Key & Peele – Continental Breakfast


– YOU WILL BE
IN ROOM 237. AND YOU HAVE
FREE WI-FI THERE. ALSO, FROM 6:00 A.M.
TO 10:00 A.M. EVERY MORNING, THERE’S A FREE
CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST. – HMM. CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST. – YES, FROM 6:00 A.M.
TO 10:00 A.M. [phone rings] – SO IT’S CONTINENTAL, THEN. – MM-HMM, YEP. [Muzak in background] – VERY GOOD. [gasps] EH,GARCON.[chuckles] ONE ADMISSION
FOR THE CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST. – YOU CAN JUST
HELP YOURSELF, SIR. – HMM, INTERESTING. EUROPEAN STYLE. [light classical music] [chuckling] MM. AHH. WHEN IN ROME… ♪ ♪ HMM, THE FORBIDDEN FRUIT. [chortles] WELL, AREN’T YOU
A TINY PLUM. ♪ ♪ WELL, LA…DEE… DA. PAPER AND EVERYTHING. AND WHO ARE YOU, MY LITTLE FRIEND? NOT A SPOON… NOT A FORK… BUT SOMETHING IN BETWEEN. A “FPOON”. [chuckles] WHAT WILL YOU THINK OF NEXT,
GERMANY? [humming softly] AHH. [chuckles delightedly] ALL THE “EURO-PINE” COUNTRIES
LAY BEFORE ME. WHERE SHOULD I FLY TO FIRST? AHH. THE PIT OF THE DOUGHNUT. MM, THANK YOU, TURKEY. MM, BUCKLE UP. LET’S SEE
WHERE WE SHALL GO NEXT. AH, THE DANISH! CLEARLY FROM BRUSSELS. MM. MM, MM! MM! HELLO, GREECE, WHERE THE YOGURT FLOWS
LIKE WATER. MM, YES, LIKE GO-GURT,
BUT TO STAY. [chuckles] MM. MM, SO GOOD! MM, PULLING INTO SPAIN. MM! BAKED TO PERFECTION. CAN YOU BELIEVE IT? IT ALL COMES
WITH THE ROOM! [laughing] MM! MM, MM! YES! MM! I LOVE BEING INCONTINENT! I LOVE BEING INCONTINENT! A DELIGHT TO THE SENSES, ISN’T IT, MY FRIEND? ISN’T IT? YES! I’LL HAVE
WHAT I’M HAVING! [music crescendos]
I’LL HAVE… WHAT I’M HAVING! [woman singing angelically] [sobbing] SO GOOD. IT’S SO GOOD. – THANKS. OH, GOOD AFTERNOON, SIR. HOW CAN I HELP YOU? – WELL, DAVIS, I WILL BE STAYING
INDEFINITELY. – BUT, SIR, DON’T YOU KNOW
THAT YOU’VE ALWAYS BEEN HERE? [romantic big band music] ♪ ♪ – REALLY?
– MM-HMM. – CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST? – RIGHT AROUND THE CORNER. ♪ ♪

Getting High Injecting Snake Venom


STEVE LUDWIN: I’m going to show
you the effects of the hemotoxin in venom
on blood, OK? And you can already see pretty
quickly, it’s kind of congealing. It’s quite gloopy. And I’m beginning to wonder if
that’s such a good thing to be happening in my body. Sometimes I think, god,
that can’t be good. I don’t have a medical
background. I have no fucking idea what
it’s doing to my body. If I did die due to snake venom
or whatever, I’m sure it’ll be quite funny
to a lot of people. And they’ll go, you see? You see? And even to myself, as I was
floating out of my body and looking down below, I’m sure
I’d be laughing my ass off. Like, you idiot. You’re not supposed to inject
snake venom, you fool. My name is Steve Ludwin, and
I’ve been self-immunizing with various snake venoms for
well over 20 years now. I’m kind of embarrassed. I mean, I don’t know have
that medical background. I don’t even have a proper American high school education. There’s been quite a few doctors
and scientists that have been horrified by my lack
of having things that are sterile and stuff like that. We have our Lower Baja
rattlesnake. And bang. You see that? That’s one unhappy
rattle snake. Relax. I’ve always been
in good health. I haven’t had something
like the flu in coming up on nine winters. And as I’ve gotten older,
people have started to comment, oh wow, you don’t seem
like you’re 46 years old. I had some doctors do tests on
my skin, and they were all kind of a little bit baffled. All right, buddy. Up. This girl doesn’t really
like it very much. This is why I’m always nervous
holding a viper because they can spin their fangs around and
actually go through their lip to get your fingers. This snake is not wanting
to be milked. Sometimes that happens. I had quite an unusual
sort of upbringing. I’m the son of a Pan Am pilot. I had a real “Catch Me
If You Can” Leonardo DiCaprio sort of lifestyle. I had a credit card. It just said Pan Am on it with
my name, Steve Ludwin, and I could get on any plane,
as long as I was wearing a tie, for free. My father took me down to the
Miami Serpetarium, when I was about nine years old, and I got
to meet this now famous herpetologist called
Bill Haast. He was the first westerner to
start injecting himself with snake venom. He started in 1948. I was very young and
impressionable. I loved snakes. From that moment on after
meeting him, I was like wow, you can become immune
to snake venom? This is crazy. That’s called vaccinology. It’s the oldest form of
medicine apparently. When I was about 17, I was like,
I’ve got to get that venom into me somehow. This is called a Pope’s tree
viper, and I’m a little bit wary of them. But it’s a beautiful snake. Don’t know if you can
see those fangs. Do you see that fang? It’s a hemotoxin and it’s going
to cause massive tissue destruction. People have died from these
snakes, so you do not want that on your finger. I moved to London in 1987, and I
started working in East End. It was called The Vivarium. And basically my job for 1 pound
60 an hour was to unpack cobras and scorpions and
tarantulas and reptiles for zoos and laboratories. See you later. I started bringing the
venomous snakes home. My first time doing
it was crazy. I had never even milked a snake
before, and I just kind of had to figure it
out on my own. So what I would do is I would
take a scalpel and scratch like two little scratch
marks into my arm. I would take a little bit of the
venom, and I would drop it into the cut. And you could feel it
the first time. It was like ah, that burns. I quickly washed it off
because I was scared. I was like, what is
this going to do? It kind of swelled up and my
heart started pounding, not because of the venom, because
it was like, oh my god, is this going to stop? Is it going to kill me? I had no idea. Since people have kind of heard
what I’ve been doing and stuff like that, I’ve seen
a lot of people bitching. They’re worse than like “Star
Trek” fans, to be honest with you, reptile people sometimes. I always thought when the
internet came, I was like, wow, you can communicate with
other people that have the same passion about
these animals. But it’s not the case. There’s a lot of bitchiness and
who has the biggest snake. I don’t keep big snakes. Guys that keep big snakes
are hiding a secret. This is the last hemotoxic
snake that goes into my snakebite cocktail. This is called an
eyelash viper. This is one of the scariest
snakes that I own. This the snake that bit me. The worst pain that I’ve
ever had in my life. And I’ve had lots of accidents
with venom. But it felt like you had put
your hand down on a marble table and someone took a
sledgehammer and smashed it onto your pinky. But the funny thing is that that
pain never subsided for eight fucking hours. And I had some scientists in the
States saying get yourself to the hospital. This is not a good snake
to be bitten by. But I kind of waited it out. I had confidence that I
was going to be OK. But it’s a really aggressive
snake, and it’s really tricky to milk. There you go. Whoa, there’s lots of venom
coming out there. Thank you. So those are our hemotoxins. I posted a really beautiful
snake that I have on YouTube. It’s called a macrops
pit viper. Just because I’m handling
this snake, it’s called free handling. There’s death threats and people
have just gone crazy. I could poke it in my eye
a million times and it would not bite. “These snakes can and
will kill you. Everybody take a
good long look. The moron attached to that arm
is the reason why you have trouble keeping your reptiles
legally.” I’m not a moron attached to this arm. Oh, yes I am. “To think we lock up pedophiles
and murderers when sickos like this are free
to roam our streets. What’s wrong with the world
these days?” Now, I think that’s somebody being
sarcastic. OK, here is a good one. “You, to put it kindly, are
an ignorant fucktard. I sincerely hope you
get bit hard. And I strongly dissuade anyone
watching this video from repeating the actions of this
small-penised individual. Stupid dick hammer.”
Now, that’s good. That’s good. This next snake is the Naja
kaouthia which is responsible for a lot of deaths
every year. In the time that I’ve been
working with this snake, I’ve had some injections where I was
a little bit cocky with it and got the dilution
sort of wrong. They were like volcanoes. I had three of them. I had two on this leg
and one down here. And they were growing and
growing and burning. And for days, I was
like, oh god, I could feel this pressure. I touched it and goo
shot out five foot across onto the carpet. And I was just like,
oh my god. Oh fuck. I’m fucked here. And I got this massive
needle for injecting horses or something. I put on some ACDC and it just
gave me the strength just to– against all your will, just push
this down and you could feel it going down
into something. Do I have the nucleus yet? I’m pulling on this. No, I don’t think I’ve
got the nucleus. I think I’ve gone through it. Pull it back out, hit the
nucleus, and it was just like pwaaachh, just pulling back on
the most disgusting stuff that you’d ever want to see. And I was like, oh, I’m just
going to squeeze it. And I squeezed this, but it
actually made a sound. It was like peuh. I looked down in there
and there was a fucking hole in my leg. I could see inside my leg where
all the tissue had sort of rotted away. And I noticed flies coming
to it immediately. And it stunk. It was like death. It was rotting. I never want that
happening again. You hear it? This is not the hemotoxic
snake. This is something that’s got
the neurotoxin, the Naja kaouthia, which is the
monocled cobra. Simple. And let go. Since I’ve kind of discovered
the possibilities with the neurotoxins in this cobra venom,
I’ve been using it in sporting activities recently
and kind of testing it. It’s Kind of added a little
bit of extra speed into my normal abilities. I’ve been doing tests on my
skateboard from my house into the West End. I see how fast I can
get in there. I just use the roads, and
I think the cobra venom helps with that. It’s just sort of like, I go
in between cars, I go in between buses, I go in the
middle of the road. I just cane it. I feel like I’ve got so
much energy and speed. When I’m skating, I’ve learned
to actually start moving like a snake. And I found myself just kind
of using that S-shape– carving and carving, and it
actually starts giving you a little bit of power. -William Haast, director of the
Serpetarium, has had much experience in handling cobras. But he still treats them with
the greatest respect. Gather ’round, folks,
but not too close. STEVE LUDWIN: Bill Haast really
is my Beatles and Rolling Stones and Beach Boys
all wrapped in one. He died last year. He was just like two
weeks shy of 101. He’d say that he hasn’t been
sick a day in his life, and it made me start thinking, OK, wow,
there’s something here. He was really my parameter
of sort of going, is this dangerous? It’s working for this guy. He was treating people with
polio, people with MS. He had like 4,000 patients. He had people that couldn’t
even walk. And with the right doses and the
right ingredients of his medicines that contained various
snake venoms, people– I’ve seen footage of it– they’re playing basketball. But the FDA heard about what he
was doing and they shut him down, even though he was having
such success with it. But the other thing that
Bill Haast did, which is totally amazing– it’s miraculous. It almost sounds
like a messiah. Because he was immune to these
snake venoms, he’s given his blood to snakebite victims
that are dying, and then they survive. I’ve milked all the snakes. And I’ve got hemotoxins
in one glass. This is the one that kind
of had the cocktails. So I’m drawing that venom
up into this syringe. So here’s what I was
saying earlier. There’s no such thing as
a poisonous snake. It is not poison. You see that venom
coming out there? See it on my finger? You can do this. Completely safely. If you don’t freeze it,
it’s just like food. It’s a protein, it
breaks down. So I have months and months
worth of various venoms. This is the hemotoxin. I’m going to put six. What I have here is water
for injections. I will start on the actual raw
venom, and then what we’ll do is we’ll use that injection. The first time I tried
using the snake venom was pretty scary. There was no internet
back then. But it felt really natural. It felt like it was instinct. This is not diluted. This is the pure venom. So now, we’re going
to do an injection with the diluted hemotoxin. The benefits to the hemotoxins,
I’m not too sure. I feel like I need another
20 years to do it. I had some doctors test my DNA
telomeres and when I was 42, I scored as a 28-year-old. Perhaps there are
some anti-aging properties to snake venom. It could all end tomorrow
as well. I’m not saying I’m invincible. This is the shot glass that
has the cobra venom, the neurotoxin. Get it all out. I’m going with two
drops of this. This actual cobra that we’re
using is more venomous than a king cobra. One drop of cobra venom can
kill 20 to 30 grown men. Yeow. Yeah, I mean it just feels– yeow. Feels like a bee sting
to start off with. That cobra venom does have
a bit of pain to it. It’s like “Man Versus Food,”
spicy chicken challenge. Oh, you motherfucker. I’m 46 now. I’ll have to see how many years
I can go on continuing doing this. But you do think that it is
quite taxing on the body. It is possible in two years
time, my kidneys fail and I die due to the venom of all
those years, of all those toxins, all the swelling,
all the decomposing flesh and the bruising. It all has to filter through
your kidneys and your liver. And it’s really bad stuff to
be going through there. Yeow, OK. That was a little bit
more than five mil. People want to know what
it feels like. It feels like injecting
Tabasco sauce and rubbing it in a cut. It just burns. I will take another syringe
here, and just basically bring that raw venom down with the
needle, which I quite like to work that. Diluting is something that’s
been quite new to me over like the last four years that
I’ve learned how to do and work properly. I was a bit nervous today when
I was milking the snakes. But when I do these injections,
I don’t think anything of that. Once I know that the dilutions
are right, it’s as normal as anything for me now. I always kind of note the time
just in case if I ever did have any problems where I did
need to visit the hospital again, I would know. The one time I did have a
serious overdose, I injected three raw venoms a
couple years ago. And I only wanted to put
down a little bit in. And as I was pressing
it, just ooop– the whole thing went in. Within 45 minutes, my hand
was like a baseball mitt. The venom was swimming
in my body. I had some friends
come over because they knew I was fucked. They were saying, go to the
hospital, go to the hospital. And I just didn’t want to. And the next morning, I kept
on waking up and it wasn’t going down. So I got begged to go
to the hospital. They saw my arm and they
said, what happened? And I said snakebite. Three doctors came out
and they said, well, what snake bit you? And I had to just say, well,
I didn’t get bit. There’s three snakes. I purposely injected
it into my arm. They didn’t know what to say,
and the next thing I know, I was being taken into
another room. And one of the female doctors
just came in and was just yelling at me and just
saying, you idiot. You can’t do this. And they were telling me you’re
going to die, and you’re going to lose your arm. I was in intensive care
for three days. But I was kind of calm
throughout the whole thing. I don’t want to ever
repeat it. Since I had heard that the
Americans and the Chinese got busted injecting race horses
with cobra venom and it was making them outperform
their abilities, I immediately got excited. And I thought boxing would be a
great thing to kind of see– is it possible that I could
outperform my ability? I was working it harder last
year when I was on my own. I actually felt like something
was happening. I was like holy shit, this
stuff is working. It’s amazing. You’re discreet, but you can
get away with it in London. Bear Grylls. I hate that guy. In those films, he’s like,
oh, here’s the snake. And you can just bit
its head off. And he does. He’s killed snakes on TV. That’s my fucking family you’re
fucking around with. Sorry, just kidding. One thing I have noticed is that
I’m not really feeling the pain, so that could be the
other thing that helped those horses along. Why not find out why it’s
doing these things. If it’s taking away pain,
if it’s giving you confidence, or whatever. Why not give it to your army? Christopher Columbus didn’t
go looking for America to discover America. He was looking for the
fountain of youth. What does mankind want? They want to live longer. Everyone wants to live longer. Apparently, there’s something in
snake venom that helps its food to accept death. I did feel that once. As I was lying there, and I
could feel the numbness in my head and stuff, I had this
complete feeling of, oh well, I might die here, but I felt
really happy to die. My heart’s pounding. You’re alive for a good
6 to 12 hours. Like Starbucks has
nothing on this. Yeah, I must admit that
it doesn’t feel great. It’s kind of like
Jell-O in there. And god knows what it’s
doing in there. I wish I understood what’s
happening beneath that skin. The next day is always the same
with the cobra venom. It just feels like you’re
beaten up anyway. And then I have a good sort of
four days where I feel kind of quite charged. Come on, let’s box. Come on. Come on. There you go. -So how many years have
you been doing this? STEVE LUDWIN: Over 20 years,
probably like 22 years– -So you’ve been quite
lucky then, really. Is there a risk that you
take that venom and it could just kill you? STEVE LUDWIN: It is kind of a
little bit playing with fire. I’ve had maybe three incidents
in my life where it was borderline life threatening. -What you’re saying is it’s
similar to someone taking heroin or cocaine
and injecting it and taking a gamble. So you’re gambling with your
life every time you take it. STEVE LUDWIN: I’ve gotten so
used to it, I do it without thinking about it. And because I know the amounts
and I know not to push it and where not to push it
and stuff, it seems really safe to me. This certainly isn’t physically
addictive or it isn’t pleasurable. -So you believe you could stop
tomorrow and stop taking it, stop doing it? STEVE LUDWIN: Yeah. Yeah. I’d like to do that very soon. I’ve done it for so long. I’d like to actually spend– I’d like to take a year off. -And you’ve done that,
you managed that? STEVE LUDWIN: No, I’ve
never done it. I’ve never not done it. But I’d like to take
like a year off. -So you’re not going to know
if it’s addictive until you try it, are you? -Is it possible you could be
addicted to pain then, if you know what I mean? The way it hurts. STEVE LUDWIN: I think if I was,
I would have other things in my life. I’d be a boxer like you. -Yeah, true, true, true. STEVE LUDWIN: The day after
going boxing, my arm just was even more swollen than
the day before. But I felt like a truck
had hit me. I felt like I was being digested
from the inside. I was walking around like the
Elephant Man for a day. I can kind of remember it, but
I was like in a dream state. I felt like I had been injected
with a thousand energy drinks. It just felt slightly wrong. I would really like to work
with a forward-thinking company that is going to go,
OK kid, we like your ideas. Let’s start researching this. And around-the-clock
and get it done. I visited the University of
Southern California a couple years ago, and I met a professor
Frank Markland, I believe his name is. He’s been working with
copperhead venom. Copperhead venom is the North
American pit viper that’s being used. They’ve been studying the
effects on breast cancer cells, ovarian cancer. It actually inhibits the growth
of tumors and basically kind of kills off
cancer cells. So there there’s real excitement
around that. Yeah, the possibilities of a
cancer cure someday with snake venom, I’d put my money on it. Banana? Banana.

