In our modern datacenters, we prefer IBM infrastructure. For our environment we have a mixed platform from Intel, Linux, Power i and AIX.
For this we use the various IBM Power P, Power i and Intel servers. All these systems are linked using the capabilities of the IBM San Volume Controller, FlashSystem V840 and V7000. As central storage solutions we use the V3700, V7000 and V840 storage systems, because of their excellent speed, reliability and low operating costs. The San Volume Controller is used to easy tier, real time compression and mirroring. With these standard techniques present at our systems we are redundant and thus high available. To insure continuity, we are using Tivoli Storage Manager software on most platforms, fully integrated with our SVC solutions. Together with IBM we can offer all possible cloud solutions for our customers, IAAS, PAAS, SAAS. The SAP platform used by Beeztees is hosted by Databalance Services. Databalance advised Beeztees to put the database servers on IBM Flash Storage. This IBM V840 Flash Storage delivers more than 400 thousand IOP’ s. The other servers have been placed on Easy Tier Storage, resulting in an optimal mix of speed and capacity. In practice the generation of reports, lookup jobs and batches are processed much faster. Databalance is a key partner of Beeztees in the field of automation. Throughout the whole migration Databalance has been involved and has advised and supported us. The result of the last months is a very modern and “state of the art” ERP platform based on SAP software and IBM hardware, which enables Beeztees to stay a few steps ahead of the competition. IBM Spectrum is based on software-defined storage and it enables users to obtain increased business benefits from their current storage products whether from IBM or another vendor. IBM has pioneered in this field since 2003 and supports more than 265 storage systems from several brands. This give you more value from earlier storage investments. Databalance is making use of the IBM Spectrum family in serving its clients. The IBM Spectrum Virtualize is a giving maximum flexibility and reliability by virtualizing the storage. You can also get more benefits by using features like Real Time Compression and Easy Tier. And of course you can create a disaster recovery environment by implementing remote mirroring. With IBM Spectrum Protect you enable a reliable, efficient data protection and resiliency for software defined, virtual, physical and cloud environments.
As the CTO for Storage Europe in my previous update I had mentioned I had mentioned that we intended to deliver a way to integrate our Storage in container environments such as Docker Swarm and Kubernetes. Well, this is now a reality, and it is called Ubiquity, thanks to the hard work of a team involving our Research and Development labs across the world. Ubiquity is available as open source, in experimental status at this time. Let me briefly explain here where we see the adoption of containers, and what is this Ubiquity technology enabling in a bit more detail. Many surveys are showing that the adoption of containers, and more specifically Docker, is accelerating, also in the enterprise environments. You may have noticed the announcements by many large companies intending to adopt container for most of their infrastructure. This covers many use-cases, such as traditional applications, HPC, cloud, and devops, for instance. In HPC, the portability of containers ensures that a workload can go from the testing laptop of a scientist to the big supercomputer without changes, that is from quality assurance, to staging, to production, with the same code. In a cloud environment, whether on-premise or not, containers are attractive because they deliver the best resource utilization and scalability, with the smallest footprint and the highest agility. Finally, for devops, containers simplify and accelerate application deployment through the reuse of components specified as dependencies, encouraging a micro-service architecture strategy. In summary, containers are a standard way to package applications and all its dependencies; they are portable between environments without changes; they isolate unique elements to enable a standardized infrastructure; all of that in a fast and lightweight fashion. Now, with the adoption of containers increasing beyond just stateless things such as a load balancer or a web application server, there is a need to provide support for persistent storage, that is, storage that remains after containers stop, so that data sets can be shared, so that the output of analysis can be retrieved by other processes, and so on and so forth. For many adopters of container technology, the persistent storage and data management are seen as the top pain points, hence storage vendors have started to support ways to enable their products in the Docker and the Kubernetes container environments using what is called plug-ins. With the technology we call Ubiquity, because it is targeted to support all of the IBM Storage, in all of the types of container environments, we have now released this ability as well. As I said, it is available at the moment in experimental status, so we’re welcoming feedback, and you can download it as open-source from the public github. In a nutshell, Ubiquity is the universal plug-in for all of IBM Storage. With this plug-in, and the underlying framework, storage can be provisioned, and mounted directly by the containerized applications, without manual