DIY How To Make an Oversized T-Shirt | Banana & Palm Leaves May Arts Ribbon | Clothes Sewing Project

Bonjour Hi, I’m Venezia Lowis in this video, I cooperate with one of… the famous ribbon company from Stamford, United States …the brand is May Arts Ribbon you can check to their website: they sell any kind of ribbons from satin, silk material and also ribbon with pom pom and flamingo accents, and much more… so cute.. yeay… my package has arrived! the delivery is very fast, it’s only takes about one week wow I’m so excited because I got so many products so many cute ribbons but I can’t show all of them to you you need to subscribe to my channel because I will create DIY with these ribbons in this tutorial, I will make oversized clean cut T-shirt I am wearing tropical leaf ribbon from it’s green it has some summer sensations okay, let’s start the tutorial… that’s all for this tutorial I hope you like it bye bye…

DIY Turn Old Dress Into T-Shirt | Velvet Tee | Clothes Transformation

Bonjour! Hi, I’m Venezia Lowis this time I made a velvet t-shirt I remodeled this from my own old dress creation I’ve had a crush on this velvet fabric although many of people say this fabric is weird… old… but I think this fabric is unique the drape of fabric is also gorgeous it reflects light which makes this fabric so shiny btw, velvet has been a strong fall trend this season so, we immediately begin to the DIY! let’s go!

Creating a formal business letter in Microsoft Word – Word 2016 Tutorial [3/52]

Hi there, my name is Dan. This is a free clip from my larger
Microsoft Word training course. Check out the link in the
description, or go to… for more. Hi there, in the next
couple of videos… we’re going to be building this
formal business letter here… in Microsoft Word 2016. So, let’s get started. So first things first,
let’s open up Word. I’m using Windows 10,
and Microsoft Word 2016. To open it up, click on
the little windows icon. I find it’s just easier where it
says, at the bottom it says… “Ask me anything”. I’m
going to click ‘Word’. There he is there. Open him up. Great! This is our initial screen. You can start with a blank document… which is what we’re going
to do in this video… but what you can do, if you want to… maybe save some time,
work from a template. At the top here, there’s
‘Search for templates’. You can put in, say, ‘letterhead’. Hit ‘Return’. You need to be connected to the net… because there are lots of stuff… that it downloads from the
net while it’s working. So sometimes internet
connection is helpful. You can see, I’ve put in letterhead… and I’ve got a few options,
there’s not a huge amount. So when it comes to
picking our template… often you’re going to kind of
play with the words that you use. So instead of ‘letterhead’
if you just put in ‘letter’. You get a big difference in terms
of the results, can you see? This might be more what
you’re looking for… and this is what we’re going
to be aiming towards. So, have a look through
this, this might be– You might find something in
here, and you’re like… “Job done,” skip this
whole series of videos… and just start working from
these letterheads here. I find these templates
a little bit tough… because there’s lots of
automated bits in them. So if you’re new, you
might find them… not as helpful as they
kind of appear to be. Now, even if you don’t
use these templates… because there’s kind of
bits of automation in them. I find the language in
them is really useful. If you need to– I don’t know– This one here, a letter
confirming lost credit card… you need to have that
pre-written, go in there… grab the text that you’ve been
using for your own stuff. There’s some useful stuff in there… and then there’s some
less than useful stuff… like this one here, it’s
not less than useful. Employee termination letter
due to poor performance. It’s kind of scripted,
and written, and– Yes, there’s some good ones in
there, some interesting ones. Anyway, we’re not going to start with
templates, what we’re going to do is… we’re going to click the word ‘Home’… and we’re going to start
with a blank document. So the first thing we do with any
document is give it a ‘Save’. You can see, up the top
left hand corner… is this little old diskette
thing, click ‘Save’. Where are we going to stick it? It’s
up to you where yours is going to go. Probably the most common is,
if you click on ‘Browse’… and if you go to your
‘Documents’ on the left. I’m going to make a new folder
in here to put all my files. Don’t just dump them in
here, you can, of course. At the top here, it says ‘New Folder’. If you’re using an old
version of Windows… sometimes you can ‘right click’… and go to ‘New’, ‘Folder’;
they’re all slightly different. So, with this new folder here– Actually I’m going to rename it… so I’m going to ‘right
click’ it, go to ‘Rename’. and this is going to be
my ‘Word Class Files’. So we’re going to put everything
today into that folder. When you’ve made a new folder,
and you hit ‘Save’ now. It’s actually not going to go
inside until you click on it. Watch this, ‘double click’… and now I’m inside my ‘Documents’,
inside ‘Word Class Files’. I’m going to give this one a name. Now when it comes to
naming conventions… you can give it anything you like, so
in my case I’m going to call it ‘BYOL’. It’s going to be the company… and this one’s going to be a ‘Credit
Letter’ that we’re writing. At the end of these things, often… you can add a ‘V1’, ‘V2’, ‘V3’
for any adjustments you make… or comments that come back. Never call if ‘Final’. Final
is the kiss of death. If you call it ‘Final’, you’ll
have ‘Final2’, ‘Final Revisited’. Just a ‘V1’, ‘V2’ works great.