The Truth About Ecstasy


With the highest level of consumption of narcotics. no-one takes drugs quite like the British There is no doubt that Britain has the highest drug habit. for me, this is so preposterous. this is high society A series where we meet dealers, users, and manufacturers to find out why the UK has the worlds most excessive drug habits When it comes to MDMA, the UK statistically takes more in one session than any other nation on Earth. first time you take it, its like unreal and there’s like loads of drum and base, adn loads of lights lights and everything was just like woah last year, ecstacy related deaths reached their highest levels in a decade and now, its back in the headlines they need to be aware of this bad stuff that can kill you by taking it once we wanted to find out whats making ecstacy so dangerous, and how that danger can be reduced so we’ve had a vague promise from some teenage drug dealers that they’re gonna meet us here at the strip on Dalston and tell us what its like selling ecstasy to people hows it going? you guys walk up and down the street asking people if they want drugs to buy large, whats the most popular drug around here? mandy and pills yeah do you think that MDMA is getting more popular? how pure are your pills? at best, british street dealers only have a vague idea of whats in their drugs. and thats because ecstasy, whether its too weak, too strong, or too adulterated, is largely manufactured in Holland and with the advent of the dark web, dutch pill makers have been shifting 50 kilos of ecstasy per month why smuggle drugs when you can just mail them anonamously with legitimate carriers to see how authorities are trying to stop these packages from reaching dealers, we met with UK border force so whats in these parcels here? these two specific parcels are believed to contain MDMA, ecstasy “E”, You get all sorts of, sort of, modern brands that appeal to young people. You have uh, a whatsapp brand, you’ll have a burger king, a shield, we have the lick. one, oh oh, the rolling stones one? We got ying and yang. So obviously you can’t intercept every single package.. I guess the question is how many slip through the net? That’s hard to say… That’s so hard to say. We wouldn’t speculate on that, it’s not something we would even.. give a percentage on. It’s a – Statistics are for statisticians. We are all very intelligent here at border-force. That’s what we’re payed to do. and we do work hard for border-force. – And we do stop an awful lot of drugs. Do you have to count all those individual pills? We have done in the past, yes. But we’re advised not to. Because uh, touching them, we try not to touch them as much as possible. Do you – do you find it a little bit exciting? Yeah! It’s always interesting and exciting.

The power of introverts | Susan Cain


When I was nine years old, I went off to summer camp
for the first time. And my mother packed me a suitcase
full of books, which to me seemed like
a perfectly natural thing to do. Because in my family,
reading was the primary group activity. And this might sound antisocial to you, but for us it was really just
a different way of being social. You have the animal warmth of your family
sitting right next to you, but you are also free to go
roaming around the adventureland inside your own mind. And I had this idea that camp was going to be
just like this, but better. (Laughter) I had a vision of 10 girls
sitting in a cabin cozily reading books
in their matching nightgowns. (Laughter) Camp was more like a keg party
without any alcohol. And on the very first day, our counselor gathered us all together and she taught us a cheer
that she said we would be doing every day for the rest of the summer
to instill camp spirit. And it went like this: “R-O-W-D-I-E, that’s the way we spell rowdie. Rowdie, rowdie, let’s get rowdie.” (Laughter) Yeah. So I couldn’t figure out
for the life of me why we were supposed to be so rowdy, or why we had to spell
this word incorrectly. (Laughter) But I recited a cheer. I recited
a cheer along with everybody else. I did my best. And I just waited for the time
that I could go off and read my books. But the first time that I took
my book out of my suitcase, the coolest girl in the bunk came up to me and she asked me, “Why
are you being so mellow?” — mellow, of course,
being the exact opposite of R-O-W-D-I-E. And then the second time I tried it, the counselor came up to me
with a concerned expression on her face and she repeated the point
about camp spirit and said we should all work very hard
to be outgoing. And so I put my books away, back in their suitcase, and I put them under my bed, and there they stayed
for the rest of the summer. And I felt kind of guilty about this. I felt as if the books needed me somehow, and they were calling out to me
and I was forsaking them. But I did forsake them
and I didn’t open that suitcase again until I was back home with my family
at the end of the summer. Now, I tell you this story
about summer camp. I could have told you
50 others just like it — all the times that I got the message that somehow my quiet
and introverted style of being was not necessarily the right way to go, that I should be trying to pass
as more of an extrovert. And I always sensed deep down
that this was wrong and that introverts were
pretty excellent just as they were. But for years I denied this intuition, and so I became a Wall Street
lawyer, of all things, instead of the writer
that I had always longed to be — partly because I needed to prove to myself
that I could be bold and assertive too. And I was always going off to crowded bars when I really would have preferred
to just have a nice dinner with friends. And I made these
self-negating choices so reflexively, that I wasn’t even aware
that I was making them. Now this is what many introverts do, and it’s our loss for sure, but it is also our colleagues’ loss and our communities’ loss. And at the risk of sounding grandiose,
it is the world’s loss. Because when it comes
to creativity and to leadership, we need introverts doing
what they do best. A third to a half of the population
are introverts — a third to a half. So that’s one out of every two
or three people you know. So even if you’re an extrovert yourself, I’m talking about your coworkers and your spouses and your children and the person sitting
next to you right now — all of them subject to this bias that is pretty deep
and real in our society. We all internalize it
from a very early age without even having a language
for what we’re doing. Now, to see the bias clearly, you need to understand
what introversion is. It’s different from being shy. Shyness is about fear of social judgment. Introversion is more about, how do you respond to stimulation, including social stimulation. So extroverts really crave
large amounts of stimulation, whereas introverts feel
at their most alive and their most switched-on
and their most capable when they’re in quieter,
more low-key environments. Not all the time —
these things aren’t absolute — but a lot of the time. So the key then to maximizing our talents is for us all to put ourselves in the zone of stimulation
that is right for us. But now here’s where the bias comes in. Our most important institutions, our schools and our workplaces, they are designed mostly for extroverts and for extroverts’ need
for lots of stimulation. And also we have
this belief system right now that I call the new groupthink, which holds that all creativity
and all productivity comes from a very oddly gregarious place. So if you picture the typical
classroom nowadays: When I was going to school,
we sat in rows. We sat in rows of desks like this, and we did most of our work
pretty autonomously. But nowadays, your typical classroom
has pods of desks — four or five or six or seven kids
all facing each other. And kids are working
in countless group assignments. Even in subjects like math
and creative writing, which you think would depend
on solo flights of thought, kids are now expected to act
as committee members. And for the kids who prefer to go off
by themselves or just to work alone, those kids are seen as outliers often or, worse, as problem cases. And the vast majority of teachers reports believing that
the ideal student is an extrovert as opposed to an introvert, even though introverts
actually get better grades and are more knowledgeable, according to research. (Laughter) Okay, same thing is true
in our workplaces. Now, most of us work in open plan offices, without walls, where we are subject to the constant
noise and gaze of our coworkers. And when it comes to leadership, introverts are routinely passed over
for leadership positions, even though introverts
tend to be very careful, much less likely to take outsize risks — which is something
we might all favor nowadays. And interesting research
by Adam Grant at the Wharton School has found that introverted leaders often deliver better outcomes
than extroverts do, because when they are managing
proactive employees, they’re much more likely to let
those employees run with their ideas, whereas an extrovert
can, quite unwittingly, get so excited about things that they’re putting
their own stamp on things, and other people’s ideas might not
as easily then bubble up to the surface. Now in fact, some of our transformative
leaders in history have been introverts. I’ll give you some examples. Eleanor Roosevelt, Rosa Parks, Gandhi — all these people described themselves
as quiet and soft-spoken and even shy. And they all took the spotlight, even though every bone in their bodies
was telling them not to. And this turns out to have
a special power all its own, because people could feel
that these leaders were at the helm not because they enjoyed directing others and not out of the pleasure
of being looked at; they were there
because they had no choice, because they were driven to do
what they thought was right. Now I think at this point
it’s important for me to say that I actually love extroverts. I always like to say some of my best
friends are extroverts, including my beloved husband. And we all fall
at different points, of course, along the introvert/extrovert spectrum. Even Carl Jung, the psychologist
who first popularized these terms, said that there’s no such thing
as a pure introvert or a pure extrovert. He said that such a man
would be in a lunatic asylum, if he existed at all. And some people fall smack in the middle
of the introvert/extrovert spectrum, and we call these people ambiverts. And I often think that they have
the best of all worlds. But many of us do recognize
ourselves as one type or the other. And what I’m saying is that culturally,
we need a much better balance. We need more of a yin and yang
between these two types. This is especially important when it comes to creativity
and to productivity, because when psychologists look
at the lives of the most creative people, what they find are people who are very good
at exchanging ideas and advancing ideas, but who also have a serious
streak of introversion in them. And this is because solitude is a crucial ingredient
often to creativity. So Darwin, he took long walks alone in the woods and emphatically turned down
dinner-party invitations. Theodor Geisel, better known as Dr. Seuss, he dreamed up many
of his amazing creations in a lonely bell tower office that he had in the back of his house
in La Jolla, California. And he was actually afraid to meet
the young children who read his books for fear that they were expecting him
this kind of jolly Santa Claus-like figure and would be disappointed
with his more reserved persona. Steve Wozniak invented
the first Apple computer sitting alone in his cubicle
in Hewlett-Packard where he was working at the time. And he says that he never would have
become such an expert in the first place had he not been too introverted
to leave the house when he was growing up. Now, of course, this does not mean that we should
all stop collaborating — and case in point, is Steve Wozniak
famously coming together with Steve Jobs to start Apple Computer — but it does mean that solitude matters and that for some people
it is the air that they breathe. And in fact, we have known for centuries
about the transcendent power of solitude. It’s only recently that
we’ve strangely begun to forget it. If you look at most
of the world’s major religions, you will find seekers — Moses, Jesus, Buddha, Muhammad — seekers who are going off by themselves
alone to the wilderness, where they then have profound
epiphanies and revelations that they then bring back
to the rest of the community. So, no wilderness, no revelations. This is no surprise, though, if you look at the insights
of contemporary psychology. It turns out that we can’t
even be in a group of people without instinctively mirroring,
mimicking their opinions. Even about seemingly
personal and visceral things like who you’re attracted to, you will start aping the beliefs
of the people around you without even realizing
that that’s what you’re doing. And groups famously follow the opinions of the most dominant
or charismatic person in the room, even though there’s zero correlation between being the best talker
and having the best ideas — I mean zero. So — (Laughter) You might be following the person
with the best ideas, but you might not. And do you really want
to leave it up to chance? Much better for everybody
to go off by themselves, generate their own ideas freed from the distortions
of group dynamics, and then come together as a team to talk them through
in a well-managed environment and take it from there. Now if all this is true, then why are we getting it so wrong? Why are we setting up our schools
this way, and our workplaces? And why are we making
these introverts feel so guilty about wanting to just go off
by themselves some of the time? One answer lies deep
in our cultural history. Western societies, and in particular the U.S., have always favored the man of action
over the “man” of contemplation. But in America’s early days, we lived in what historians
call a culture of character, where we still,
at that point, valued people for their inner selves
and their moral rectitude. And if you look at the self-help
books from this era, they all had titles with things like “Character, the Grandest
Thing in the World.” And they featured role models
like Abraham Lincoln, who was praised for being
modest and unassuming. Ralph Waldo Emerson called him “A man who does not
offend by superiority.” But then we hit the 20th century, and we entered a new culture that historians call
the culture of personality. What happened is we had evolved
an agricultural economy to a world of big business. And so suddenly people are moving
from small towns to the cities. And instead of working alongside people
they’ve known all their lives, now they are having to prove themselves
in a crowd of strangers. So, quite understandably, qualities like magnetism and charisma
suddenly come to seem really important. And sure enough, the self-help books
change to meet these new needs and they start to have names like “How to Win Friends
and Influence People.” And they feature as their role models
really great salesmen. So that’s the world we’re living in today. That’s our cultural inheritance. Now none of this is to say
that social skills are unimportant, and I’m also not calling
for the abolishing of teamwork at all. The same religions who send their sages
off to lonely mountain tops also teach us love and trust. And the problems that we are facing today in fields like science and in economics are so vast and so complex that we are going to need armies
of people coming together to solve them working together. But I am saying that the more freedom
that we give introverts to be themselves, the more likely that they are to come up with their own unique
solutions to these problems. So now I’d like to share with you
what’s in my suitcase today. Guess what? Books. I have a suitcase full of books. Here’s Margaret Atwood, “Cat’s Eye.” Here’s a novel by Milan Kundera. And here’s “The Guide for the Perplexed”
by Maimonides. But these are not exactly my books. I brought these books with me because they were written
by my grandfather’s favorite authors. My grandfather was a rabbi and he was a widower who lived alone in a small
apartment in Brooklyn that was my favorite place
in the world when I was growing up, partly because it was filled with
his very gentle, very courtly presence and partly because
it was filled with books. I mean literally every table,
every chair in this apartment had yielded its original function to now serve as a surface
for swaying stacks of books. Just like the rest of my family, my grandfather’s favorite thing to do
in the whole world was to read. But he also loved his congregation, and you could feel this love
in the sermons that he gave every week for the 62 years
that he was a rabbi. He would takes the fruits
of each week’s reading and he would weave these intricate tapestries
of ancient and humanist thought. And people would come from all over
to hear him speak. But here’s the thing about my grandfather. Underneath this ceremonial role, he was really modest
and really introverted — so much so that when
he delivered these sermons, he had trouble making eye contact with the very same congregation
that he had been speaking to for 62 years. And even away from the podium, when you called him to say hello, he would often end
the conversation prematurely for fear that he was taking up
too much of your time. But when he died at the age of 94, the police had to close down
the streets of his neighborhood to accommodate the crowd of people
who came out to mourn him. And so these days I try to learn
from my grandfather’s example in my own way. So I just published a book
about introversion, and it took me about seven years to write. And for me, that seven years
was like total bliss, because I was reading, I was writing, I was thinking, I was researching. It was my version of my grandfather’s hours
of the day alone in his library. But now all of a sudden
my job is very different, and my job is to be
out here talking about it, talking about introversion. (Laughter) And that’s a lot harder for me, because as honored as I am
to be here with all of you right now, this is not my natural milieu. So I prepared for moments
like these as best I could. I spent the last year
practicing public speaking every chance I could get. And I call this my “year
of speaking dangerously.” (Laughter) And that actually helped a lot. But I’ll tell you, what helps even more is my sense, my belief, my hope
that when it comes to our attitudes to introversion and to quiet
and to solitude, we truly are poised on the brink
on dramatic change. I mean, we are. And so I am going to leave you now with three calls for action
for those who share this vision. Number one: Stop the madness for constant group work. Just stop it. (Laughter) Thank you. (Applause) And I want to be clear
about what I’m saying, because I deeply believe our offices should be encouraging casual, chatty
cafe-style types of interactions — you know, the kind
where people come together and serendipitously have
an exchange of ideas. That is great. It’s great for introverts
and it’s great for extroverts. But we need much more privacy
and much more freedom and much more autonomy at work. School, same thing. We need to be teaching kids
to work together, for sure, but we also need to be teaching them
how to work on their own. This is especially important
for extroverted children too. They need to work on their own because that is where deep thought
comes from in part. Okay, number two: Go to the wilderness. Be like Buddha, have your own revelations. I’m not saying that we all have to now go off and build
our own cabins in the woods and never talk to each other again, but I am saying that we could
all stand to unplug and get inside our own heads
a little more often. Number three: Take a good look
at what’s inside your own suitcase and why you put it there. So extroverts, maybe your suitcases
are also full of books. Or maybe they’re full of champagne glasses
or skydiving equipment. Whatever it is, I hope you take
these things out every chance you get and grace us with your energy
and your joy. But introverts, you being you, you probably have the impulse
to guard very carefully what’s inside your own suitcase. And that’s okay. But occasionally, just occasionally, I hope you will open up your suitcases
for other people to see, because the world needs you and it
needs the things you carry. So I wish you the best
of all possible journeys and the courage to speak softly. Thank you very much. (Applause) Thank you. Thank you. (Applause)

