of a jolt, which is usually enough to
nudge the cams out of alignment. This means the lock won’t
open a second time for free; you’ll need to use the correct
combination once again. (upbeat electronic music) The animation that you’ve just seen is created with a program called Blender. Is use Blender to create
all of the animations on my YouTube channel. And yes, the program is completely free. You can even download it
right now if you want to. However, it takes some
dedication to learn, and you’ll need a good teacher. Let me introduce you to my
friend Zach from CG Boost. I’ve been following his
channel for years now because he does amazing work, and I’ve learned a lot from him. Recently he’s released a new course called Blender 2.8 Launch Pad. Check it out at The course takes you
from the very beginning; you don’t need any prior knowledge. You’ll learn the fundamentals of Blender’s tools and interface, which you’ll then use to
create this car animation. After completing the course,
you’ll be able to create almost anything you
can imagine in Blender. I have personally watched
the entire course, and I can highly recommend it to anyone wanting to learn 3D animation. Remember that Blender is free. And this course by CG Boost is only $59. Plus the first 100 people to
use my link will get 20% off. Just go to (upbeat electronic music)

How does a Pin Tumbler Lock work?

When you open up a lock with a key do you ever stop to think about what’s going on inside? Only the correct key will open the lock. Why is that? Each key has its own unique shape. These ridges on the key have to match exactly with the lock for it to work. There are many different types of locks, but the most common one is called a Pin Tumbler Lock. Let me show you how this works. This outside part is called the Case. The inside part is called the Plug; this is the part that turns when the correct key is put in. The opening here, is called the Keyway. On the inside, there’s a few more parts. There are several vertical shafts that go through the Case and the Plug. Each shaft has a Spring, Driver Pin, and a Key Pin. The springs press all the pins down so that they all rest on this ledge. You’ll notice that the pins meet at a different level for each shaft. For the Plug to turn, the pins must line up with the Shear line Now watch what happens when we insert the wrong key. The pins are not lined up, which means the the Plug won’t rotate. When we insert the correct key, everything lines up, and the Plug turns. So we’ve covered the case of one key for one lock; there’s another case. Let’s say there’s a building, where there’s a different key for each door, but there’s also a key that opens every single door in the building. This is called a Master key. For the Master key to work, there must be an extra pin in at least one of the Vertical Shafts. We call this the Master pin. Now the Plug will turn if there is a key that raises the pins either to here or to here. So here’s our regular key going in; Now here’s the Master key going in. Both keys allow us to turn the Plug. Some master key systems will have more than one Shaft with a Master pin. So that’s the basics of how a Pin Tumbler Lock works. There’s a whole lot going on every time you use a key to open a lock. If you liked this video, then you’ll enjoy the video I made about door handles. I go through and show all the little pieces inside and how they work together. I’ll go ahead and put a link for it right here. My name’s Jared Owen; If this if your first time hearing my channel, I would love to have you subscribe and stick around. I make 3D animations and I show you how things work. Thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time.