Let’s click ‘Save’. That’s the super easy
stuff, out of the way. Let’s move on to the next video. How did you find that video? Was it good, was it bad? If you liked it, go check
out more of my courses on…

What Will Happen When Earth’s North And South Pole Flip?

– [Narrator] Did you know that
Earth has two north poles? There’s the geographic north pole, which never changes, and there’s the magnetic north pole, which is always on the move. And right now it’s
moving faster than usual. Over the last 150 years, the magnetic north pole has casually wandered 685
miles across northern Canada. But right now, it’s racing 25 miles a year to the northwest. This could be a sign that we’re about to
experience something humans have never witnessed before: a magnetic polar flip. When this happens, it
could effect much more than just your compass. – Right now on the surface of the planet, it looks like it’s just a bar magnet. Our compasses are just pointing
toward one pole at a time. There’s a dominant two
pole, dipole system. – [Narrator] But sometimes,
Earth doesn’t always just have a single magnetic
north and south pole. Evidence suggests that
for hundreds to thousands of years at a time, our planet has had four, six and even eight poles at a time. This is what has happened when the magnetic poles
flipped in the past. And when it happens again, it
won’t be good news for humans. Now you might think that eight poles must be better than two, but the reality is that
multiple magnetic fields would fight each other. This can weaken Earth’s
protective magnetic field by up to 90% during a polar flip. Earth’s magnetic field is what shields us from harmful space radiation which can damage cells, cause cancer and fry electronic circuits
and electrical grids. With a weaker field in place, some scientists think
this could expose planes to higher levels of radiation
making flights less safe. This could also disrupt
the internal compass in many animals which use the
magnetic field for navigation. Even more extreme, it
could make certain places on the planet too dangerous to live. But what exactly will
take place on the surface is less clear than what will
undoubtedly happen in space. Satellites and crude space missions will need extra shielding that we’ll have to provide ourselves. Without it, intense
cosmic and solar radiation will fry circuit boards and increase the risk
of cancer in astronauts. Our modern way of life
could cease to exist. We know this because we’re
already seeing a glimpse of this in an area called the
South Atlantic Anomaly. Turns out, the direction of a portion of the magnetic field
deep beneath this area has already flipped. Scientists say that’s
one reason why the field has been steadily weakening since 1840. As a result, the Hubble Space Telescope and other satellites often shut down their
sensitive electronics as they pass over the area. And astronauts on the
international space station report seeing a higher number
of bright flashes of light in their vision, thought to be caused by high energy cosmic rays that the weaker field can’t hold back. Since experts started measuring the anomaly a few decades ago, it has grown in size. It now covers a fifth of Earth’s surface with no signs of shrinking anytime soon. This is so extreme that it could be a sign we’re on the brink of a polar flip or we may already be in the midst of one. But scientists remain
skeptical, mainly because… – The last time the poles
reversed was 780,000 years ago so we don’t have a record of this. – [Narrator] Turns out, 780,000 years is over double the time Earth
usually takes between flips. – Since the last mass extinction, there have been reversals
roughly every 300,000 years. – [Narrator] So, what gives? Well, scientists haven’t
figured it out, yet. It’s unnerving to think
that our modern way of life, banking, the stock exchange,
missile tracking, GPS, relies on the outcome of something we can neither
predict nor control. One study went so far as to estimate that a single, giant solar storm today could cost the U.S. up to 41.5 billion dollars a day in damages, and that’s with the Earth’s magnetic field at it’s current strength. It’s frightening to even imagine the devastation a storm
would bring to an Earth with a magnetic field only
10% as strong as it is now. We may not be able to stop a polar flip, but we can at least start to take measures to minimize the damage. The first step, figure out what’s going on with this wacky field. On the hunt are the
European space agency’s Swarm satellites that are currently collecting
the most precise data on the strength of Earth’s magnetic field. Right now they could be our greatest hope for solving this riddle.