interventions. This is key to enable the agility in an end-to-end fashion. This allows you to take advantage, for instance, of our Data Ocean technology such as Spectrum Scale in container environments. This way, you can also take advantage of the unique capabilities of Scale, in terms of performance, scalability, and information lifecycle management. And you can also seamlessly integrate our block storage such as Storwize. We are convinced that containers are going to play a role as important as VMs, if not more. Containers are already the norm in the IBM Bluemix offerings, and have been adopted by our Power and Z products. With Ubiquity we’re now able to close the loop with Storage. We’re collaborating with a number of clients testing Ubiquity already now, so that we can develop this technology to match our clients’ needs. Among many other things, we intend to adapt Ubiquity to the rapid changes occurring in the container frameworks such as the CSI (for Container Storage Interface), currently worked on by the Cloud Native Computing Foundation’s (CNCF) storage working group. To conclude, with this you will get the best of new generation applications with the performance and enterprise support of IBM Storage.
I’m Angie Simon. I have been at Western Allied now almost 30 years. This is my 30th year. And I am the President of Western Allied, been since 2008. Western Allied is a 56 year old company. We started in southern California in LA, three founding partners put it together. We are a design build mechanical contractor. The company has grown quite a since the millennium. In 2003 we separated from the southern California Western Allied and formed our own independent company, Western Allied Mechanical. And last year we did $81 million worth of business. We are a union contractor, so our manpower in the field goes up and down based on our workload. But at our peak we’ve had about 250 people. And the Bay Area is a wonderful place to work. It’s definitely the heart of the Silicon Valley and technology keeps us moving here in the Bay Area. The culture in the company is very distinct. We have people that have been here, I mean I have been here 30 years, but I have project managers who’ve been here 22 years. I have a superintendent that’s been here almost 30 years. We have a lot of company functions and I think it keeps the culture and the people very happy. We have different trades. We have union pipe fitters and union sheet metal workers here and we try not to be us against them. We’re all under one flag, so it’s a great culture here, great company to work for. You have clients that are very dynamic. Their needs change in what is going on from the time that they have started the project to the time that we’re delivering it because they’re dynamic companies. You have startup, you have bio-pharm, you have tech and a process of design build can take six months and in that six months, those needs change. What I like about my job is that there’s something different every minute. I work for a team, so there’s constantly five, six people coming up to me asking for different things in a day. It’s getting information, passing information between the office and the field or subcontractors, making sure everybody’s all on the same page. Financially tracking the jobs, making sure that we’re going to be successful on it financially. Back in 2005 when Western Allied was looking for an alternative accounting financial management package, we were using a homegrown program that somebody had written in southern California and sold it to a number of contractor. So at that time, a search was instigated and Spectrum won out. One of the reasons we picked it in the first place was besides the accounting side that we felt was robust, we felt that they had the desire and intention to get a project management module so that eventually we would be as project managers will do everything within the program. That was the ultimate goal. That was the ultimate goal. We’ve recently started doing our work in progress reviews in Spectrum. It’s made it a lot faster. How I use Spectrum here in the shop is we’re starting to do some productivity tracking. How many pounds per hour or square feet per hour? How many pieces per hour? I can go onto Spectrum, get the full inventory of what was charged to each job. I can also go on and check the hours, how many hours were spent for each task. Using the job compliance feature has really helped in keeping us on track with knowing when all our documents are done and completed. It makes it very easy to see with the dashboard that you’re out of compliance and you can just click on that module or on that dashboard and get directly to the page that you need on where you’re out of compliance. The reason we like to do payroll in-house was because of Spectrum. Being able to track all the different codes and all the different time that the guys are spending in the field on this different tasks and codes and that way we can then estimate our jobs better and get more jobs and make more money. Spectrum allows us to take it from time entry to completion, being able to pay taxes and everything else and all of that data that we need is right there for us. Document imaging is probably the cornerstone of what we do in project management. We try to give our client an exceeded expectation, and to do that we have found that we need to have instantaneous document management, that we need to have that access. Last year when I saw Service Tech at the User Conference, I was