How does a Grand Piano work? – Part 1

The grand piano is a stringed instrument, which allows the musician to play multiple keys at a time. In this two-part series, I want to show you how it works. In Part 1, we’ll go over the different pieces of a piano and what happens when a key is pressed. In Part 2, I’ll show you what the foot pedals do and how they work. Let’s get started with Part 1. [ clapping ] The grand piano has been around for over 300 years now. You’ll find one in just about every concert hall around the globe. Let’s start today by looking at the lid. It’s propped open to give the full sound of the piano. While no one is playing the piano, it’s usually best to close the lid to avoid collecting dust. For the best sound during a performance, the lid is usually open towards the audience; this also lets the crowd see the keys
that are being played. I’m going to remove the music stand and the lid so we can get a good look at what’s inside. The first thing you’ll notice are strings, lots of strings. They are stretched along a cast iron frame – which has to be very strong to support the tension. Towards the right, the strings are shorter and thinner to produce higher sounding notes. Towards the left, the strings are longer and thicker to produce lower sounding notes. The different lengths of strings, is what gives the grand piano its unique shape. The vibrating of these strings, is what makes the sound you hear. This won’t happen until a key is pressed. There are 88 keys on a grand piano; 52 white keys and 36 black keys. Each key is actually a long lever, which you normally can’t see. By pressing a key, there’s a chain reaction that happens, which causes a hammer to strike the strings. Most of the keys strike three strings at a time; for lower notes they strike two strings, and the lowest notes only one string. The lower notes don’t have as many strings because the strings are thicker, so they produce more sound. The motion of the hammer, involves a chain reaction. Let’s take a look at just one of the keys. This mechanism is referred to as the piano action. Let’s break this down piece by piece. Pressing the key causes the lever to go up and down; just like a see-saw. This next piece is called the Wippen. It’s pinned in place at the end, which allows it to rotate. Of course, it’s not actually floating… it’s attached to a long bar that spans the length of the piano. The Repetition Lever is pinned to the top of the Wippen. The top of the lever hits this screw, causing it to rotate just slightly. There’s another bar holding this piece in place. The Repetition Lever has a hole allowing for another piece to go right through; this piece is called the Jack – it is pinned to the right of the Wippen As it goes up, the toe hits this cylinder, causing it to rotate; once again another bar holds this in place. Notice at the end of the motion, the Jack sticks out a little up here. And finally, we have the hammer, The top of the Jack, is what
gives the hammer the final push. The harder a key is pressed, the harder the hammer hits the strings, which means a louder noise. This also means that if you press the key soft enough, you won’t hear any sound. Notice how a key can be pressed repeatedly and the hammer still works. This piece is called the Damper. You can see that it actually rests on the strings. Pressing the key causes the Damper to rise, which allows the string to vibrate, but as soon as you release the key, the Damper comes back down and stops the sound. Okay, now imagine this hammer mechanism 88 times. One thing you’ll notice is that the highest notes actually don’t have dampers. This is because the sound fades away so quickly that the Dampers don’t really make a difference. Now you know how the keys work, but there’s a lot more to the grand piano. Join me in Part 2, and I’ll show you what the foot pedals do and how they work on the inside. I’m Jared Owen, Thanks for watching.

How does a Door Handle work?

To get in and out of most rooms in your home, you’ll need to use a door handle. No matter how it looks on the outside, most of them work the same on the inside. Let’s crack one open and take a look. Once these screws are out, both sides come right off. This round part is called the rosette. It’s covering the inside parts of the door handle. It is fixed in place which means it will not rotate with respect to the handle. The handle always wants to be in the horizontal position. The spring is actually a stiff metal wire wrapped around right here. The wire is bent to the two ends. When I twist the handle, right here, either up or down, the spring gets tighter. As soon as you let go the handle springs back into place. Imagine if you didn’t have the spring; your door handle would always flop to the downward position. The other side looks very similar. There’s also a spring wrapped around the middle. You’ll notice three metal bars sticking out right here. This one in the middle is called the spindle. And these two are the fasteners to part of the rosette. When I twist the handle, the spindle goes with it too. This part here, is called the latch. and the rest of this is called the latch assembly. If I push in the latch and then let go it springs right back into place. If we take a peek inside here you can see the spring that makes this work. I’m going to fade in pieces here one at a time. This is the transmission plate. When it gets pulled to the right, the latch also get’s pulled causing it to come in. These two pieces are called the cam drive units. If they are rotated in just the right way they will push the transmission plate. Notice how they can be rotated either way and they will still push on the transmission plate. Now what would cause the cam drive units to rotate? Remember the spindle from earlier? It fits right inside the cam drive units. There’s a cage that goes around all of these parts to hold them in place. Now, let’s put this all together. Rotate the handle which also rotate the spindle, the spindle then rotates the cam drive units which pushes on the transmission plate which then retracts the latch. Now that’s a chain reaction. This happens every time you open a door. So what happens if this door has a lock on it? After all, we don’t want your younger sibling barging in without an invite. When the lock is horizontal, we can still turn the handle. But when the lock is vertical, I can no longer turn it. Inside the spindle here there’s a hollow space for another metal piece to go through. This is called the driver. When we rotate this lock, the driver rotates with it. The magic happens at the other end. First off, let’s look at the inside of the rosette. This circular piece is fixed to it. The handle has an open slot, so it can still rotate. Here’s the pieces that make the lock work. There’s a piece that’s fixed to the driver. We’ll call this the fixed cam. Rotate the driver, and the fixed cam rotates too. This second cam is facing the other direction. We’ll call it, the sliding cam. Because of the extrusions on the top and bottom it doesn’t rotate but instead can slide back and forth. When the door is being locked the rotating cam will gently push the sliding cam. When the door is unlocked a spring will push it back into its original place. The whole reason the door locks is because of these two notches at the end of the sliding cam. In the locked position, they slide right into these grooves on the rosette. If you remember from earlier, the rosette does not move. Now our handle is locked. But if we unlock it, The sliding cam slides back and we can rotate the handle again. Well I hope you now have a “handle” on how this works. My name is Jared Owen, thanks for watching.