Indra Nooyi, PepsiCo Chairman and CEO & Doug McMillon, Walmart President and CEO

[MUSIC] [APPLAUSE]>>Let’s see, good afternoon.>>Good afternoon.>>At Walmart,
we tend to speak back to each other. We’re going to have some time
in a little bit to talk so please be thinking about what
you might want to ask us about. I’m really excited,
Indra, that you’re here.>>I am too.>>They told me I couldn’t come
back unless I brought you with me.>>[LAUGH]
>>And I said I’d come back only if you
were going to do it with me.>>[LAUGH]
>>I want to start with maybe the most important question, and that is,
when you’re in your University and you were playing cricket, what position
did you plan on the university team?>>[LAUGH]
>>You know, first of all, do you know what cricket is all about?>>I do not. And I-
>>Okay, so.>>[LAUGH]
>>Still not going to make a difference
what I tell you.>>I’m not really very interested either.>>Okay, okay. [LAUGH]
>>Go ahead. Let me-
>>What position did you placed here?>>I opened the busing and the bowling. [SOUND]
>>Someone knows what that means. It’s really great. [LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH]>>Are you impress?>>Leadership.
>>Are you impress?>>I think so, yeah.>>Then, I was also the captain
of the Cricket team.>>That was kind of my point. She’s a leader.>>[LAUGH]
>>I have known Indra for a really long time, and I was thinking about
what words I would use to describe her. And some of them would be, visionary,
competitive, tough-minded, caring.>>Indra makes things happen. She has a natural leadership
characteristic that you have used not only to lead PepsiCo and
in your previous roles, but you also influenced Walmart in a big way.>>Mm. I appreciate it, Doug, but
let me give you the compliment back. Doug and I know each other for
a long, long time. And I’ve always referred to
Doug as not just Doug McMillon, I’d call him Doug McMillon Walton,
because he represents the best of Walmart, the values of Walmart. And believe me, even though we’re
a generation apart in age, Doug.>>[LAUGH]
>>I’m not sure.>>I’m much older. I’ve learned so much from Doug,
the way he operates this large company. And is repositioning it, and so I think this is a two person back slapping
society and I’m the charter member of it.>>[LAUGH]
>>So as we think about what these people might
be interested in or benefit from the most, the first thing that comes
to my mind is change. And I know your business well enough and
know what you’re thinking well enough to know that you’re facing a situation where
the world is changing very dramatically. People are changing, the environment
you’re operating is changing and you’re trying to position PepsiCo for
the future. So maybe we start out with
starting out talking about what you see that convinces you
that PepsiCo needs a change and what is it that you are trying to
accomplish during your tenure.>>It’s many questions nested in one but
let me take a shot at it. I think every company today,
the CEOs of every company, are looking at the environment and
sort of the investor expects you to be this duck that’s just sort
of swimming across the water. And in the past these ducks
would sort of furiously swim underneath the water
just to move ahead. Now, it’s like you’ve got to paddle on
steroids because the pace of change is so enormous that you’ve got to paddle even
faster just to make small movements. And nobody is going to give you
a break and say you can slow down or you can actually stay in place for awhile. What’s changing? And I’ll talk about the food and beverage industry because in a way
our interests intersect there. Every aspect of the business is changing. What is healthy food is changing. What do people want to eat and
drink is changing. How should products be
labeled has not been defined. There is no authority that defines it. Supply change are globalizing yet
traceability and safety standards have
not been established. There’s an NGO in every corner. So, there’s somebody there calling us
out when don’t do things right but then there’s no standard to look at
in terms of what we need to do right. The retail environment is changing
whether it’s the emergence of Walmart in the 90s and the year 2000s or
now the hard discounters and the emergence of e-commerce. Everything about the world is changing. And then, right here in Silicon Valley,
all of the best and brightest that we want in our companies