really excited because it looked to be just what we needed. We wanted something that we could push out to our field, that where we could push out work orders and service calls and for preventative maintenance service calls to our field guys, to be able to get the time back in. This will take the billing process from a CFO. That’s always important and it just looked outstanding. The dashboards have been very helpful in my work alone to be able to just click on a dashboard and have it bring you to the place you need. Our PMs are just starting to use the dashboards and we’ve created a template that loads several dashboards onto their home screen, as well as putting folders in the right hand corner so that they can access all of the documents and information they need very quickly. One of the great things is that you can go home and be able to log right into Spectrum without having to remote in to your desktop or anything. You can pull it up anywhere. So somebody calls you with a quick question, you’re like, “Hey, I don’t know,” you’re able to go collect your iPad, go right in and find what you need. I have a tablet that I use to, I can connect in the field and log in to check things if I need to. I mean before we’d have to VPN in and then connect. One of the things that I always talk about that impresses to no end is your technical support. Invariably, I don’t think I’ve ever not called and had a live human being on the other end, knowledgeable human being that could answer my questions. And if they didn’t know the answer, they set me up with somebody that did and I had an answer quickly. It’s just a outstanding product.
Mark Walter, president of Christenson Electric. When I came back in 2003, there was a redirect to a more core customer, core competency base as opposed to just being the standard, typical electrical contractor. We talk about exceeding customers’ expectations a lot. We peak a little over 400 to 430 employees during our heaviest summer months, typically during the heaviest construction season. From a revenue standpoint, we’re just shy of $100 million a year. Christenson’s really known for customer service and our service work and our red vans. I mean, everyone around town, if they see that you work for Christenson, they’ll say, “Oh, you’re the one with the red vans.” It’s crazy what a red van with one word on it, what it symbolizes. The first word that comes to mind is tradition. We have our fingers into everything across the trade, whether it be high voltage, low voltage, access control, fire alarm, voice, and data. Obviously, electrical work, service work, construction work, design-build, account work. The list goes on. There’s nothing in here that we can’t do. I’m getting ready to start a ground-up storage facility that’s six stories tall, and we’re carrying everything, turnkey. Christenson’s a can-do company. No job’s too small, and we’re all willing to chip in and help everyone together. We’re really wanting to build long-term relationships. We’re looking for customers that we can be a part of and help them grow over the years. Through our corporate partnership with the Portland Trail Blazers, that’s allowed us to develop additional community partners. And one of those partners has been the Portland chapter of the Special Olympics. This is just another one of the ways that we strive to have an impact in our community. We try to maintain that family-oriented type of atmosphere where people come to work and are here … Hopefully they’re having fun. We really pride ourselves on being the most customer-oriented contractor in town. We always feel that the people closest to the work are the ones that make us successful. And so we try to eliminate any barriers between our field electricians and the customers themselves. Our role is really just to make sure that they have the right tools and equipment to do that job for the customer. A company like Christenson that has multiple employees, multiple divisions, we’re drowning in data. So what we’re trying to do is concise that data and deliver it to our users in a concise manner that allows them to make real-time business decisions. Spectrum is essentially our main data warehouse. It’s where we store a lot of job cost records, payroll records, receivables, payables, and equipment records. And we’re trying to disseminate that information out to our stakeholders. Recently, we’ve implemented the equipment module to better track where our fleet is. We have a very large fleet, and it’s helping us derive of what the true cost is to operate, say, an E-350 van versus a new Transit van and help identify when we should be retiring assets, what it really costs us to run that vehicle. When my guys make purchases through the RPL system, I’ll go through Spectrum maybe once, twice a week just to prove our invoices. And by doing that, it allows us to be able to manage those projects so that the guys in the field don’t have to manage that. Like I said, they’re electricians. They need to worry about electrical work. I start my mornings off on the dashboard just looking at overall where’s our balances, where’s our large subcontractor payments and just trying to get a good overall view of how the day is going to look for job costing and accounting. And then we’re developing individual screens and dashboards for the project managers so that they can do that same thing for their jobs. I will use it to run a billing status report where I’m extracting the data from Spectrum, putting it into an Excel spreadsheet, and