Swaziland: Gold Mine of Marijuana (Part 1/2)


Hello, I am Hamilton and I’m currently standing on the outskirts of a weed field in Swaziland. And, I am holding in my hand a plastic bag full of Swaziland gold nugs and I am grateful to be here very grateful to be here yeah with a temperate climate majestic
waterfalls and an abundance of playful monkeys the kingdom of swaziland would
appear to be heaven on earth get this swaziland has the highest prevalence
of HIV in the world and for every 6,000 people ruled by King
Swantee the third sub-saharan Africa’s last absolute monarchy the citizens of
swaziland are taunted by the Kings 200 million dollar bank account and numerous
palaces occupied by his 15 lives although over two-thirds of the
population lives under the poverty line king with swatilands taxes the meager income
swazi farmers earned from their crops but one crop remains exempt because it
was never approved and bringing it up swansea gold is a pure sativa strain
that is said to take six months to mature and can grow over 10 feet in
height additionally the plants are rumored to
be completely devoid of the cannabinoid CB d but i wanted to test this for myself so
i began collecting samples for analysis contrary to the popular image of
cannabis growers as stoners and hippies the growers of swaziland are
predominantly drug naive grandmother’s who grow the plant out of pure economic
necessity i had read in books that cannabis has a distinctive odor and
appearance but nothing could have prepared me for my first time seeing the
plant the drug users refer to as pot is it that another would have been fine
it’s called me back Oh like I like being born about Michael
I nearby durable permitting man singing that we don’t have the same
black enamel on planting corn and singing and what the hell is he leads
the whereabouts of them so popular list the web of civil war that sunday in this
is penny less the attack and successes yet in 62 solo solo ESO NOS llega a chi swaziland cannabis is not measured by
weight but by volume and the grandmother brought a deck a liter sack of her most
resonance snugs looks so sad they were not it
brings out a single since this is a good inside they can shop made a living hell ya
doing the car I guess this is enough very good onward so this and this area and it should be they produce the best guy in the world
the quad money from Gandhi to everything just because the system of government is
the Latino people who mostly benefits from the government and the people from
the real families or friends of the team the system is a system of oppression
right good day event 0 UT Mandy would enable
is a matter which is no kuni no papa yeah anyhow you’re kidding right p learned what a family but we’ll get
them with the country and fiscal crisis and its former wood pulp and mining
industries exhausting the last of swaziland natural resources dr. Donna me has one of the few
remaining solutions to attract foreign investors and protect the country from
economic collapse we’ve been spending the last two days
traveling around visiting different farmers and talking to them about how
they feel about cannabis legalization and things like that and a lot of them
are actually against it they don’t want it to be legal because
they’ll make less money I have I wasn’t as other and contract those
problems on TV the evil ones who are happy with that
situation those who are who wanted to profit by
themselves because they are the only ones who have the guts to go out there
and break the law yes but it all the law abiding persons
they don’t have the opportunity to grow cannabis now we want to remove the door so that
everyone can have the opportunity to go if he wants to do we ended up getting a massage your
bundle into lemon . for all of us in your things eating i muted failing in vernal about
novel , killing i’m going to the last why we’re going to content element
cheese and seeing them time and I limit myself to move it open Kayla telling social program level of
bonding w Marcus fascinated me and hope it was having a snob we are you telling me something cool
about it be able pan and turns it really wasn’t my choice anymore gala baliga it
was what I’m telling Lucia it the angrier than a 16-11 I saying about me
and they go fully known for kind of combat seen you standing in front on the
village have fun and one of the middle of
himself in the corner office at two limits the middle of next week when see
this report two types of grows into present some of the growers are under
commissioned by some of the European consumers of the of of cannabis when
it’s ready those people who wanted to come and pick
it up then they is somebody else who sees me being prosperous because of
growing cannabis and then he said he’s growing economies and just getting so
much money and whatnot so let me do the same and he does it he doesn’t have the
market so once he has the connection is all she
doesn’t know what to do with it those are the people who are you in trouble because they have no matter
they don’t know what to do then they bring it to a doctor ben de
lami introduced me to his Rastafarian colleague an expert on the history of
swansea cold yeah i know most of the guys who by
their middle man you know to go ad very inside in there in a min in this African
market gets back in the day it was a white guy is used to buy it and ship it
the white guys now we’ll still have contact with the farmers have project
could seat and the second fuse just a tiny drop of the farmers who can grow
high grade the market is no longer dominated by the
original six months swazi gold and there is now a demand for fast-growing hybrids
imported from Europe in the data and such as all this was a cult there are no different categories that
this is blueberry this is cheese this is what this is what – there’s also
available tomorrow when i came from pic speak that’s where it originates and will
interest the the best swimming area so i’ll speak speak we went into town to see if the Swazi
product was being sold locally or if it was solely intended for export some of
these guys obviously they go to the farms the middle men that is they go to
the farms and rob the poor farmers of their produce to go sell what its money
is valuable you know I’m saying and then they take the weed and
consonant are so to the middle minutes would add value and go so wherever we’ve
got their markets Africa produces more cannabis than any other continent in the
world and swaziland despite its small size indicates more
hectares of land to cannabis cultivation then all of India Master it doesn’t mean that you have
dreadlocks to be an ass they need to have a heart so you don’t think I’m a roster can be
at us a list i am around there’s no need to college to be a
master good at like that one interesting thing about cannabis growers in
swaziland is they never get high on their own supply me move in the monkey
obviously producing and we’ve got a live in door neighbor ya thang magising them in San next to a
la palma can withstand then one sulla new be again all up with their lives and
they also have matter and yeah if we used to get us off ? like India when i’m
working in swaziland I meet the policeman day they that they tell me
that you know what I’m promoting promoting the growing of Kennedy’s means
that a lot of people would get mad that a lot of people in psychiatric center
they are there because of kind of these because I told them that’s rubbish is
class reps the ignorance we have is causing us to
suffer and the many people are dying because of ignorance because they have
been told that cannabis is dangerous for you never touch it yes so they lose the opportunity of
getting a better life because you’re your answer stars in the past used
Kenobi’s your body knows that there is the best thing I need on earth is
economies and it looks for it hello here comes the sack and a bed like
this so much control over 50,000 $15,000 seems much more expensive than other
bags the big one why why is this so much more expensive
than the other Suozzi goal that we’ve seen in the past
and I think because the route 7 okay now you’re gonna might mean it and
I ok then we can see even more Fupa cool okay in a key good job farmers report the iron-rich soil is
ideal for growing candidates without the use of synthetic fertilizers which
states that so many more such a freak I be so yeah and um up with Ryan I be so
our president of its best yeah I want to introduce the friendly day I could tell the farmers were giving me
a good deal because they laughed hysterically as they stayed at the price it’s ready to smoke so you throw the
seeds when you’re done with them down the mountain and these just grow wildly it’s very good i think it’s also you
know so it is very reach you see you can go anywhere you don’t have to prepare
the soil into your neck the modern way to from marijuana is to
prepare proper so you saying you have to buy so it yeah but in the rural areas you have 25
so you can just come and put seeds to grow it is normal earth in this normal
so you see it grows like nobody’s business unlike the other swazi farmers this one
seemed to have something he wanted to hide quickly my first name is Hamilton jets and like 11 to just pick up all your top
up in New York there’s nothing like this it doesn’t exist in the same way that it
exists here so we want to be able to show people that there’s a part of
Africa where people grow giant dog – but he did you know this is not too
heavy admission admission in Africa for doing
this yes yes not it we didn’t know that yes ok man you supposed to talk to me before
man payable by bus keep on your box i presume that that’s why you must move
our basketball and it’s never your friend oh yeah haha get it you know what I think laughing after the argument had ended I soon saw why the farmer was nervous
about outsiders looking at his crop was this just picked today yes into dad had us is that we know that
people use a photo oh yes how could anybody with a double even the small plots that Swansea
farmers distribute throughout the hills can yield several burlap sacks and nugs
each season Wow that is by far the most weed I’ve ever
seen in my life by the quantity of weed we just saw was
by a very large margin the most be they’ve ever seen in my life it was certainly enough to fill at least
four standard sized bathtubs