are being recruited by these startups. So we have a tough time recruiting
the right talent to run our companies. I’m speaking to all of you, so
I think, what happens is that, we are facing unprecedented
change in our business models. And on top of that, we have to globalize,
but the world is a tough place right now. We’ve got economic volatility,
macro-economic crises in many, many places, political upheaval. So I think companies like ours,
if you really want to keep performing, you’ve almost gotta change
your model all the time. And Klaus Schwab of the world
economic forum talks about this and says, you’ve always gotta be in beta. It sounds wonderful as a set of words, but when you actually have to practice
in the company, it’s pretty scary. Because it’s not motivating
a small group of start ups or a small group of employees who have
the same thinking that you do. We have 260,000 employees and
when you decide to zag and zig you got to tell them what you’re
going to be doing, why you’re doing it. How it’s going to impact them and why they all have to some
along with you on the journey. Let me give you examples when we decided
to change our product portfolio to go for a predominantly fun for you product
line to including more better for you, good for you products. Different profitability, very different
product line, closer to agriculture. Changed the model in the company. Our employees had to go,
what is she doing? Why do we have to change? We’re doing pretty well selling these
products, why do we have to change? But the challenge of the leader
is looking around the corner and making the change before it’s
too late to make the change. I remember as late as 2007 or 2008. Going to see investors. And they looked at me and said,
why do you have to change your portfolio? We are American. We like soda and chips. Your job is to sell more soda and chips. And I sat there in shock,
because every trend that I was seeing, indicated that the consumption of
these categories was slowing down. And I looked at the investor and
I said have you changed your eating and drinking habits. And that person said yeah, but
forget me I’m not the normal consumer. I said the problem is many
consumers are like you. They’ve changed their eating and
drinking habits. Today, that same investor says
to me why can’t you go faster. Why you so
slow at making a portfolio change? It’s because people like you wrote
a ballast for me, you didn’t let me go faster because you always criticize what I
was doing, all right, but that’s reality. So I think we’re in a world
of unprecedented change where companies, the CEOs,
the DNA of the company, has to change. And we all have to change at a point
when short term is abundance. Everybody wants the results today. And the tolerance you have to make
the change on a large scale is not there. And I’m sure you’re facing
the same issues, Doug. And I mean,
I watch it in action at Walmart. So tell me a bit about
what you’re going through? I wanted to ask you the questions.>>[LAUGH]
>>I already have another one.>>Either way.>>I think it’s very similar. I mean you know where you are and
you develop a vision for where you need to be and trying to get
from here to there is the hard part. I feel like that the vision that we have,
collectively, is improving all the time. But turning around and moving an
organization that’s older than 50 years, that was built for certain purpose, with 2.3 million people,
is a big part of the challenge. And the last time I was here,
I admitted that I have envy for those who were at a startup, because
you can write your culture on the wall, or your values on the board,
and you can go that direction, you get to create something
rather than change something. And changing something feels harder. And then I said to anyone who wants
a great challenge, let me know and we’ll hire you at Walmart. I had one person call me. [LAUGH] So, you know, it is hard and I think these people are smart
enough to figure that out.>>That’s true.>>Let’s go to learning. You mentioned that you’re seeing what
you believe the company should become. You didn’t arrive in this position
knowing everything that you know now. How do you go about learning as
an individual and using the knowledge that you are picking up to shape the future
because as you know strategic planning cycles are gone now, its strategy is
being shaped hourly not annually.>>The one big lesson I’ve learned,