then distributing it, letting everybody know, “Here’s your jobs. Here’s your costs. We need to bill this,” whatever. So we created our own dashboard app. It was called My AR Aging Tools. And this gave the ability for the project manager to log in and see his customers’ aging totals versus having to drill down and pull a report from that. So they would see if the customer was 1 to 30 days off, 30 to 60 days off, or 60 to 90 days off. One of the biggest reasons that we went with Spectrum is their time and material billing process A lot of our jobs are just a quote to a customer for $1,000. We put it in the system, cost hit the job, and then we bill it. So the AR literally takes seconds to bill a single invoice. Our focus is really trying to get the information into the hands of the people that can use it quickly. So we’re looking to use Spectrum to put everything in the hands of our technician so that he can bill on the job before he leaves the site. Well, Spectrum helps us by being mobile. We have job sites all across the Northwest, including all across the United States where we might pick up a job site. So it allows our division managers and our project managers on a site to be able to instantly pick up some data they need. Being able to access Spectrum anywhere on anything at any time is really great. I’ll leave my electrician on the line and say, “Give me a minute,” go through Spectrum, log in, pull it up, and I can give him his information on his project within minutes. What I like about the low IT strain, we’re able to maintain with one IT guy, multiple users, multiple sites. It’s a stable, steady product. For me, it’s very easy. I’ve had our guys set it up to where I can just single-click and pull up what I need to look at. What’s really great is the fact that you don’t have to go in and out of the screen to get to where you want. So if you’re in a job maintenance screen, you can go right to a report. You can go right to a finance. Everything’s right there. I’d recommend Spectrum. I have recommended Spectrum. Data and information is power, and a greater clarity that we can distill that data or power, whether it’s through software like Spectrum, being able to use that information on a daily basis helps us to make the best business decisions for our company.
(music) – So Robbie, first of all, what is The Membership Economy? We've heard about it from American Express, they're probably the most well known for the Membership Plan. – So, it's a massive transformational trend that I've seen with virtually every industry, from software, to hospitality, to financial services, and it's all about a move from ownership to access, from anonymous transactions to known relationships, and from one-way communication where you're just pushing messages at your customer to an open conversation, not just between you and the consumer, but also among the customers themselves under your umbrella. – So this sounds like this is a fundamental strategy shift. I mean, really a very different way of thinking about how you engage with customers at every aspect of your business. – Yeah, absolutely. It's about putting the customer at the center of everything you do instead of the product or the processes or even the technology. – Tell us about some of the core elements that are enabling this transformation to happen around membership. – So membership is not new, right? I mean we've had membership since the 12th century, trade guilds and religious groups. But what's happened recently, two big things. One of them is that technology has extended the infrastructure that enables trusting relationships. So, we've always wanted to have these long-term relationships with the companies that serve us, but now it's possible to do that not just with companies that we know personally like the shop around the corner, but actually with organizations where we've never met anybody. And these are through technologies like always-on devices, mobility, artificial intelligence that gives us a personalized experience; the ability to connect networks. All of that is enabling new ways of relating. The other thing is, the influx of financial capital, that is giving entrepreneurs a longer runway to build relationships with their customers before they actually have to generate revenue. – So, the fact that we are always connected, and we have so many different ways to connect, is enabling these organizations to think differently about how to be a part of those connections. – Yeah, it's like a new palette of colors that you can use when you're painting your business model. – I love that; can you give us some examples about some companies that have taken advantage of this new palette? – Yeah, well there's two groups; there's what I think of as the digital natives, the Amazons, LinkedIn, Netflix, who started their businesses thinking about the forever transaction, thinking about this longterm, member-oriented approach. And then there are companies that have transformed to membership models, companies like Intuit and Adobe, who have moved from these anonymous box transactions to a real ongoing relationship, subscription model community with the people they serve. – So Robbie, you know that at Singularity University we spend a lot of time talking about impact. Does the membership economy work in the social sector? Are there other examples that you've seen of organizations that are not necessarily in the corporate world, that are using this strategy? – Yeah. Well you guys talk a lot about grand