An economist walks into a bar | Robert Litan | TEDxKC


Translator: Nga Nguyen
Reviewer: Queenie Lee So, there are these two guys
that walk into a bar, “No, I’m not going to go there.” It could be the beginning of a joke. But I really want it
to be the introduction to the notion of artificial scarcity. And you’ll see why in a minute. So let’s go back to the bar. The first guy, he approaches the first woman
that he sees, offers her a drink. She turns him down. He, then, decides
to work his way down the bar, and of course, all the women
watching this, they see what he’s up to, and they all turn him down. Now, our guy, I’m going
to call him the anti-hero. He hasn’t learned from this experience in the real world. So he decides to go to the virtual world. He goes to the Internet
and joins Cupid.com, and he tries the same technique,
and sure enough, with the same result. They all turn him down. So our anti-hero is in trouble. But you know what?
Cupid.com is in trouble too. And the reason they are, is that the women
who have joined Cupid.com are being inundated
with offers from men for dates. They get turned off, they quit. And as they quit, men quit.
Cupid is in trouble. Who are you going to call,
to solve this problem? No, the answer is more obvious
than Ghostbusters. (Laughter) You call an economist. (Laughter) Don’t laugh, you call an economist. (Laughter) In fact, you call two of them. This is Muriel Niederle of Stanford,
and Dan Ariely of Duke. And they’ve spent a lot of time, studying the problem
of artificial scarcity and abundance, in the online dating context,
which is the reason Cupid called them up. And they wanted to know
how to fix their problem, and the two economists said they had an idea that was
as simple as it was profound. Just put a sharp limit
on the number of date offers that men could make
to women each month. This is the notion of artificial scarcity. Taking what looks like
an abundant resource, which is date offers, and artificially constraining them. And the economist said to Cupid
that if you do this, the men will take their offer seriously. They’ll look at more than just
the women’s pictures, and they actually look at their profiles. And the women will know this, and they’ll be more likely
to accept date proposals. Artificial scarcity help save Cupid.com and other dating sites
that copied the technique. Today, online dating
is a two billion dollar industry in North America alone. Now, I want to talk about a lot more than online dating
and artificial scarcity. Much bigger topic. I want to try to show to you
how economists and their ideas have contributed to the rise
of the entire Internet economy and to some of the iconic
companies within it. I’m sure many of you
are familiar with the notion of “Name-Your-Price” travel. That was invented by Priceline. Well, “Name-Your-Price” travel
was really not the key to their success. Because, if you could name your price,
what price would you bid? Zero, right? Or one or two. And obviously the airlines
or the hotel charges would not accept the offer. The key to Priceline
was not their great advertising. It wasn’t the fact
that you could do searches online. No, the real key to Priceline success, by the way, it’s a 60 billion dollar
company, market cap today. The real key is they make you
this proposition. They say that if you bid a particular price
for a hotel room or a flight, and Priceline decides to accept it,
you’re bound to pay it. This is called
the conditional price offer. And in basically what it does,
it induces you, as the traveler, to take your offer seriously, in the same way that the artificial restriction
on the dating proposals that Cupid.com did for men. So who is the brilliant guy
behind the conditional price offer? (Laughter) He’s a smart guy, but Captain Kirk
was not the inventor of the idea. He was the pitchman,
and he still is for Priceline. No, the real genius behind Priceline
was this guy: Jay Walker. Jay studied economics
as an undergraduate at Cornell. And he actually listened and thought two steps beyond
what his lecturers told him at Cornell, and came up with the idea
of the conditional price offer, which led to Priceline and revolutionized
the entire travel industry in the US. I have another example. It’s one that you’re also
very familiar with. It’s a search page at Google. It could be in any other search engine, and what I want you to pay attention to
is that right-hand side, the ads over there. Google collects
about 50 billion dollars a year from advertisers, large and small, seeking placement on that right-hand side. They auction off the sites. But that’s not how the system started, because when Google was launched, online advertising was in its infancy, and Google, believe it or not, went door to door,
advertiser to advertiser, trying to get them to place an ad
next to a search term. Highly laborious, you quickly can see
this is not going to scale, as the number of searches
exploded on Google. And so the founders of Google
asked two young engineers, Eric Veach and Salar Kamangar, to come up with an automatic system
that would solve this problem. Well, they were instinctively
attracted to auctions. But they were thinking about
another problem. That is if they auctioned off the sites, they feared that the advertisers
would bid a very low price and then incrementally
raised their prices just a little bit and keep the auctions going forever. And if this happened, and a lot of searches
were also going on at the same time; the whole site would crash. So, as an engineering solution,
they came up with this idea. That the winning auction,
or the winning placement will be the price, the second highest price
that was bid plus one penny. This would cut off the auctions,
really simplify the process, and in the process, also solve another problem
called “the winner’s curse.” I’m sure many of you
have participated in auctions, may have regretted winning because you felt like you paid too much. Pretty obvious point. But the CEO of Google
at the time, Eric Schmidt, still wasn’t sold on the second
price auction as the way to go, until he ran into this man. Totally by accident in a party. This is Hal Varian. At the time, he was Dean
of the Information Sciences School in Berkeley, and a world-leading expert
on auctions and also the Internet. Schmidt asked Varian, “Does this second price auction
make any sense? Why not the first price?” And Varian pondered the question,
and came back to Schmidt, and he said, “You know,
those two engineers, they have reinvented
what this guy came up with.” This is William Vickrey,
he was an economist at Colombia, who proved mathematically, that the second price auction was the ideal solution
to the winner’s curse. And you know what? That won him
the Nobel Prize in Economics in 1996. Well, now you’re Eric Schmidt, you think “Well, economists,
they may be able to help Google.” So he persuades Hal Varian
to leave his tenured position at Berkeley, and join Google
as its first chief economist. Varian then goes on to hire
an army of statisticians and economists, who helped refine the online
ad auction process, and also develop other services
for the Mountain View giant. You know, they say that imitation
is the best form of flattery. Well, guess who was watching,
Microsoft from up north? Their chief competitor
or would-be competitor, Microsoft. They wanted their own Hal Varian. And they got her. This is Susan Athey. Susan is a rock star
economist at Stanford, world-leading expert in auction theory, and she splits her time teaching with also working
as an economist at Microsoft. I have a third example; it’s bigger than the first two. It’s the entire business of web retailing. It’s a 300 billion dollar industry
in the United States alone. And you all know
the poster child of web retailing; it’s Amazon.com. Now many of you may think
that Amazon’s success is due to its fantastic system
of warehousing and inventory control. It’s able to basically send out
all that stuff that you order online. But you know, Amazon
and other web retailers would not be as successful as they are without a highly flexible
transportation system that actually would
deliver all that stuff. And guess who helped bring
that system to reality. Economists. Because back in 1980,
when Jeff Bezos was just a teenager, the airline and the trucking industries
were heavily regulated. Every fare and every route that they
charged, or they flew, or they drove had to be approved by the government. In fact, there was a rule
that set to an airline that owned a trucking outfit: it couldn’t deliver merchandise
more than 20 miles away from the airport, at which the merchandise landed. This rule was obviously in place to protect other truckers
from competition, which of course was the whole point
of airline and trucking regulation in the first place. That’s why economists long opposed it. But they also opposed it
for another reason. There are lots of airlines
and trucking firms. They’re not natural monopolies
in the same way that a local utility is that needs regulation
in order to prevent price gouging. No, airlines and trucks
should never have been regulated. And three of the economists who were most insistent
about this are in this picture: Michael Levine, Alfred Kahn,
and Darius Gaskins, and trust me, there were many more,
who have been writing for decades that we ought to get rid
of this crazy system. Well, there were two politicians,
courageous politicians who finally listened
to these guys and women, and persuaded Congress in 1978,
and 1980 respectively, to dismantle the system of airline
and trucking regulation against the stiff opposition,
of course, of those industries. And you may not recall,
but prices fell after deregulation. But more importantly for my story is that deregulation
unleashed vigorous competition, between the two giants
of the transportation industry: UPS and FedEx. They went on to develop a highly flexible
and efficient transportation system that was ideal for the Internet economy. So that 20 years later, when Jeff Bezos
and other web retailers came along, they were able to tap into
and use this system. In fact, Jeff Bezos,
if you’re watching this, you should send a thank you note to three of the economists
that I showed before and many of the others
who made your fortune possible. I want to conclude with one final example, has nothing to do with the Internet, unless you want to count
the 32 million people, who play some form
of online fantasy sports. I mentioned sports
because I’m a sports nut, and I want to talk to you about Moneyball. I’m sure many of you have seen the movie. It’s based on a book,
yes, go ahead and applaud. Fantastic book and movie,
and it is written by this man, Michael Lewis, who by the way, I think he’s probably one of the best
non-fiction writers in America or the world for that matter. And Moneyball, as you know, was about Billy Beane,
the general manager of the Oakland As who built a great baseball team
on a shoestring budget. But Moneyball really
wasn’t a traditional baseball movie. In the same way, that Bull Durham
or Field of Dreams was. You know, the real hero
of Moneyball was this guy. Now many of you may not recognize him, but I submit to you: he had as big influence on baseball
as Hank Aaron or Babe Ruth. Because he applied
economics and statistics to showing how it’s possible
to produce winning baseball. He invented a field called sabermetrics that was used by Billy Beane
and other baseball teams to build their rosters. In fact, it is used
throughout professional baseball, not just there. Sabermetrics is used
by professional basketball teams, football teams, and even hockey teams have people like Bill James
on their staff. Economic thinking
has revolutionized sports. You know, in the course of my career, I’ve had a good fortune to meet many
many people in the business world. But unfortunately, from my perspective, too many of them
have no respect for economists. They say we’ve never met a payroll –
“we” meaning the economists. What do they know? Well, economists helped
build the Internet economy. Economists help make it possible
for Amazon and other web retailers to deliver all that stuff that you order to your doorstep,
efficiently and promptly 24 – 7. Economists shape the system
of online advertising, especially online auctions. Economists make it possible for you to get five-star hotels
at three-star prices. Economists may even
have made it possible for you to have a date and conceivably for you
to have met your spouse. I think economists deserve some respect. (Laughter) (Applause) That answers it, don’t you?
Thank you very much. (Laughter) (Applause)

An Insignificant Man (Feature Length)