Doug, is that if you just depend on the traditional strategic planning cycle,
or depend on a standard set of consulting reports, you actually are going to
do your company a big disservice. And our CEOs and
leaders have to be life long students and not just students in sense of attending
courses or reading a book or two. You’ve gotta learn how to read widely,
walk the market, look at trends in the market place,
make connections that don’t seem obvious. And start to paint pictures
of what the future could be. And then watch consumer behavior. I’ll give you an example. Ten years ago or maybe 15 years
ago if you came to PepsiCo and looked at all the beverages that
we’re being served on the side tables when we’re having meetings. Most of the people will be
consuming full sugar beverages. About ten years ago the trend shifted. Maybe 20 years ago they
were drinking full sugar. Ten years ago they shifted to diet drinks. But five years ago they were
drinking more bottled water. Now the point I make to
my guys is guys don’t you don’t need to hire a consultant
to tell you where the trends are. You just have to look at our side table. Remember the number of
faces we use to have for regular sugar Pepsi versus diet
Pepsi versus bottled water now. If you’re all drinking bottled water or
drinking zero calorie beverages, why do we think we’re not
representative of the consumer? Very often I think what
happens is we separate out the consumer out there
from the consumer in us. We are the consumer. And the more we can bring the two together
and say we too are representative of the consumer outside,
I think it will be better we go out and our children play with other children,
we see other families. And when they moderate certain
products that we sell, in terms of what’s given to kids,
that’s a trend, okay? So, we’ve gotta watch all of these things. And too often, I think, us leaders
think what consultants tell us, or what certain reports say, or
certain books say, is the gospel. It’s really not. We have to become our own data collectors,
data analyzers and then shape creators. And I think that’s the toughest thing
because people who are rewriting the rules have to create the shapes and people don’t
like that because they have a traditional model of how things work and they hate
people who upset status quo and I think both of us are upsetting status quo in
a big way and it’s tough but it’s fun.>>It is. It’s sometime to take your kind a business
hat off and be a customer or consumer and I’ll admit when I’m working,
like yesterday I went to Palm Springs and visited a Super Center,
I’ll put my Walmart badge on and I walk into that store, and
I have a certain mindset. On the weekend, I went shopping. Because we needed milk and
some things at home. And my vision of that store-
>>Did you go to Walmart?>>Of course.>>[LAUGH]
I’m not stupid, I mean.>>[LAUGH]
But I just experienced out of stocks
differently, everything felt different. And staying objective and
being in the moment is something that I continue to work on whether
it’s a mobile app or the store.>>Yeah, I do market tours every weekend. The first few years that I was a CEO, I’d take pictures of what I saw on the
store and I’d download it to my people and say, the data stops here,
this doesn’t look right. I mean I’d go on market
tours sort of about a, two, three hour radius from my home. Then I realized that every
division in the US had some people waiting in the office for my emails to
respond to that quickly and I thought it was a terrible way to run a company, that
a CEO’s out in the market and you’ve got a SWAT team sitting in the office waiting
for the lousy photographs to come in. So I stopped sending the photographs,
but I still do the market too, and I agonize over it. Just like you, I go why is the Gatorade out of stock
when the temperature’s 75 degrees. Why didn’t we have a second delivery,
or why didn’t we do a second delivery of Frito Lay products
when we have a holiday weekend? And now I’m just learning to
just agonize internally and dump on people Monday-
>>[LAUGH]>>[LAUGH] It’s tough, I gotta tell you, it’s tough. But when you do that you really experience
your business from the consumer’s eyes, all the retailer’s eyes, because I
know how you care about other stocks. So, when I go to the Norwalk,
Walmart or look at the shelves and I see out of stocks. I feel for you.>>[LAUGH]
>>As I do for me.>>Our in stock set by the way.>>Yeah.