challenges, and one organization that I work with, the American Nurses Association, has a grand challenge going on right now where they're focused on helping the 3.5 million nurses in the US get healthy. Because nurses are among, on the five major elements of health, which is like, stress, sleep, weight, smoking, and I think drugs, maybe. I think those are the five. They perform less well than the American population at large, in four out of five. So they're really using, they're using online community, they're using their subscription model, they're using their live events, all to support this initiative, this grand challenge around making nurses as healthy as possible this year. – I think that all leaders are gonna need to really take a hard look at their business model. What suggestions would you have for leaders that want to really understand how to get into the membership economy, and how to make sure that they really are getting their leadership team prepared for thinking very differently about strategy? – So I think the first thing is to get them out talking to customers, and really understanding what is the value that they provide? What is the, you know as Clayton Christian says, "What's the job that your product does for them?" And that's one piece. Also, getting into their shoes and understanding what technologies they expect and see as the new normal. And the other thing is not getting too wrapped up in the technology. Because even though technology is great, it's not great when it's not in service to an actual benefit, for the person you're trying to serve, the customer. – So how do we become more curious? How should we look at new businesses? What are some questions we should ask? – That's a good question. So, becoming more curious is, it's innate. We all are curious. If you get back, if you've been with a four year old recently, you know we are born to ask questions. And over time I think we get embarrassed about it, or we think we know too much. So, what I'd suggest is, ask questions, look at businesses, think to yourself, why is this business successful? What can I learn from this business? And putting things together, a lot of people have said to me, we want to be the Netflix of our industry. And on some level you can't copy an organization. On the other hand, if you say, what would that look like? So you'd ask the second question. So okay, great. What would it look like if you're the Netflix of your industry? What would that be? If you Amazoned your competitors, what would that mean? And so sometimes, just asking the second question is a great way to really break open the paradigm. – Great, well so many wonderful things that you have to share. Go and talk to customers. Ask better questions. Try to understand which organizations are doing well, and why. Be curious about it.
hello everyone in this video we're going to be discussing at getting a career in cybersecurity now I already do work in cybersecurity industry and have done for nearly ten years miss quids on the other hand I work in academia and when the academic route got a degree got a PhD and now I'm working in computer science in academia not directly related to cybersecurity but we do teach cybersecurity at our university we're starting with the educational roots here so there are cyber degrees they were looking at an American page here on the UK side is computer science being the course with various cybersecurity parts to it so for some context this website is from Hugh Cass which is the UK application service for universities and colleges so you can see that we've got various degrees not just in cybersecurity but also generalist degrees in computer science software engineering and so on it is quite common that I think people who want to go the university route will end up doing a computer science degree and then trying to find specific modules within that degree are relating to security because I'm not sure I don't think there are that many degrees out there that focus solely on security is kind of like if you're going this route then you'll want to know about things surrounding the general area of computer science as well I think there is a growing trend towards younger people were entering university and going this route why I've seen with looking at various conferences and companies are applied for work in the past I would generally say that this there's more of a push for people going to university generally that maybe wouldn't have done so 10 or so years ago like one thing that's kind of moving in the in the strangely in the opposite direction is in terms of cost the cost of doing a degree in the UK at the moment is approximately 9,000 pounds a year or there abouts meaning that three years of university tuition will cost you 27,000 pounds at least that's without taking into account things like maintenance loans in order to actually fund your ability to live while doing your degree so yeah and this has risen quite substantially in the past several years especially when I did my degree it was 9,000 pounds total but it's quite an expensive ruse but I appreciate not everyone may want to go to university so I'm going to look at so many other alternatives on the practical side although actually going to keep with one more course because sans training sans are an excellent provider of security courses although these courses are about five thousand dollars each week's training and doing the exam actually exam might be a bit extra but yeah it's quite a substantial cost but