For the past seven years He had been working here
as a land officer Helping farmers claim
their stolen land back The politicians are
like the mafia here Brijlal had complained
to the police But the police
took no action They ran the jeep over
him again and again Crushing him
into little pieces The family thinks they
are next Can we get the supreme
court to intervene? Father knew that they
would kill him I was there too
and tried to stop them They drove after me,
so I ran for my life And I went to
the police But it was too late – Were there any
other witnesses? There were
some women But they were all
too terrified Do you have documents to
support your father’s work? – Yes, we do Should we put up
posters all over town? People need to know
what is happening here – Everybody knows – There are plenty
of such cases There are no
official eye-witnesses Without a witness,
the law can’t do anything The eye witnesses are
all too scared to testify The law only punishes
common people Not politicians Long years ago We made a tryst
with destiny At the stroke of the
midnight hour When the world sleeps India will awake To life and freedom Big story we’re
breaking tonight It’s certainly very disturbing
what is emerging Multi-billion dollar
telecom scam $287 billion coal scam Dozens of companies
managed to corner billions of dollars using proxy
political connections which cut across
party lines All parties have come together
to fool the country The biggest names in politics,
in corporate India and the bureaucracy It seems like we’re living
in the age of scams It seems that our
political establishment is steeped in corruption All our anti-corruption
agencies are compromised Can we expect this parliament
to pass a strong Anti-Corruption law? We are being looted,
we are being robbed We dared to raise our
voice against corruption And we drafted an
Anti-Corruption Bill The Anti-Corruption Bill is to be
tabled in parliament next week The Anti-Corruption Bill
is rubbish! – We won’t let it pass! – Please behave! Unless All the people of this country
take to the streets on 16th August There is no hope If the Egyptian people can
come together at Tahrir Square to overthrow
their government All we’re asking for
is a new law The path he has chosen To impose his draft of a
bill upon parliament Is totally misconceived And fraught with
grave consequences For our parliamentary democracy Are you saying that they
should contest elections? Is that what you’re challenging
them effectively? Absolutely, you’re right I want them to
come into politics I’ll never fight
an election I have a few dreams
for this country Anti-Corruption Bill
is one of them Good judicial system
is another Electoral reforms and
decentralization of political power So that participatory
democracy is there If anyone knows how the Indian
political party system functions It’s Yogendra Yadav Yogendra Yadav, then
give us the solution Having reached this point and having
reached some kind of a dead end I think the only
way forward is Political in the more
obvious sense of the term Which is by forming a
political organization By contributing to
a political alternative Let’s move on to the big
news story of the day Arvind Kejriwal will fight
in the Delhi Elections A political party of honest people
has no chance in the country You will all lose
your deposits So, the big question
we are posing Can Kejriwal really succeed
as a politician? We need to build an
organization first Ten volunteers in every
neighbourhood in Delhi And one person to
supervise them This is our top priority Now tell me how many volunteers
each of you can find Get back to me on this Give me your names
– Ramesh Pandey What do you do, Ramesh? – I am a manager
at Barclays Does that mean you will
quit your job to work here? – Yes I will.
I believe in you – I’m a huge admirer! The way you fearlessly deliver your
speeches is really inspiring I mean such a small man exposing
such powerful people! You’re doing a great job – Give me your number If you need any help,
come meet me I’m here every Sunday
– Every Sunday Yes, in the morning You don’t need
an appointment – Sir, I have a project Every year we help 1001 girls
from poor families get married As charity,
there is no fee Look, how long can
we depend on charity? First we exploit
the poor and then we make
generous donations How will marriage
help them? Shouldn’t we look to increase
their income instead? To empower people
by changing the system? But changing
the system will take a long time I’m sorry I disagree
with you on this Charity is the easy
thing to do No one wants to
change the system “It will take too long” So what? We need to
start somewhere Leave charity to
the rich So don’t include
me in charity But I’ll be there if you
need blood, sweat and tears [Volunteer] People don’t
want to listen to us How do we assure them that
we are not like other parties? And how do we convince
them to support us? We were all part of the extraordinary
protests two years ago Back then, none of us
had imagined joining a political party
– True Millions of people took
to the streets They were tired
of corrupt politics They wanted to shake up
the establishment and throw out the emperors
and their crowns There are also
questions like “What if you don’t
get enough seats?” “Which party would
you ally with?” Our stand is very
clear on this We can say to anyone
who asks such questions “We promise that under
no circumstances will we form alliances
with any political party and compromise
on our principles” More importantly We will bring decison-making
to the public Does your road need
repair work? What should be the cost? And were the repairs
satisfactory? All such documents will
be open to the public Yogendra Yadav,
I have to say that I was surprised when you came on
board with Arvind Kejriwal For the last twenty years I have been associated with
peoples’ movements – Which wanted to go
to a political alternative? Not just wanted to,
they actually tried but it didn’t make it
because it was not viable – But do you think
Arvind Kejriwal is that person? Arvind has energy he has
out of box thinking He has the ability to cut through various
things and come to the core – He also has a reputation of being
extremely intolerant of other people’s views The extent to which
you bring energy is the extent to which you
drive the movement So those who bring energy
also give leadership I have a question
– Go ahead On election day will you arrange transport
for the voters? Look, we don’t have money If you can all arrange
something for yourselves… We are fighting the
same battle So do the other parties
arrange transportation? – They hire a cab for us
– Right [Volunteer] Go in their cab
but vote for us instead – I would rather not – Try walking this time, sir
– Huh? – It’ll be a satisfying walk
– I’ll try this time We can all book a
cab together Don’t we book cabs
when we go out? Elections are much
more important We don’t, but many people
accept money for votes – Political parties buy them off – They distribute alcohol
and money just before elections [Volunteer] Take their bribes but
vote for Kejriwal instead It’s a secret vote so
they won’t find out No, that’s just wrong We should honour our promise One shouldn’t lie [Journalist]
That’s ridiculous ma, Where is the honour
in accepting bribes? I swear that as long as I live I will never take a bribe nor will I give a bribe I swear that from today onwards I will never accept
liquor or money in exchange
for my vote I see a lot of you
aren’t committing Because alcohol is
too hard to give up Everyone here loves
their drink You’ve been a three
term Chief Minister You’re completing fifteen years
as Chief Minister of Delhi So far your opponents from the
BJP have been lacklustre This time around there is a person
who has come out of nowhere And so the space that he’s occupied
becomes extremely important What is his status? Except that he keeps on
talking about himself And then he changes tracks He said we’re only interested in the
Anti-Corruption movement Now he’s entered politics So what is their policy?
What are they going to do? People may find
it interesting to see someone
enter politics But when it comes to
selecting governments People are serious about it They just don’t get carried away [Radio]♪92.7 FM – Inside Delhi’s Heart♪ “Satyagraha” – A film inspired by the Anti-Corruption
protests is releasing today Superstar Ajay Devgn is playing
Arvind Kejriwal in the film Do watch this one guys You, and this entire system are corrupt to your rotting core
– Shut up! The people have decided to
join forces and fight corruption If the country’s future is
shrouded in darkness then ours is hopeless, too This is why we need to
change this system Not by protesting
but by entering politics Let’s gather young idealists
to form an honest party Everyone will support us! Mr. Kejriwal How was the film? Did you find it similar
to your story? Well, the film arrives at the
same conclusion that we did after
the protests Do you think your path is justified
because the film celebrates it? Do you disagree? But the film also raises
questions about indiscipline and about how crowds
never make rational decisions Are these issues important?
– Yes, they are important The film does answer
these questions You talk about
indiscipline In the film, a family has been
fighting for seven years to get its land back from
the government What choice do such
people have? You expect them to
be “disciplined”? Are you implying lawlessness
is a solution? Who makes these laws?
Whom do they serve? Do they exist only to serve
the powerful? The law is meant to
protect us, not them Now the biggest
question is will people actually
vote for him? If Arvind Kejriwal has won
over the people of Delhi Will they win the
election for him? We’ll ask him these questions
after the break Can I talk to you?
– Huh? I have come across some
sensitive information It’s in these documents What are these documents?
– Government papers I have a letter here An informer brought this
to us yesterday This government
has terrible luck All their secret letters end
up in our hands Who here is troubled by
rising electricity prices? All of you? This poor woman has been slapped
with a massive electricity bill Why this sudden
hike in prices? Why is electricity
so expensive? We are here to
tell you why Sit down for two minutes Why has electricity
become so expensive? Let’s go back to 2002 Electricity was
privatized that year Sheila Dikshit had promised us
that these private companies would put an end
to electricity theft and hence reduce our
electricity prices Did she promise this or not?
– Yes she did It’s been 11 years since Electricity theft is now rare
but has electricity become cheaper? – No In fact, our bills have
tripled since Do you know who decides
electricity prices in Delhi? DERC is a government
regulatory body It stands for Delhi Electricity
Regulatory Commission In 2010, the DERC chairman
was a man named Berjinder Singh The power companies
went to him with reported losses
of $135 million and demanded a price hike Berjinder Singh asked to
see their accounts He was shocked at
what he discovered The companies had suffered
no losses at all On the contrary, the companies had
made profits worth $600 million Berjinder Singh immediately decided to
slash electricity prices by 23% He was going to issue this order
on 5th May, 2010 Sheila Dikshit wrote to Berjinder Singh
on the previous night And told him to stop
the order immediately This is the letter she wrote Where did all the
money go? It has all gone
to the corporations! And what did they
do with the money? With his eyes firmly set
on the Delhi elections Arvind Kejriwal has now
made power and water His poll planks apart
from corruption We are the best power producing
state in the country And it still remains
the cheapest Mr. Kejriwal
has taken it up I don’t think the common
man believes it Are we heading now for
a way of fighting corruption which is about
naming and shaming Putting names out there and
stating the charges For a very long time all the
main political parties of this country have followed a code of silence Where you don’t talk about
political collusion And we won’t talk about
conflict of interest You don’t talk about
one company I wouldn’t talk
about another In democracy such codes
need to be shattered A rank outsider has come
and shattered that How is everything? Hello – They began
beating Akhilesh And we tried our best
to protect him We didn’t fight back – They were carrying chains The police was there too?
– The police just watched One of the policemen
took off his name tag and handed his own stick
to one of the goons Some of our volunteers were
watching from a distance We only tried to
protect ourselves and waited for
help to arrive After that we protested in
front of the police station Don’t expect anything
from the police The police is controlled
by the politicians And they have
all the power Our domain is amongst
the people We have to draw them
to our battleground You have to make
this incident public This has to end Last night at 10:30 PM
in Model Town Our volunteer Akhilesh was
attacked with rods and chains His head was
severely injured They think violence
will break our spirit – No! Never! If violence is their solution I am ready to submit myself
to their rods and chains This is exactly the kind of
politics we want to end We must stand up against
their repression Or else… Thank you Unless we act they will continue
to trample us I have decided to go on
an indefinite hunger strike I will survive only on water Until the people of Delhi
show courage and stop paying their
unfair electricity bills Our volunteers are
working with the belief that it’s possible
to end corruption Don’t be afraid 112,000 people have
signed letters of dissent Have faith, we will
only grow stronger If the electricity or water
officials come knocking drive them away Who owns electricity and water?
Sheila Dikshit or us? Sheila Dikhsit’s or ours? – They belong to us!
It’s ours! It belongs to us
not the corporations We must take back
what is ours – Delhi’s heart will burn until,
You take back your unfair bills Delhi’s heart will burn until
You take back your unfair bills I hoped and prayed for
Sheila Dikshit’s victory But who knew she would snatch
the bread from our mouths And deprive us
of basics Over 400,000 have
joined us in this fight Make it ‘In this struggle’ It’s done, tweet it! I’ve been overcharged
again and again But our last bill
crossed the limit Authorities promised to
check for errors But did nothing [Congress]
The people of Delhi have seen us work hard
for the last 14 years We have won three
times in a row People have
chosen us – Why did Sheila Dikshit
write a letter to DERC when they were
about to slash prices? Do you have an answer? [Congress] No, there is no
such letter [AAP] We have the signed
letter with us – DERC is independent! – Can I make a point? Don’t turn this into
a shouting match – I’m not shouting
I have a loud voice -That is all the news
we have for today – Thanks, brother! Nice to meet you Manish
– Same here Your associate Kumar
is an old friend Yes, he’s told us
everything about you So, what of it? In politics, everybody has stories – The curtain has been lifted
– We are all in the same boat You’re an infant in politics,
still learning to walk Don’t hunt what
you can’t kill People have started
noticing us The other parties
ignored these issues But only because
of the strike electricity and water will
steer the elections The electricity bill is $900
and water bill is $60 I don’t have that
kind of money The calculation within the party
is that 1 million signatures would mean touching
4 million potential voters How many people have
we reached so far? We have all the data
on our systems Give me an estimate From 13 neighbourhoods we have about…
– 600,000 people? We are with you If anything happens to you
we will end our lives too We promise you
We will fight for you – We support you Over a million
people have joined us in our protest against
Sheila Dikshit Today we are one step
closer to our goal I have decided to
end my fast These 1,049,300 protest letters reflect the anger of
the people of Delhi The letters hold Sheila Dikshit’s
corrupt government responsible for inflated electricity
and water bills These letters were to be
received by her today Instead they were
received by her staff We asked her secretary,
‘Will she not meet us?’ He replied,
‘The minister is sleeping’ I’ve seen you on TV The Congress Vice President
was on TV 24×7 Performing for the camera But all they got was 27 seats
in Uttar Pradesh Elections aren’t
won on television Journalists were confident
they would win at least 100 I estimated 30 seats
out of 403 And they won 27 – How many will we
win in Delhi? I’ll tell you when the
time comes Let’s focus on the
job at hand [Volunteer]
We’ll definitely win Not yet Not right now Our credibility is our
biggest strength Our candidates must be clean
– Yes, all 70 of them One bad candidate and
everything falls apart 16 Congress representatives 9 BJP representatives have charges of murder
and rape against them I promise that if any
of our candidates are found guilty of a
criminal charge We will revoke
their candidature A corrupt person cannot
enter the parliament And I challenge the BJP &
the Congress to stop nominating
corrupt candidates [Anchor] The BJP’s representative
on our session this afternoon Member of the National Executive
of the BJP – Mr. Sanjay Kaul Alright! So the die is heavily
loaded against me Look we have established
a vast system We have an office in every
corner of the country It has taken us
a lifetime BJP is 50 years old Congress is over
100 years old The AAP will take
decades to catch up This is just how politics
works in this country – Boo!
– Trust me, this is how it is When I was younger I was also in love with
the idea of revolution But this is no place
for emotions It just doesn’t
work like that Someone once said,
“Revolutionaries make great lovers but they make lousy husbands” They are good for flings
but not for settling down Do you know any
good people? Don’t worry, you’re
not on trial – No sir, it’s not that I am asking you to simply
identify honest people In other parties candidates buy
their way into the system We are asking
our volunteers to find upright candidates – I’ve sent you a text message Please read it – What’s in it? They are my credentials
I am nominating myself I suggest we look for people
other than ourselves – How much time do
we have to find someone? There’s plenty of time We will not stop until we
find strong candidates – When you say
“strong candidate” do you mean
a rich person? No, wealth
isn’t a criterion – Or a local goon
capable of murder? Certainly not A strong candidate is someone
with deep community ties Someone who
people admire The food subsidy system
in Delhi has failed The government spends billions
of dollars on food subsidy But the
reality is bleak We filed information
petitions across Delhi This scared the subsidy
officials into doing their job People finally began
receiving food They tried to intimidate me I was physically attacked during
our food subsidy campaign – Aren’t you afraid
for your life? No I’m not afraid because somebody
has to do it [Reporter] The AAP has released
a list of selected candidates Joining us now
is Arvind Kejriwal Candidate profiles can be
found on our website We are going to ask
people for feedback – In my opinion one
of the biggest problems in political parties is
sycophancy and yes-men How can we prevent this? – If I am the sole decision
making authority Then there will be a
personality cult But in our party, volunteers will
have decision-making powers Volunteers will decide
their candidate Potential candidates will
now come up and speak I had never imagined
I’d join politics But a decade of grassroots
work with Arvind helped me understand
a few things For instance, while fighting
for food security They tried to
get us killed They tried to
buy us out We were offered obscene amounts
of money to back off We were able to resist them
only because of Arvind… I know he doesn’t
like being praised I am fighting elections
there’s no doubt about it But from which constituency
I haven’t made up my mind Three-time Chief Minister
Sheila Dikshit We join her now What is the AAP Their volunteers
are all outsiders Is it a party? Can it compare with
the BJP and the Congress? This election vote for the AAP – Very happy to meet you, sir
– Thanks Tell your friends and family We bring flowers of love,
not guns and ammunition Go ahead and punish
the guilty Go ahead and punish
the guilty But don’t think of all
Muslims as terrorists Sing with me! Let’s live together as
brothers and sisters Sing it! Sheila Dikshit won the last 3 elections
from the same constituency in Delhi I have decided to fight
these elections against Sheila Dikshit
on her home turf I will bear true
faith and allegiance To the Constitution of India As by law established And that I will uphold the
sovereignty and integrity of India Is there anything that can
obstruct my application? Most importantly the affidavit
should be filled completely Will you tell us if there are
any irregularities in the form? We’ve double checked
everything but… No, in case of a discrepancy
we’ll notify you right away Immediately?
Oh, that’s great We’ve gone over it several times
but you never know… A very nice cartoon has come
out today in the papers where I’m asking a journalist,
“What is Kejriwal’s stand?” We don’t understand The next panel shows
Kejriwal responding “What does she mean by saying
what is my stand? My stand is to stand
for the elections!” Madam, look up! There was a time When politicians went
door to door for votes But now money is
used as brute force We need to counter this Nothing can beat a good
door-to-door campaign Hello, I’m from the AAP Do you know our election symbol?
– Yes I do! What is it?
– The broom Have you heard
of the AAP? – Yes, Arvind Kejriwal! He’s a good man
– So will you support us? On voting day?
– Yes, of course Thank you They will spare
no expense You will see their posters
in every corner of the city You may not see
our posters But we’ll knock on each
and every door in Delhi Are we ready? – Yes, sir Sheila Dikshit will
lose this time We will win We’ve collected $300 in
ten minutes This is how we’ll fund
our election campaign Yes? Hello? I am on TV right now I can’t talk right now – We talk about the need
for transparency in politics But it does not exist
in our own party We want volunteers to have the final
word on candidate selection – Are you saying only their vote
decides the final candidate? – Yes, volunteers must decide the
final candidate… – No, wait What if I don’t agree with your
choice of candidate Can I then choose not to
campaign for that candidate? You’ve always said that the volunteers
will be the final judge – I never said I won’t have
a say in it… – No you did…
– Hang on The volunteers will
decide… right? – You are nothing
without us, sir Manoj, calm down Just like a
democracy right? In some areas we have
as few as 30 volunteers Let’s say there are