>>[LAUGH]>>Let’s talk about design for a minute. A month or
two ago we were talking on the phone, and you tried to get met to go to Italy,
or was it Milan?>>The Milan Design Show.>>Which I thought was kind
of a surprising invitation, I don’t get invited to
Milan very frequently.>>[LAUGH]
>>You mean you missed a great one.>>Tell me, why did you go and why were
you thinking that I should also be there?>>Do you know anything
about the Milan design show?>>Only what you told me on the phone.>>[LAUGH] Okay, let me tell you. A few years ago, we started
a design capability inside PepsiCo. What do I mean by design capability? And I have to tell you a little story
to bring you into the design loop. When I first became CEO in 2006,
as I looked at our products, I looked at our packaging, I looked
at how we put things on the shelf. I thought they were singularly all
right and in some cases unimpressive. And I thought that we need a dash
of design thinking in the company. So I gave all of my direct reports,
about 16 of them, a photo album, a blank photo album and
a camera and I said. For the next three months, I want you to
go around taking a picture of anything that you think constitutes design. Anything, it could be a pencil,
it could be a clip, it could be a teapot. Anything, anything you want. Just fill this book for
the next three months and give me a copy. Give it to me so that I know what the issues are I have
to handle in terms of design thinking. Here’s the surprising finding. Half the people didn’t
turn the book in at all. Half the executives. The few that turned it in, a few of them
had their wives fill it in for them.>>[LAUGH]
>>Two executives hired a professional designer to fill the book in. And told me they did. But the few that actually filled in
the book I still have them with me as a mementos of how bad we were. It was a horror because what they thought
was design was not what design was. So let me now tell you what is design? To me design is something that you
embed into a product or a service or an offering that romances the consumer and
draws them to the shelf or to the product, or
to the service or whatever it is. It’s how you think about the shape
of the product, how it’s presented, how it’s talked about. Not just the color of the package
everything in terms of the experience that actually draws the consumer in. And we never though about design but really thought about it as Is
the yellow on the Lays bag right? Should we put an extra swirl of red? Or should we put an extra
emoji on the Pepsi bottle? So, our definition of design was very,
very, I hate to use the word, but primitive. And I was part of that group. So we all went to design school and
learned all about design. Not in terms of the package, but
all the way down into design of a product. Example, when you eat Doritos,
how many of you are Doritos consumer here? I love it. So when you eat Doritos,
when you get to the bottom of the bag, a typical guy would take
the Doritos bag and just do this.>>[LAUGH]
>>Okay? Because you sort of eat
the crumbs that way. Women don’t do that. Women try to be very delicate putting
their hand and taking the last Doritos. But then you’re leaving about 5%
of the Doritos in the bag, okay?>>[LAUGH]
>>But because they’re little crumbs there,
which taste awesome. But in our package design, why don’t we
figure out a product design for Doritos? That is completely different that a woman
can actually put in a put in a purse, so that it doesn’t crumple, and you can
actually eat it in a more delicate way but all the way down to last 5%. I’m using Doritos.>>Indra is solving real
world problems here.>>[LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH]>>Right in front of you.>>Doug.>>It’s good stuff.>>[APPLAUSE]
>>I gotta tell you, if I solved the problems
you get more sales.>>[LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH] So it is a real world problem. At the end of the day,
I worry about one thing.>>[LAUGH]
>>Growing my sales at Walmart.>>[LAUGH]
>>But leaving that aside, so that’s an example of how you take design thinking
all the way to the product design itself. The other is when you think
about a food service machine, in the past with the standard machines. And now with the new spire machines
we have which are slowly rolling out. You can have almost 400, 500 variants. But the machine looks
like a beautiful iPad, but even more in
an aesthetically pleasing way. And so, you bring design into a day to
day experience that was quite boring so that’s what design thinking
is doing to PepsiCo. We got amazing designers we’ve hired. In Milan every year they have
a design week where everything from furniture to lighting
to day to day products, you see the best of design from the best
designers showcased all around Milan. The whole city becomes a design,