they are well recognized although again the cheaper option your conference is I just attended b-sides recently quite interesting you can learn a few things from it also blackhat now more to like self learning even self learning can be very useful looking at software like kali linux i appreciate its a lot of hacking tools here but if you actually learn and understand how to use them not just being a script kitty that's where an important part of learning is don't just blindly follow our script learn how to use the applications you've been learning the basics behind how the computer communication takes place network packets is that part what the university Ravi has taught colleges as well yeah yeah so there's almost always going to be some kind of networking computer communication module in a general computer science degree so yeah learnt about things like the different ports and stuff like that yeah Lister ports lists the tcp and UDP ports please definitely come up in interview questions so learn a few of them not just like the basics of FTP SMTP HTTP HTTPS yeah be a bit more creative learn some of the more slightly obscure ones time ntp one two three that can be quite well abuse port st. port 53 DNS yeah just try and learn some of the port numbers there's another good one to learn four four five Microsoft SMB RFC I think that stands for request for comments here's a humorous one to know about IP over avian carriers it can just be an interview thing to know about yeah I know about RFC two five for mine ability to send packets over an avian carrier but this is specifically avian carriers with quality of service as well most important as bit of a step up over their previous 11:49 you noticed it was printed on April 1st so it was an April Fool's gag at the same time it is a real RFC yeah they've done calculations on the maximum transmission unit 256 milligrams instead of 1500 bytes knowledge about some of the software fix up a few that free to install mu net this is nante virus Oh literally just an anti-virus but if it forms basic to some industry applications while specifically an application called amp which has an excellent sandboxing feature so yeah I'll make good use of this an industry clam av clam antivirus as actually free to install in the NEX but don't just install it understand how it works I think it's predominately hash based how it works snort intrusion detection system or intrusion prevention system and free to install all you get though is the community and older version of rules free even the knowledge of setting this up and a knowledge of how the rules work could be quite important that's how I would use an intrusion prevention system IPS or an IDs it sits on the edge of the firewall and protects servers client systems within a network the IPS can stop attacks ideas can just it tectum splink is a well-used product within industry at its basics it is a logic collection and the ability to search through all those log events though it does have some very fancy features whitney searching and you can also produce like graphs and dashboards it's a very flexible tool you come across that much no I haven't just awareness of it at all maybe it's just better used within industry so new all the jobs I've been to have used Splunk I've had it come up quite a few times within interviews and on the job spec so yeah even if you're just able to install it get an idea of how it works better do searches yeah I can really help knowledge of reg X regular expressions just done a quick demonstration here finding a website without a subdomain as an optional double-barrel top-level domain so that may look like I said gibberish but if you can learn reg X that can really go in your favor again the job in cyber security also it's generally quite useful just even if you're not in cybersecurity so learning rec X was quite useful for me when I was doing some stuff with Perl pills quite nice for working with strings and yeah just generally processing files and changing the format trying to find things in files yeah regular expressions are quite useful since a they are well used within various different products yarra used for identifying malware samples within systems uses regular expressions even small rules do there's an example of a few rules and that's just basic variables here your external to internal any port specific content you're looking for but there's example there that there is a regular expression within the content Pete Cree they say they're even Splunk uses reg X as well with interpretation their data and researchers seems or Sims security information event management personally I don't find this particularly useful but I've come across many companies that do require knowledge of a particular sim product there's not something you're going to easily get without actually purchasing the software I don't have any free ones I don't really find them so useful I think they're more of a management tool so what it does it just correlates various events and tries to determine say one particular attack out of several smaller events as it is basics they just look pretty and look good for managers lots of good friend lists I'm saying my own personal opinion there it's worth just having knowledge these things exist cloud security I'm not sure how much I can really get into here but a lot of companies are moving to put in data in the cloud and they are going to need the security components that the well we're looking at Amazon and 0 here they've got security