four candidates The first candidate
gets 8 votes The second,10
and third, 12 Should the person with
12 votes get the spot? Are they the strongest
candidate? How can 2 votes determine the
strength of a candidate And there should
be no deliberation? Is this
democracy? What have you reduced
democracy to? These are your
own words, sir You built this party to give
greater power to the people Greater power does not
mean absolute power The idea is to have a dialogue,
I need to have a say as well Then what about
our rights? Why are we
even voting? – Your right?
Yes – You think this
is your right? – Isn’t it? I am only asking Are you doing this
for your rights? I am curious – Yes absolutely
Okay – Don’t take our right
away from us, sir Does everyone
agree with him? – I agree with him Nobody is entitled
to anything If you think
candidacy is a right Leave immediately! And if you want
to broker power leave right now Everyone has their
own coterie You are all lobbying
for your friends Do not lie to yourselves There is a serious
conflict of interest I have no
such interests – The candidate selection
process has been compromised Please sit down This is not an inquisition,
why are you talking like this? – You’re just trying
to confuse us Please sit down Can you please stay? We aren’t done yet Don’t you think
that the party is drifting away
from its ideals? We need a clear
answer from you The party has gone back on its
promise of internal democracy Honestly, we’re not in a position to
follow internal democracy We’re trying to find
a middle ground We’re struggling to fully
realise our principles I sincerely apologise Will an apology
make this go away? In the political sphere,
such things do happen Our intent is sincere
Please trust us I believe anyone fighting
elections is corrupt Then we can’t complain when
our women get raped You worry about your women
I can protect mine Any other issues you feel
the government has ignored? Nobody can change
anything around here Right I am not talking about
the present You are clean
right now We’ll always be clean, sir
– Only time will tell Can we trust a
government that can’t ensure
our food security? No! You are our representative
it’s your duty to make sure
we are heard – Santosh is one of us
and understands our cause and bravely fights
for our rights We call on her to represent
us in the government Use the one with
the big crowds – This is a good shot – The flames look nice
in the dark “You have to fight
corruption to the finish… …and vote for the
broom symbol this time” – Where’s the
poetry in that? Why not read out the
entire candidate list too! A short essay on
each candidate Your poetry is confusing
“The broom will sweep away” The ad should have clearly said
‘Vote for Broom’ Instead, you wanted
to be poetic “The Broom will sweep away” You are not serious
about the movement You made us into intense
people and let yourself go Can’t believe I quit
my job for this Stop making me laugh Now this fight… I can’t dub with you
laughing continuously – Should I be more dramatic? I haven’t even
had dinner – Let it show
in your art The funny thing is people
think he doesn’t laugh at all You, the people, have to
take this fight to the finish Aam Aadmi Party
Election Symbol – the Broom What is the situation? Aam Aadmi Party activist
and candidate from Seemapuri Santosh Koli was
critically injured When a car hit her bike [Police Officer] Did she ever mention
receiving any threats? About 15 days ago,
we were at the market She seemed worried
so I asked her “Why are you upset?
Your campaign is going so well” She said “Some local goons have
threatened to kill me” “They want me to drop out” She was already critical
when she was brought here She was vomiting continuously
so we had to intubate her The next 24 hours
are very critical Only after that we’ll
be able to let you know Santosh started working
with me in 2001 She was just a kid And ever since, she’s been
a younger sister to me She fought for
food subsidies… We are with you, Arvind We will fight!
We will win! They may try to threaten us
They may try to crush us We won’t back down Keep fighting, Arvind
We are with you Please donate
whatever you can This party needs
your support – Her temperature jumped
to 226 degree fahrenheit It was unbelievable It means there’s a
brain haemorrhage She started
bleeding thereafter Neurosurgery
couldn’t do much Any attempts at
recovery were futile Santosh will live in
our hearts forever! Please make space
for her family Everyone else
please step back The battle for
Delhi has begun and while both the
Congress and the BJP continue to downplay the
potential threat from the AAP The fact is for the first
time Delhi will have a truly triangular
contest in the capital Congress Party will live forever! – All parties have kickstarted
their election campaign BJP’s national leader,
Narendra Modi will be speaking at a
massive rally in Delhi Victory to BJP! Mr. Narendra Modi! The Delhi State
elections… will herald… the BJP’s victory
march across India We’ve done countless
demonstrations We pleaded with them Petitioned them We’ve done countless
demonstrations Sorry – One more time – Say it with a
little smile… Right, so let
me rehearse Power has to be taken away
from the corrupt politicians And the common public
shall truly be the rulers This concept is often
missed by the public Decentralization
of political power I know you are talking
about Swaraj But as a concept… People don’t understand that
they are the real rulers Do it like this
Let’s come together… to transform politics to curb corruption – Let’s come together If you want to
end corruption – Let’s join hands if you
want to curb corruption Let’s come together
to curb corruption Your support is crucial
for our cause Okay – Roll please?
– Rolling – Please start, sir Greetings! My name is Arvind Kejriwal We didn’t join
politics to make money We’ve done countless
demonstrations I went on long
hunger strikes You and I both wish
to end corruption We need your support We need your vote We do not have the
money to experiment with this kind
of a video It’s not working
for many reasons You know I like
this idea of Arvind talking directly
to the audience But that intimate connection
we’re looking for is missing He’s very stiff! ♪We will get Congress back♪ ♪For a victorious Delhi!♪ – Do you think this ad will change
how people feel about you? Will this campaign work? Will it make people trust
the Congress again? Be patient, you will get your
answer on election day Wait and watch Come to the office right away
It’s Sanjay Singh – AAP candidate Shazia Ilmi has been caught
in a sting operation agreeing to
stage a protest in return for
campaign funds The sting operation claims
many AAP candidates were willing to do exactly what they accuse
their opponents of in return for money – Massive crisis at
Arvind Kejriwal’s AAP Just ahead of the
Delhi elections A sting operation
video which shows AAP members purportedly
accepting money contrary to their claims They will lose all political capital
built up in the last few months – Yogendra!
Sir! Sir! Will you come speak
on Times Now? [Anchor] What’s going on,
Yogendra Yadav? We thought this is a
party with a difference your candidates
were different This is really low level – Yogendra, the surveys
that you had conducted showed massive
trends in AAP’s favour in several parts
of Delhi With this
sting operation Will the AAP survive? These tapes are edited
and clipped together We wish to see the
unedited versions We request the
owner of the video Mr.Anuranjan Jha who has conducted this
sting operation To give us the
unedited tape [Anuranjan Jha] Why should I give them
the raw footage? I am not obliged
to give them anything I will give it only
to a constitutional body Today, the party that
has blemished the names of so many Itself stands tainted AAP is the
most corrupt party We had lot of
hopes from them But now I want people
to thrash them Because we are accused We shouldn’t have access
to the evidence on the basis of which we
are accused This I’ve heard for the
first time in my life I thought even murderers are given evidence on the
basis of which they are tried The owners of the video refused
to give the raw footage to AAP but have submitted it to
the Election Commission This is the story
that’s breaking The sting operation
on the AAP The party has now accessed
raw footage of that sting from the
Election Commission [Reporter] We want to
hold a protest march If you could make
a small appearance It’ll help us
get attention But we have no proof to back
our claim against them What’s the process
for donation? This is the crucial bit where
they’ve cut the footage But we have no proof to back
our claim against them Can we do something else? Then… We can’t just
accuse like that I’ve been in television
for so long If there’s nothing
concrete We won’t do it “We won’t lie” – “We can’t accuse like that, Only if you have
something concrete” “We won’t do it” “We can’t lie” They cut 14 seconds and
changed the entire story This paints a completely
different picture They deliberately removed
10 seconds from a 3 minute video and those 10 seconds are
the most crucial part This shows that they were only
trying to defame the party Our volunteers and candidates
have suffered a huge setback Who’ll take
the responsibilty? Our reputation was
dragged through the mud Who’ll take the
responsibilty for it? [Journalist] There’s no doubt
that the sting has tarnished your image You will have to agree I’m agreeing on camera that the
sting has hurt the party Why are you stuck
on the same question? Who do you think
is behind this? BJP or Congress? I have no idea The Countdown has begun
for the assembly elections and no election will be watched
more closely than Delhi A fairly healthy debut for the Aam Aadmi Party With 7 seats for them The Congress is expected
to win 27 seats BJP, 32 seats The AAP could
win 8 seats leaving 3 seats
to independents The AAP, 7-12 So the big picture
that is emerging is that the Congress
is ahead Brother, vote for AAP – No, you have
no chance No problem, have a good day Congress and BJP have begun
a publicity blitzkrieg Their ads are in
the newspapers every day They’ve mobilised an army of
workers on ground They have their own
printing presses In the next 15 days
they’ll stir up a storm They have a far
superior organisation – You have repeatedly said
during your campaign that the Congress and the BJP
have no threat from the AAP – Yes… these are the
two traditional parties Arvind Kejriwal did… There is no point in
discussing Arvind Kejriwal His story is finished There are a lot of hopes
attached to you If you lose this
Delhi election a lot of things which can
happen in the national scene will get stalled for a
couple of years or more which is going to be
very, very bad Work 18 hour days
if you have to But you must win This is democracy ‘Rule of the People’ Ever since we were young,
we were told that ‘India is a democracy’ If we asked, “How?” The answer was
“Because we elect our leaders” Elections don’t
define democracy We vote once
in five years And the elected rule
without any accountability That’s not democracy People decide the
change they want and the leaders ensure
its delivered This is the democracy
we believe in Our name is
“Aam Aadmi Party” The party and Arvind Kejriwal
need to be seen as one Arvind’s face, the symbol of the
broom and the ‘AAP’ These three things need to
register in people’s mind Our aim is to disperse
the funds controlled by a few into the hands of the collective The six biggest issues emerging
from our survey in Delhi Water We also concluded
from our meeting today Once again the survey
shows very clearly Water is not only the most
important problem of Delhi It is three times more important
than the next important problem So it has to be
water, water, water! We believe this is a
basic human right and it is the government’s
duty to make it free No party has promised
such a thing We should be the first party to
say these things straight away Any promise apart from this one
must be made with caution If the poor cannot afford the
government’s water bills Will they go thirsty? Do they not have the
right to free water? When the AAP forms
the government 700 litres of free water will be
alloted to every household daily And in 30 days Electricity prices will
be halved in all of Delhi Free water for everyone AAP is for everyone Electricty prices will
bother no more When AAP comes
to the fore Are you being realistic? Or are you succumbing to the
worst forms of populism? Do you not believe you have
been unnecessarily exuberant? Making promises
which are unrealistic Especially cutting the
electricity bill by half and providing 700 litres
of free water to each family Our expectation is not
50% reduction of rates but in the bills that the
consumer finally pays It should lead to
50% reduction [Journalist] So it’s an expectation
not a promise It’s not clear in
the language We’ve spent a lot of time
thinking about the language Mr. Kejriwal has arrived We are with you if you promise
not to demolish our homes You need to ensure
our basic rights – I don’t have the
power right now! We’ll give you the power! Lead the way
we will never leave your side – We are with you! We promise to legalise
your dwellings We promise better
food security And you will all receive
a Social Security ID Yes! We will start
local clinics How will we fulfill these
promises in one year? Fortunately, these plans haven’t
been made public yet – They have, sir Arvind has made announcements
on Facebook & Twitter It’s not cast in stone I think we should still
think carefully This is the last chance
to think carefully We’re getting carried
away in our excitement We are being
optimistic But we cannot
commit this to paper I really think
we should think about it How are you, sir? – Congratulations I am the ex-president of Delhi BJP I have won an election from here as well
– Yes, I am aware You’re on full steam! I have seen rickshaws with
your posters on the back They are definitely impactful
– It’s working You’ve launched a
direct attack! When will your party
declare candidates? [BJP Member] In a couple
of weeks from now We’ve announced
the core team There are rumours about
internal conflicts It’s all part
of the game [Reporter] The BJP has bitten the
bullet over announcing its Chief Ministerial
candidate for Delhi Dr. Clean, Harsh Vardhan
got the nod after a meeting of the
BJP’s parliamentary body Who will we vote for?
– Congress! A lot of people ask “Why did Arvind decide to contest
against Sheila Dikshit?” “This is suicide,
you’ll never win” I can confirm that at the moment
Arvind is leading in your constituency [Announcer]
Arvind Kejriwal needs your support! On election day, when you
cast your votes remember how we transformed
Delhi in 15 years We are not politicians We entered politics because
they compelled us and now the people will
overthrow this government [Reporter] For the first time, Delhi is an impossible
state to predict The fact is, Sheila Dikshit
has been in power For 15 years
now in Delhi BJP is now rising And Arvind Kejriwal has caught
the imagination of the Delhi public – Vote for the Broom
– Vote for Congress 24 hours now
to the Delhi vote Nobody wants to put their neck
on the line on this one It’s going to be a
fiercely fought and extremely close battle
by the looks of it We need to remain vigilant
till the last vote is cast Our work is not
done just yet – It’s the same story before every election Money, alcohol and muscle power
being used to win votes The Delhi Election Commission
has announced a slew of precautionary
measures Flying squads along
with surveillance teams Are carrying
out raids We want to catch
the culprits red-handed Hello? Yes, tell me Is alcohol being distributed?
What’s your location? Open the door right now! Start the machine Press the
green button – Is it done?
– Yes This is for the first time fifty percent
vote mark is being crossed The police is harassing us
and not letting us do our job Calm down Where are you
right now? I’ll do something You can’t arrest
us like this They are obstructing
our volunteers File a complaint over
email immediately We could be seeing Delhi
going for a record poll figure The polls are
now closed The exit polls
are indicating A clear win for
the BJP in Delhi Our own poll
shows that BJP is poised to win
the election with 41 seats while Congress
will have 20 And the AAP
will have 6 seats Our evidence shows
that we were leading until 72 hours
before elections We don’t know
where we are now Exit polls say we
have slid down We are attempting to transform
the politics in this country and Delhi is our
stepping stone The volunteers understand
the importance of winning But we’ve compromised
our ideals to reach here Compromises have to be
made in politics True idealism can only be
practiced in a monastery Politics should be about
realising the ideal You start with an ideal But instead of just
preaching it everywhere We should implement
those ideals in the real world If you want the
advantages of power, You already have
the BJP and Congress who treat politics
as a business The challenge lies in navigating
between idealism and brute reality And in politics, this
challenge will always exist We don’t know what
tomorrow has in store If through some miracle,
you change this system in four days then something is wrong This will be
a long haul We will have to concede
defeat in some battles So that we can
win the war It’s the most anticipated
election result this year Will people repose faith in
Sheila Dikshit? Can the BJP’s HarshVardhan get
to rule Delhi for the first time? I am leaving, mother – Will you be
home late? At 11? 11
Maybe 12 [Election Officer] Counting starts
at 8:30 A.M. In fact counting has just begun – I pray for
your success! Hello! The BJP is leading right now Nangloi Jat goes to BJP Narela, BJP wins – We lost Narela?
By a big margin Who is leading here? Congress
– Okay Who is looking at
Karol Bagh? Will someone respond? Laxmi Nagar Congress is leading, we
are trailing by 1900 votes [Election Officer]
Sheila Dikshit has 1090 votes Arvind Kejriwal… Sheila Dikshit?
– 1090 votes Arvind Kejriwal? – 2556 votes Unbelievable.
Kejriwal is leading! Arvind is leading
by 2000 votes! We are leading
in Timarpur! We’re number one
in Timarpur – Oh wonderful! We’re leading in Santosh Koli’s
area by 8000 votes [News] For all the exit
and opinion polls Something very interesting
is happening in the National Capital Region Has Arvind Kejriwal managed to
successfully steal the agenda away from the BJP right
under its nose? This was meant to
be a referendum for Arvind Kejriwal’s
brand of politics Our candidate Akhilesh, who
was beaten up by the police Is leading by
8500 votes Sir, we’ve won Laxmi Nagar
by 6000 votes Congress party is in big
trouble this morning They are breached in
Narela by the AAP They are breached in
Sultan Pur Majra by the AAP The Congress party has been
breached in Patel Nagar by the AAP The Congress party has been
breached in RK Puram by the BJP It is clear that the
battle in Delhi is now between
BJP and the AAP Congress is nowhere
in the race and a comeback
seems unlikely In the New Delhi
Legislative Assembly counting for 12 rounds
is now over Arvind Kejriwal is leading
by 15,000 votes – Had Arvind campaigned
in my constituency I wouldn’t have
lost by 340 votes – Don’t worry…Winning and losing
is part of the game – Please sit down – Look at the number of
votes you’ve got? That’s the point Just tell me if you’ve
won or lost – He lost Where? Sultanpuri Majra Keep saving your work I don’t want to
lose any data If the AAP has taken
BJP’s spot They need to assess the
situation they’re in Congratulations, Arvind The Election Officer
will speak to you now Mr.Arvind Kejriwal We have just been told
that Arvind Kejriwal has won from the
New Delhi constituency with over 22,000 votes That’s a massive,
massive victory He has defeated Sheila Dikshit,
the incumbent chief minister There on your screens,
Arvind Kejriwal has just come out Look at the euphoria
here at the AAP office I believe that the
people will win, Democracy will win! Victory to Mother India! We have to be a strong
opposition now and show them
how it’s done We’ll raise those standards We rose against not only the
government failure’s but also the opposition’s Long Live
AAP! Long Live
Arvind Kejriwal! This victory belongs
to the people not me I’m an insignificant man – What do you have to say
about the margin of victory? This is a triumph
of the people This shows how frustrated
the common man was This is not my victory I’m an insignificant man The people of Delhi have taken a decision which we respect That’s all I can say just now It’s a stunning debut A political miracle of sorts Debutant AAP is not going to
form probably the next government But, my god what
a performance Congratulations, sir No party is in a position
to form a majority The BJP, the single largest party
in the Delhi Assembly Doesn’t want to take a
shot at government formation Rumblings within the congress
party are growing louder They’ve issued unconditional
support to the AAP How can we take support
from the Congress? It’s out of the question 50% off in electricity bills 700 litres of water
free to everybody Let them fulfill it – You’re not convinced
it is practical? No, are you? Having undertaken this miracle I’m deeply disappointed that they are
running away from their responsibilities and continuing to
be an NGO You have the majority with
the Congress supporting you Form an alliance and
fulfill your promises For the first time in history a government will be formed
in consultation with the people If you think the AAP shouldn’t
form the government please raise your hands About 50 people And now those who think
otherwise, raise your hands Form the government! I don’t agree
– Why? They should fight
another election These people challenged you and that’s why you
formed a party Now you are a
political party Admit you’re a political party
and act like a politician Go ahead and
deliver now! I support Delhi is all set to have
a new government It is history in the making This is a big moment for
Indian democracy But Yogendra, many questions are going
to be raised again and again about what Arvind and
you said earlier That there’s no question of taking
support from the Congress or the BJP How will you avoid the label of
being a party That started off
with politics Not as usual And may have in this choice
ended up embracing Politics as usual? I, Arvind Kejriwal By the grace of God Bear my allegiance to
the Constitution of India And promise to uphold it with
honesty, devotion and loyalty Long live
the revolution! Friends, today is a
historic day Two and a half
years ago We protested in
these very grounds with a demand to end
corruption in India For two years,
we did all we could Fasts, demonstrations,
everything But slowly it became clear This country will not
change until we transform the politics
of this country We will now
take the oath Repeat after me! I swear that as long as I live I will never take a bribe nor will I ever give a bribe Let’s say it again