sort of a bazaar of designs. And it’s just a phenomenal experience to
go there and just see what’s going on. In the last few years,
3 years ago I had just visited Milan for the first time, from a design perspective. Two years ago we started to build a Pepsi
design experience, where we actually had a big warehouse that we converted design
experiences with PepsiCo products. So we had an experience
that we called the fizz. Looked like Willy Wonka and the Chocolate
Factory, how do you make your own soda with all kinds of toppings,
just a fabulous experience. We had Lipton Pure Leaf Tea. How can you serve tea in an authentic way,
almost like a tea house cafe? What can you do with the Gatorade bottle? The new bottle with the sensors
that athletes can now drink, and it’ll, sense your saliva and tell you exactly, what extra electrolytes
you need to put into your body. So we showcase some of the stuff
in a very, uplifting way. And, what was wonderful
is the big magazines, the design magazines wrote that there
were two exhibits that stood out in Milan this year from
a consumer perspective. One was Nike and the other was PepsiCo. And so I thought we’d landed. It was a great thing. You missed a great one. Next year.>>[LAUGH]
>>Next year.>>Next year.>>That’s a lot of progress.>>It is.>>From one story to another.>>And I’d like you to visit
our design studio some time. Phenomenal designs. We have a long ways to go Doug. A long ways to go. But they’re making progress.>>Yeah,
I think it’s going to matter to us. It feels like what’s happening in retail
is that the needs that customers have are being outsourced to the Internet
whether it’s mobile or voice or whatever comes next in the future
increasingly, so people are not going to have to think about staying in stock
on Pepsi, it’s just going to happen. And we’re going to play a role in that
process through our supply chain.>>But even on something like a Pepsi, if we keep thinking of it as
the cola that was invented in 1893. That’s like being
the custodians of a utility. That is not the business we are in. Question is how do you bring excitement
into this category again and again? Because this is a heritage brand,
so we’re doing several things. Whole range of craft sodas,
lower sugar offerings, trying to make Pepsi more of
make my own beverage at home. So we’re playing with Pepsi in so
many ways. 1893, the new, cola that we launched,
is a craft soda. Doing very well where it is. The make my own Pepsi that’s being sold, interesting consumer
base it’s bringing in. And the lower sugar offerings
of Pepsi with great taste, will go into to the market. Will they all be as block
buster as the original Pepsi? Probably not. But they will stem the decline of
a category while we launch all kinds of new beverages on top. So-
>>The emotional component, not just the utilitarian
aspect of your product.>>That’s exactly right. Yeah, because Pepsi is not a drink,
it’s an experience, it’s a brand that as time,
timely I would say, because it defines culture,
it defines sports, it defines music. And, I still remember a famous music
producer in California once said to me, when I ran into him he said, I don’t have any young musical artists
that are worthy of a Pepsi contract. That’s a big statement,
that are worthy of a Pepsi contract. Because, to be associated with Pepsi,
that launched so many young faces was a big thing. Whether it was Micheal Jackson, or Britney
Spears, or Madonna, or Christina Aguilera, they all made their success working with
Pepsi, they were known as Pepsi stars. And so, he said I don’t have any young
people that are worthy of Pepsi contracts so the Pepsi brand is absolutely
associated with culture-defining moments. And so, we have to figure
out how to make the product come in tune with the brand even
more as the consumer changes.>>You can probably pick up on some of the
themes, but what happens is as companies get older and larger, they start
specializing within the business. And it replicates what you’ve done before. So in Walmart, we have logisticians,
and merchants, and marketers, and lawyers, and everybody specializes and
you end up with these silos that are, by design in some instances, created
to just keep doing what you’re doing. And then, disruption happens, and you have
to figure out how to take an older company and a larger company and change it
back to being more entrepreneurial move with speed and change it. And you can hear those names and
then their story and it’s the same on our story and
I think a lot of what we’re believing at the moment is that we’re going to help
transform the company using technology. We can hire talent, we have hired talent,
we can invest, and do a lot of that. But over time, what will differentiate us,
and ultimately enable us to win and have a role to play in
society is still humanity. It’s still our culture, it’s still our