How does a Gumball Machine work?

Gumball machines are pretty interesting if you take a minute to think about it. Today, I’ll walk you through the whole process of putting a coin in, turning the handle, and watching a gumball come out. No shopping mall would be complete without a gumball machine. The actual mechanism has had many improvements over the last century. The interesting thing here, is that without a coin, you can’t turn the handle either way. When you put a coin in, the handle only turns clockwise. One full turn, you can hear some clicking noises inside and then the gumball comes out. Let’s take a look inside. The main parts of the mechanism are the dispensing disk, the chute, the coin bin, and the coin mechanism. By far the most complex piece is the coin mechanism. Let’s start there. This is the face plate, the back plate, the coin receiving disk, the ratchet gear, the spur gear, and the turn handle. The turn handle goes through all the pieces here. Notice how the rod is not a perfect cylinder. It’s mostly flat on top. The coin receiving disc fits perfectly onto the flat part. When the handle turns, the disc turns with it. Let’s take a look at how a coin goes in it slides and fits right into the disc. The coin moves with the disc, slides along the edge and falls into the coin bin below. Both gears have similar holes in the center with a flat part on top. When the handle turns, they will turn as well. This gear is called the ratchet gear. It only allows rotation in one direction. This piece is called the pawl; as it rotates the pawl slides over the teeth on the gear. If you try and rotate the other way, no can do. The ratchet gear is also the reason why you hear clicking noises when you turn the handle. So, either way, you’ll never be able to turn the handle counterclockwise. We got that part figured out; Turn it clockwise – you can only do that when there is a coin in there. On the back plate, there’s a tiny piece screwed in here that prevents us from turning. It ends up hitting a wall where the coin would normally be. Let’s get a closer look at that. When a coin is in there, that piece gets bent outward just enough so we can rotate now. Now maybe your gumball machine is in your home or at work and you want to allow anyone to get candy. You can always remove this piece altogether. No coin? No problem. Gumballs for everyone! I will just briefly mention that most machines will have extra guards in place to prevent tampering. We can’t make it too easy to get free gumballs. The last piece on the coin mechanism is the spur gear; To show you what it does. We need to look at some of the other pieces first Right below all the gumballs, we have a few different layers. There’s kind of a dish that goes on first, it has an opening into the chute. Then the dispenser disc goes on followed by another separator. Interesting part here is the disc; It has gear teeth on the bottom that mesh with the spur gear on the coin mechanism. When the spur gear turns, so does the dispenser disc. One complete revolution of the spur gear means the disc only has one third of a revolution. Now let’s put this all together. Turning handle causes the spur gear to turn which then causes the dispensing disc to turn; taking exactly one gumball with it. The disk turns just enough to drop the gumball into the chute and make somebody very happy. Most gumball machines these days you can customize. This piece on top of the disc controls how big the opening is. Maybe you have smaller candies in your machine and you don’t want as many to fit through. It just depends on how generous you’re feeling to the little kids. The last thing I’ll mention here, is that you can’t really get to the inside parts unless you have the key to the very top here. Once you open it, then you can disassemble the machine from the top down. Hey Everyone – I’m Jared. If you enjoyed watching this and you’d like to help me out, then please consider sharing this video on social media; post it on your Facebook; Let your friends know you found this guy on YouTube that makes these cool animations. That would really help me out. So thanks for watching. Hope you had fun and I’ll see you next time.