Why Socratic Dialogue should become our business card | Sira Abenoza | TEDxESADE


Translator: Robert Tucker
Reviewer: Denise RQ Don’t worry, I did not go blank, it was planned, because today I want
to talk to you about dialogue. Although it’s a bit ironic to be talking
about dialogue while doing a monologue, but I still haven’t figured out
how to do a TEDx talk while dialoguing, so I’ll have to leave that one
for the next time. So, today, I’m going
to talk to you about dialogue, and that’s why I started with a silence, because dialogue
starts or grows out of silence. Dialogue starts by looking at the people
that we have in front of us and trying to understand what is it that they’re already sharing
without speaking. I started my professional journey
with deep concern. I had spent my years in college
divided into two worlds: I spent mornings surrounded
by business students at a business school where their main concern was to make as much money as possible
by the time they would turn 30 or 40. And I would spend afternoons
in the Faculty of Philosophy surrounded by classmates who would engage in endless conversations
on how to make the world a better place, how to make it more just,
how to make it more liveable. So, by the time I graduated,
I had something very clear: there was something that had to be done, or I desperately wanted
to do something about it, because those classmates that were doing
their studies in management were the ones who would have
power in the future, were the ones who would actually have
the chance to decide what the world
would look like in the future. And back then the only thing
they had in mind was to make money, whereas my classmates in philosophy, they did have great ideas
on how to make the world a better place, but I somehow knew that they would never
have the power to make that real. So then, my idea was, “OK, so what if I tried
to bring philosophy, and the concern
for society and for justice, to management schools
to raise that awareness among people who would have
power in the future?” So that’s how I started working on corporate social responsibility,
business ethics, teaching, doing research, and also consulting
with companies, with governments. I spent a few years preaching
this idea that you all know, which is that responsible management is management that incorporates the concern for all stakeholders. So responsible management
is not only answering to our shareholders, but it is trying to understand what is it that our stakeholders need,
expect, what are their interests, and that implies necessarily
engaging in real dialogue with them. So, I was preaching that for a while,
and then after a while I thought, “Well, this isn’t working. I mean, people seem
to agree with the idea, but the truth is that when they have to put it into
practice, they’re actually not doing it.” And then I suddenly had
the breakthrough, and it was like, “Yeah, of course, they’re not doing it,
because they don’t know how to dialogue.” And let’s be honest,
do you think we know how to dialogue? Politicians enter a TV set
having a certain idea, and leave the TV set
thinking exactly the same. They entered the TV set as a gladiator
that is about to win a battle against an opponent
that is there at the TV set. It’s the same for people
who are in roundtables, talk shows; all of them engage verbally not trying to understand
what the others are about to say, not trying to learn and to grow
from what the others are saying, but in order to win a battle. That’s actually the kind of message
of that we’re told all the time: we live in a competitive society, life is a zero-sum up game, you win or you lose,
and you have to go about fighting. You can bid with your business, but you also compete individually
when you engage with someone, because you have to show the world that you’re smart,
and that you can convince others. That, which is a debate mentality, is exactly the opposite
of what dialogue is. So at the end of the day, if our role models today
are the people that we see on TV, we’re not having role models
on how to dialogue. So then my idea was, “OK, if I want to make
future managers more responsible, I will have to help them
relearn how to dialogue.” Because I think that it’s not
that we never knew how to, it’s that we have forgotten,
we’ve lost the habit on how to. Then the question obviously was, “Yeah, great, you have to teach
how to dialogue, but the question is how.” Because, yeah, great,
it sounds great, but how – if no one is teaching us? Then I remembered about this guy
that I used to read a lot about, you know him, he was called
the father of philosophy – Socrates. Socrates spent all his life walking around and engaging in dialogue
with the citizens from Athens. So much so, that when he was sent to trial accused of trying to pervert
the minds of young people, and he was given the chance
to save his life if he stopped dialoguing, he said, “No, guys, I’d rather die
than stop dialoguing, than stop engaging
with others in dialogue.” So, I thought, he’s our guy. We need to reread,
relearn, or listen to his messages. One of his main messages is
that all of us know more than we know, meaning: the society has made us believe that we’re almost like empty recipients
that need to be told, that need to be fed on what we have to learn,
we have to do, etc. Socrates saw us, saw the human being, as, I would say, almost the opposite. All of us here have a great,
amazing knowledge inside of us. The thing is that we need others
to help us give birth to that knowledge, unravel those ideas
that we have inside of us. So, in that sense, if we want to dialogue, we will have to see the other as somebody
who has that potential in them. And dialogue will be about collaborating, it’ll be about teamwork, it will be about helping each other to give birth to those ideas,
to that knowledge that we have without knowing. So, first of all, talking about the how, the first thing
we have to bear in mind is: we have that knowledge inside, and we’re not going to compete
to become aware of that knowledge, we have to collaborate, and we’re going to help each other
to become more aware of that knowledge. But that there is also another thing
that is very important, and it is about changing our mindset. For example, we all have
this tendency to judge whatever is being said by others. I know you’re all judging me
– that’s fine, I know that – because we all judge
each other all the time. If we want to dialogue,
we will have to stop judging others, and we will have to start
really paying attention to what is being said, and feeling compelled to help the other build their own ideas that are there, latent, ready to be born. So that’s going to be very important. But it’s also going to be important
to connect to that genuine curiosity that we used to have
when we were two or three, when we kept asking asking
why, why, why, all the time, and our parents were like,
“Ah, ya, stop it.” So, go back to that moment
where we had that genuine curiosity, and when we were like Alice in Wonderland, and the world was full of wonder. So, that’s how we should relate to others: by connecting to our genuine curiosity,
because we all have that. Also, another tricky thing is that we will have to stop reacting
to what others say as if it were a threat. Because remember,
if others are a collaborator, someone who can help us unravel our ideas, whatever that other is going to say,
even if that is making us wrong, or making it obvious
that what we would we just said is silly, instead of taking that as a threat, we have to see that that is a tool that will help us, let’s say,
uncover all the layers of our knowledge, and get rid of the first layers
that are usually formed by prejudices. So, in that sense, whenever someone says something
that initially makes us feel bad, let’s think about it,
that can be a tool that can help us; and also let’s be flexible, because we have this tendency
to attach to our ideas as if without them, we were nothing. Well, ideas don’t belong to anybody, and what is interesting is to improve
and make them more sophisticated. Also, it is important
what I told you at the beginning: to deal with silence without going crazy, because we have time: if we want to dialogue,
there’s no rush, we have to breathe, and we have to be
comfortable with silence. But, you know what? Actually, dialogue is about practicing. I can tell you 1,000 ideas, but what is more important
is that you start to practice. Start to practice – and that I would say is relevant,
and that needs to be set – start to practice having something
very important in mind and in your body, which is, if you want to dialogue,
you have to trust. The reason why we’re not
being able to dialogue today is because we don’t trust each other. That’s why we judge, that’s why we react,
because we’re trained to debate, we’re trained to fight,
and we see others as a threat. If we want a dialogue, the basis, what we need to do, whatsoever,
otherwise it’s not going to happen, is trust others. Of course, it takes courage, because dialoguing means opening up, means sharing your ideas
and sharing your feelings. And we don’t know
what the other is going to do with our thoughts and with our feelings. But, if we want to dialogue, we’ll have to admit
and have that leap of faith, because otherwise
it’s not going to happen. And then you might say, “Yeah, but come on,
I mean, I’m fine the way I am. Why should I need to open up and then expose myself
to the threat of others? I’m fine, I’m comfortable. I don’t need to open up,
I don’t need to dialogue.” Well, I’ll give you two reasons
why it does make sense to dialogue. The first one is social. Socrates used to say
that evil always comes out of ignorance. And I would like to qualify that idea. To me evil comes
out of ignorance of the other. If we’re trained to debate,
which means if we’re trained to fight, we’re not being able to see the other, we’re not being able to understand what is it that the other
is feeling, experiencing, because we’re about to fight. If we start to open up, and see the other as a person, complex,
with feelings, and with everything, it’ll be much harder for us
to hurt, to do evil, because we’re going to be able
to put ourselves in their shoes, and then understand or feel
the harm that we’re about to provoke. And that, at least,
is going to reduce a little bit the evil that is caused in the world. I’ve seen that in jail. I’ve been, in the last years,
practicing dialogue in jail. You cannot imagine how tough
inmates are in terms of dialoguing, because they don’t trust anybody. They admit along the way that they haven’t been able to dialogue not only because they don’t trust anybody but because they grew up in an environment where there was no trust,
where nobody trusted them, and very young, they learned
that they couldn’t trust anybody. Once they understand – while dialoguing with law students
and with other groups – that by opening up, engaging
in dialogue, and by trusting they regain hope in the world, and they understand
the harm that they created, that creates a mental and emotional shift. So, why to engage in dialogue? Because if you are, if we are,
concerned about the future of the world, and we want to reduce evil, dialogue is a powerful tool
to reduce evil. But I’m also going to give you
a personal, more individual reason. I guess you all want to be happy. Aristotle used to say
that happiness means, or is, flourishing; meaning a happy person is a person
that has been able to flourish, to develop all the potential
that they have inside of them. If our life is about
competing, about debating, we will not have the time and space to grow the potential
that we have in ourselves, and therefore, according to Aristotle,
we will never be able to be happy. Hannah Arendt, the German philosopher, had this beautiful metaphor; she said, “Every time a baby
is born in the world, there’s hope that a new world
is going to grow.” So the idea is that not only that baby
is born in a world that is new to them, but that those babies
have the potential to build a new world. Those babies are only going to have
the potential, the possibility to build that new world if we give them the chance,
if we give them the space and the time. If instead of growing, competing,
and being in a constant battle, they have the chance
to engage in dialogue with each other, and they can see others and trust others as people who are going to help them to grow that new world
that they have in them. Before I leave,
I want to share a secret with you. Every day when you wake up
in the morning, you are that newborn. You are that newborn that is born
in a world that is new to them. You are the newborn
who has the power to choose whether you want to trust, to develop, and help others develop, and therefore,
make the world something new, make the world a better place. (Applause)