options provided so again the knowledge of these things yeah can be very useful there's also plenty of research being done generally about the cloud and the Internet of Things it is definitely a growing area and just a big area generally and covers a lot of different things so yeah be worth learning about this more generally yeah and that's actually something I didn't put here with the Internet of Things internet at at because there is a big security risk with all these things you know as far as that'sactually yeah something that's gonna call us out really just hopefully we don't have too many these things in the company the blunders with IOT stuff is something worth knowing about saw the reuse of passwords and just kind of how to protect against these things firewall them off stop them connecting to the internet I'll do it I hope you found that interesting ideas of how you can get into a cyber security job thanks for watching and we'll see you all later you
in this video we're going to be looking at the use of three basic programming constructs that are familiar in most imperative languages we're going to be looking at snippets of code from this program that's a beat the dice game introduced in a previous video about variables and constants please have a watch of that video first before you have a look at this one the first programming construct we're going to consider is the sequence a sequence is simply executing one instruction after another there are few instances of this in our program these are situations where we don't have any if statements and we don't have any wael for statements either instructions are simply executing one after the other a selection is a program branch depending on a condition so here we can see an if statement which is the classic selection command if dice 1 is greater than dice 2 then the roll value equals dice 1 string + dice 2 string else or otherwise roll value equals dice 2 string + dice 1 string here we're comparing the value of two variables dice one against dice two to determine whether dice 1 is greater than dice 2 or not and we can use our inequalities and operators in order to determine whether the condition is true or false if it's true the first line is executed otherwise it's ignored and the else statement is executed instead so the if statement is a classic situation where we have two outcomes it is possible to program more than two outcomes if we use else–if commands or ellipse some programming languages also support select statements where you can have multiple directions depending on the value of a variable so for example you can say case one case two case three case four and have four possible branches they also allow you to do more sophisticated things like say case a letter is between a and Z or case it's one two four nine the use of select statements in this way not only makes the program much easier to read because it requires less code but it also enables multiple branches iteration sometimes called a loop is repeating sections of code this can often be achieved by duplicating the code but it's not a good idea and to make the program more readable and more efficient you should be using iterations instead of duplicating sections of code in your program there are three main types of iterations to know there are four loops which are known as came – controlled loops and they used when the number of iterations needed is known ahead of the iteration executing so for example if we know we're going to be executing the code nine times then we would use a for loop while loops known as condition controlled loops are used when the number of iterations is not known because the variable used to determine when the iteration ends is changed within the iteration itself do loops are an alternative to while where the code executes at least once before the condition is checked many languages support D loops but Python does not this snippet of code is a very common use of iterations where we're using a for loop because the number of rolls is known in advance for example rolls per player is two and therefore we want to do two rolls of the dice but we don't want the dice to have the same value and so we're combining the for loop with a while loop the while loop is said to be nested inside the for loop whenever you've got one iteration inside another or one condition inside another it's known as nesting so here in this piece of code we're saying wild dice one equals dice to generate two random numbers and therefore it will keep executing that while loop whilst a devil has been thrown and an only terminates out of that while loop once the two dice have unique values then it returns back to the for loop and rolls the dice for a second time while loops are often used for validation because you don't want the program to continue to the next sequence of instructions until the input is valid it's a common mistake with inexperienced programmers to use an if statement or condition for validation instead of a while loop and the reason is because the if statement will trap one invalid entry but it won't trap subsequent invalid entries and therefore a while loop is much better another common trait with inexperienced programmers is to use the while loop for all types of iteration and whilst you can achieve the same thing as a for loop just using a while loop it really isn't the way that experienced programmers code you use a for loop when you know the number of iterations needed and you use a while loop when it is not known you