What you don’t know about marriage | Jenna McCarthy


Every year in the United States alone, 2,077,000 couples make
a legal and spiritual decision to spend the rest
of their lives together — (Laughter) And not to have sex with anyone else. Ever. He buys a ring, she buys a dress. They go shopping for all sorts of things. She takes him to Arthur Murray
for ballroom-dancing lessons. And the big day comes. And they’ll stand before God and family and some guy her dad
once did business with, and they’ll vow that nothing — not abject poverty, not life-threatening illness, not complete and utter misery — will ever put the tiniest damper
on their eternal love and devotion. (Laughter) These optimistic young bastards
promise to honor and cherish each other through hot flashes and midlife crises and a cumulative 50-pound weight gain, until that far-off day, when one of them
is finally able to rest in peace. (Laughter) You know, because they can’t hear
the snoring anymore. And then they’ll get stupid drunk and smash cake in each other’s faces
and do the Macarena. And we’ll be there, showering them with towels and toasters
and drinking their free booze and throwing birdseed at them
every single time … even though we know, statistically, half of them will be divorced
within a decade. (Laughter) Of course, the other half won’t, right? They’ll keep forgetting anniversaries and arguing about where to spend holidays and debating — (Laughter) Which way the toilet paper
should come off of the roll. And some of them will even still
be enjoying each other’s company when neither of them can chew
solid food anymore. And researchers want to know why. I mean, look — it doesn’t take
a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to figure out what makes
a marriage not work: disrespect, boredom, too much time on Facebook, having sex with other people. But you can have the exact
opposite of all of those things — respect, excitement, a broken Internet connection, mind-numbing monogamy — and the thing still can go
to hell in a handbasket. So, what’s going on when it doesn’t? What do the folks who make it all the way
to side-by-side burial plots have in common? What are they doing right? What can we learn from them? And if you’re still happily sleeping solo, why should you stop what you’re doing
and make it your life’s work to find that one special person that you can annoy
for the rest of your life? Well, researchers spend
billions of your tax dollars trying to figure that out. They stalk blissful couples and study their every move and mannerism. And they try to pinpoint
what it is that sets them apart from their miserable
neighbors and friends. And it turns out, the success stories
share a few similarities, beyond that they don’t have sex
with other people. For instance, in the happiest marriages, the wife is thinner and better-looking than the husband. (Laughter) Obvious. Right? It’s obvious that this leads
to marital bliss, because women — we care a great deal
about being thin and good-looking, whereas men mostly care about sex, ideally, with women who are thinner
and better looking than they are. The beauty of this research, though, is that no one is suggesting
that women have to be thin to be happy. We just have to be thinner
than our partners. So instead of all that laborious
dieting and exercising, we just need to wait
for them to get fat — (Laughter) Maybe bake a few pies. This is good information to have,
and it’s not that complicated. (Laughter) Research also suggests that the happiest couples are the ones
that focus on the positives. For example: the happy wife. Instead of pointing out
her husband’s growing gut or suggesting he go for a run, she might say, “Wow, honey, thank you
for going out of your way to make me relatively thinner.” (Laughter) These are couples
who can find good in any situation. “Yeah, it was devastating
when we lost everything in that fire. But it’s kind of nice sleeping
out here under the stars. And it’s a good thing you’ve got
all that body fat to keep us warm.” (Laughter) One of my favorite studies found that the more willing
a husband is to do housework, the more attractive
his wife will find him. Because we needed a study to tell us this. (Laughter) But here’s what’s going on here. The more attractive she finds him,
the more sex they have; the more sex they have,
the nicer he is to her; the nicer he is to her, the less she nags him
about leaving wet towels on the bed, and ultimately,
they live happily ever after. In other words, men,
you might want to pick it up a notch in the domestic department. Here’s an interesting one. One study found that people
who smile in childhood photographs are less likely to get a divorce. This is an actual study,
and let me clarify: the researchers were not looking
at documented self-reports of childhood happiness, or even studying old journals. The data were based entirely
on whether people looked happy in these early pictures. Now, I don’t know how old all of you are,
but when I was a kid, your parents took pictures
with a special kind of camera that held something called “film.” And, by God, film was expensive. They didn’t take 300 shots of you
in that rapid-fire digital video mode and then pick out the nicest,
smiliest one for the Christmas card. Oh, no. They dressed you up, they lined you up, and you smiled for the fucking camera
like they told you to or you could kiss
your birthday party goodbye. But still, I have a huge pile
of fake happy childhood pictures and I’m glad they make me less likely
than some people to get a divorce. So, what else can you do
to safeguard your marriage? Do not win an Oscar for best actress. (Laughter) I’m serious. Bettie Davis, Joan Crawford,
Halle Berry, Hilary Swank, Sandra Bullock, Reese Witherspoon — all of them single,
soon after taking home that statue. They actually call it the Oscar curse. It is the marriage kiss of death
and something that should be avoided. And it’s not just successfully
starring in films that’s dangerous. It turns out, merely watching
a romantic comedy causes relationship
satisfaction to plummet. (Laughter) Apparently, the bitter realization
that maybe it could happen to us, but it obviously hasn’t
and it probably never will, makes our lives seem
unbearably grim in comparison. And theoretically, I suppose if we opt for a film
where someone gets brutally murdered or dies in a fiery car crash, we are more likely to walk out
of that theater feeling like we’ve got it pretty good. (Laughter) Drinking alcohol, it seems,
is bad for your marriage. Yeah. I can’t tell you anymore about that one because I stopped reading it
at the headline. But here’s a scary one:
divorce is contagious. That’s right, when you have
a close couple friend split up, it increases your chances
of getting a divorce by 75 percent. Now, I have to say,
I don’t get this one at all. My husband and I have watched
quite a few friends divide their assets and then struggle
with being our age and single in an age of sexting
and Viagra and eHarmony. And I’m thinking they’ve done
more for my marriage than a lifetime of therapy ever could. So now you may be wondering:
Why does anyone get married ever? Well, the US federal government
counts more than a thousand legal benefits to being someone’s spouse. A list that includes
visitation rights in jail, but hopefully, you’ll never need that one. But beyond the profound federal perks, married people make more money. We’re healthier,
physically and emotionally. We produce happier, more stable
and more successful kids. We have more sex than our supposedly
swinging single friends, believe it or not. We even live longer, which is a pretty compelling argument
for marrying someone you like a lot in the first place. (Laughter) Now, if you’re not currently experiencing
the joy of the joint tax return, I can’t tell you how to find
a chore-loving person of the approximately ideal size
and attractiveness, who prefers horror movies and doesn’t have a lot of friends
hovering on the brink of divorce, but I can only encourage you to try, because the benefits, as I’ve pointed out, are significant. The bottom line is: whether you’re in it
or you’re searching for it, I believe marriage is an institution
worth pursuing and protecting. So I hope you’ll use the information
I’ve given you today to weigh your personal strengths
against your own risk factors. For instance, in my marriage,
I’d say I’m doing OK. One the one hand, I have a husband who’s annoyingly lean
and incredibly handsome. So I’m obviously going
to need fatten him up. And like I said, we have
those divorced friends who may secretly or subconsciously
be trying to break us up. So we have to keep an eye on that. And we do like a cocktail or two. On the other hand, I have the fake happy picture thing. And also, my husband does
a lot around the house, and would happily never see
another romantic comedy as long as he lives. So I’ve got all those things going for me. But just in case, I plan to work extra hard
to not win an Oscar anytime soon. And for the good of your relationships, I would encourage you to do the same. I’ll see you at the bar. (Laughter) (Applause)

Michael Tilson Thomas: Music and emotion through time


Translator: Timothy Covell
Reviewer: Morton Bast Well when I was asked to do this TEDTalk, I was really chuckled, because, you see, my father’s name was Ted, and much of my life, especially my musical life, is really a talk that I’m still having with him, or the part of me that he continues to be. Now Ted was a New Yorker, an all-around theater guy, and he was a self-taught illustrator and musician. He didn’t read a note, and he was profoundly hearing impaired. Yet, he was my greatest teacher. Because even through the squeaks of his hearing aids, his understanding of music was profound. And for him, it wasn’t so much the way the music goes as about what it witnesses and where it can take you. And he did a painting of this experience, which he called “In the Realm of Music.” Now Ted entered this realm every day by improvising in a sort of Tin Pan Alley style like this. (Music) But he was tough when it came to music. He said, “There are only two things that matter in music: what and how. And the thing about classical music, that what and how, it’s inexhaustible.” That was his passion for the music. Both my parents really loved it. They didn’t know all that much about it, but they gave me the opportunity to discover it together with them. And I think inspired by that memory, it’s been my desire to try and bring it to as many other people as I can, sort of pass it on through whatever means. And how people get this music, how it comes into their lives, really fascinates me. One day in New York, I was on the street and I saw some kids playing baseball between stoops and cars and fire hydrants. And a tough, slouchy kid got up to bat, and he took a swing and really connected. And he watched the ball fly for a second, and then he went, “Dah dadaratatatah. Brah dada dadadadah.” And he ran around the bases. And I thought, go figure. How did this piece of 18th century Austrian aristocratic entertainment turn into the victory crow of this New York kid? How was that passed on? How did he get to hear Mozart? Well when it comes to classical music, there’s an awful lot to pass on, much more than Mozart, Beethoven or Tchiakovsky. Because classical music is an unbroken living tradition that goes back over 1,000 years. And every one of those years has had something unique and powerful to say to us about what it’s like to be alive. Now the raw material of it, of course, is just the music of everyday life. It’s all the anthems and dance crazes and ballads and marches. But what classical music does is to distill all of these musics down, to condense them to their absolute essence, and from that essence create a new language, a language that speaks very lovingly and unflinchingly about who we really are. It’s a language that’s still evolving. Now over the centuries it grew into the big pieces we always think of, like concertos and symphonies, but even the most ambitious masterpiece can have as its central mission to bring you back to a fragile and personal moment — like this one from the Beethoven Violin Concerto. (Music) It’s so simple, so evocative. So many emotions seem to be inside of it. Yet, of course, like all music, it’s essentially not about anything. It’s just a design of pitches and silence and time. And the pitches, the notes, as you know, are just vibrations. They’re locations in the spectrum of sound. And whether we call them 440 per second, A, or 3,729, B flat — trust me, that’s right — they’re just phenomena. But the way we react to different combinations of these phenomena is complex and emotional and not totally understood. And the way we react to them has changed radically over the centuries, as have our preferences for them. So for example, in the 11th century, people liked pieces that ended like this. (Music) And in the 17th century, it was more like this. (Music) And in the 21st century … (Music) Now your 21st century ears are quite happy with this last chord, even though a while back it would have puzzled or annoyed you or sent some of you running from the room. And the reason you like it is because you’ve inherited, whether you knew it or not, centuries-worth of changes in musical theory, practice and fashion. And in classical music we can follow these changes very, very accurately because of the music’s powerful silent partner, the way it’s been passed on: notation. Now the impulse to notate, or, more exactly I should say, encode music has been with us for a very long time. In 200 B.C., a man named Sekulos wrote this song for his departed wife and inscribed it on her gravestone in the notational system of the Greeks. (Music) And a thousand years later, this impulse to notate took an entirely different form. And you can see how this happened in these excerpts from the Christmas mass “Puer Natus est nobis,” “For Us is Born.” (Music) In the 10th century, little squiggles were used just to indicate the general shape of the tune. And in the 12th century, a line was drawn, like a musical horizon line, to better pinpoint the pitch’s location. And then in the 13th century, more lines and new shapes of notes locked in the concept of the tune exactly, and that led to the kind of notation we have today. Well notation not only passed the music on, notating and encoding the music changed its priorities entirely, because it enabled the musicians to imagine music on a much vaster scale. Now inspired moves of improvisation could be recorded, saved, considered, prioritized, made into intricate designs. And from this moment, classical music became what it most essentially is, a dialogue between the two powerful sides of our nature: instinct and intelligence. And there began to be a real difference at this point between the art of improvisation and the art of composition. Now an improviser senses and plays the next cool move, but a composer is considering all possible moves, testing them out, prioritizing them out, until he sees how they can form a powerful and coherent design of ultimate and enduring coolness. Now some of the greatest composers, like Bach, were combinations of these two things. Bach was like a great improviser with a mind of a chess master. Mozart was the same way. But every musician strikes a different balance between faith and reason, instinct and intelligence. And every musical era had different priorities of these things, different things to pass on, different ‘whats’ and ‘hows’. So in the first eight centuries or so of this tradition the big ‘what’ was to praise God. And by the 1400s, music was being written that tried to mirror God’s mind as could be seen in the design of the night sky. The ‘how’ was a style called polyphony, music of many independently moving voices that suggested the way the planets seemed to move in Ptolemy’s geocentric universe. This was truly the music of the spheres. (Music) This is the kind of music that Leonardo DaVinci would have known. And perhaps its tremendous intellectual perfection and serenity meant that something new had to happen — a radical new move, which in 1600 is what did happen. (Music) Singer: Ah, bitter blow! Ah, wicked, cruel fate! Ah, baleful stars! Ah, avaricious heaven! MTT: This, of course, was the birth of opera, and its development put music on a radical new course. The what now was not to mirror the mind of God, but to follow the emotion turbulence of man. And the how was harmony, stacking up the pitches to form chords. And the chords, it turned out, were capable of representing incredible varieties of emotions. And the basic chords were the ones we still have with us, the triads, either the major one, which we think is happy, or the minor one, which we perceive as sad. But what’s the actual difference between these two chords? It’s just these two notes in the middle. It’s either E natural, and 659 vibrations per second, or E flat, at 622. So the big difference between human happiness and sadness? 37 freakin’ vibrations. So you can see in a system like this there was enormous subtle potential of representing human emotions. And in fact, as man began to understand more his complex and ambivalent nature, harmony grew more complex to reflect it. Turns out it was capable of expressing emotions beyond the ability of words. Now with all this possibility, classical music really took off. It’s the time in which the big forms began to arise. And the effects of technology began to be felt also, because printing put music, the scores, the codebooks of music, into the hands of performers everywhere. And new and improved instruments made the age of the virtuoso possible. This is when those big forms arose — the symphonies, the sonatas, the concertos. And in these big architectures of time, composers like Beethoven could share the insights of a lifetime. A piece like Beethoven’s Fifth basically witnessing how it was possible for him to go from sorrow and anger, over the course of a half an hour, step by exacting step of his route, to the moment when he could make it across to joy. (Music) And it turned out the symphony could be used for more complex issues, like gripping ones of culture, such as nationalism or quest for freedom or the frontiers of sensuality. But whatever direction the music took, one thing until recently was always the same, and that was when the musicians stopped playing, the music stopped. Now this moment so fascinates me. I find it such a profound one. What happens when the music stops? Where does it go? What’s left? What sticks with people in the audience at the end of a performance? Is it a melody or a rhythm or a mood or an attitude? And how might that change their lives? To me this is the intimate, personal side of music. It’s the passing on part. It’s the ‘why’ part of it. And to me that’s the most essential of all. Mostly it’s been a person-to-person thing, a teacher-student, performer-audience thing, and then around 1880 came this new technology that first mechanically then through analogs then digitally created a new and miraculous way of passing things on, albeit an impersonal one. People could now hear music all the time, even though it wasn’t necessary for them to play an instrument, read music or even go to concerts. And technology democratized music by making everything available. It spearheaded a cultural revolution in which artists like Caruso and Bessie Smith were on the same footing. And technology pushed composers to tremendous extremes, using computers and synthesizers to create works of intellectually impenetrable complexity beyond the means of performers and audiences. At the same time technology, by taking over the role that notation had always played, shifted the balance within music between instinct and intelligence way over to the instinctive side. The culture in which we live now is awash with music of improvisation that’s been sliced, diced, layered and, God knows, distributed and sold. What’s the long-term effect of this on us or on music? Nobody knows. The question remains: What happens when the music stops? What sticks with people? Now that we have unlimited access to music, what does stick with us? Well let me show you a story of what I mean by “really sticking with us.” I was visiting a cousin of mine in an old age home, and I spied a very shaky old man making his way across the room on a walker. He came over to a piano that was there, and he balanced himself and began playing something like this. (Music) And he said something like, “Me … boy … symphony … Beethoven.” And I suddenly got it, and I said, “Friend, by any chance are you trying to play this?” (Music) And he said, “Yes, yes. I was a little boy. The symphony: Isaac Stern, the concerto, I heard it.” And I thought, my God, how much must this music mean to this man that he would get himself out of his bed, across the room to recover the memory of this music that, after everything else in his life is sloughing away, still means so much to him? Well, that’s why I take every performance so seriously, why it matters to me so much. I never know who might be there, who might be absorbing it and what will happen to it in their life. But now I’m excited that there’s more chance than ever before possible of sharing this music. That’s what drives my interest in projects like the TV series “Keeping Score” with the San Francisco Symphony that looks at the backstories of music, and working with the young musicians at the New World Symphony on projects that explore the potential of the new performing arts centers for both entertainment and education. And of course, the New World Symphony led to the YouTube Symphony and projects on the internet that reach out to musicians and audiences all over the world. And the exciting thing is all this is just a prototype. There’s just a role here for so many people — teachers, parents, performers — to be explorers together. Sure, the big events attract a lot of attention, but what really matters is what goes on every single day. We need your perspectives, your curiosity, your voices. And it excites me now to meet people who are hikers, chefs, code writers, taxi drivers, people I never would have guessed who loved the music and who are passing it on. You don’t need to worry about knowing anything. If you’re curious, if you have a capacity for wonder, if you’re alive, you know all that you need to know. You can start anywhere. Ramble a bit. Follow traces. Get lost. Be surprised, amused inspired. All that ‘what’, all that ‘how’ is out there waiting for you to discover its ‘why’, to dive in and pass it on. Thank you. (Applause)