people, but getting from where we are now to there will require cultural change in
addition to advancements in technology. And that’s an interesting business
challenge to take on when you at our scale.>>I think the big question for all of us,
Douglas, there’s been a lot written about, you’ve got to preserve history and the heritage of the company
while you make the change. Sometimes I wonder if it’s a ballast. I’ll tell you why, because, yeah,
you should respect the heritage. You should respect the culture. Be cognizant of where you came from but,
I’ll speak for myself, I’d say maybe I was a little
too respectful of the heritage and culture because what happens is. When you have companies where people
are in the company for long time and PepsiCo’s got a lot of
long tenured employees. They’ve come into PepsiCo young. They retire from the company, and then as they leave the company,
they still remain attached to the company. And they are talking about
PepsiCo all the time. At some point you’ve
got to make the break. You know what I’m talking about. They still think they’re
part of the company, they’re running the company, right? And so,
this book club has to be kept happy. But I don’t think you should
let them run the company. And in many ways you’ve got to
make a break with the past. Because if you don’t, you’re spending more
time appeasing the heritage employees. And the heritage voices as opposed to
saying guys we don’t have the time we have to make the change.>>Right.>>And guess what? it’s going to be painful, but the sooner we make the change let’s do it
and the one thing I learned again I’d say I wasn’t may be a little bit
more patient than I should have. When you know you have to make
a change and people don’t come along. You wait for little while, but then after that a some point you’ve
got to say enough is enough. Every third week there’s going to be
a series of retirement parties you’re out, because if we don’t do that, again the
people who have been in the company 20, 30 years pull you down. And they create sort of environments
of saying the good old days were great. And people start to believe that
there’s still those good old days that could exist, and they really can’t. And I think,
if I had to do it all over again, I might have hastened
the pace of change even more.>>Seize that opportunity to
actively shape the culture.>>Yeah, and then say you know what,
guys I’m not going to sit here doing workshop after workshop and
trying to convince you to come along. I’ve tried, you’re either in it or
you’re out. And that sort of brute
actions I didn’t take.>>One of the things that gives us
a chance to make it through this transformational period is
that our founder loves change. And while we can respect the past,
you must invent the future. And our founder passed away in 1992,
but the one thing I know for sure from being around him a little
bit and from all of the stories and experiences is that if he were here today,
he would be changing things. And it gives you that mandate. You can stand in front of a group of
Walmart associates and say the only thing that’s constant at Walmart is and
the group will say back change. And that gives you an opportunity to
say okay, let’s talk about what we need to change, why we need to change and
what this is aimed towards. And if we don’t, we’re done. It’s only a matter of time.>>Change is scary. Change is very, very scary, especially when you’re living
the comfort of the large company. Where you had fabulous salaries,
benefits, pension plan that was terrific. And all of a sudden you’re
going to be cast out.>>Isn’t it interesting,
it’s perceived safety. But it’s actually the opposite. This safety of a career, of a company, the future is actually on the change
side of things not on the status quo.>>But if you know that you have
a role in the change you embrace it. But if you don’t know if you
have a role in the change or because you’re sure you don’t have a role
because you don’t have the skills. That’s a problem.>>So communication today is different.>>Totally.>>I joined Facebook last week. I’ve been on Instagram for a while. What do I need to be on next?>>Snapchat.>>Snapchat’s next. There’ll be something after that probably. But Sam Walton was not on Instagram or Facebook and I know I’m a little late to
the party, but there’s power in it and it’s all about getting the word out on why
are we doing what we are doing and and what is it that we’re
trying to accomplish? In giving people a voice, you know,
communication is not one directional, it’s multidirectional.>>I’m just on Twitter and
I’m scared to death. Because I have no idea
what’s going to happen. Look, for you kids,
you’re reckless, all right.>>[LAUGH]
>>For us, for our CEO it’s terrifying because if you
make one mistake on tweeting one word out. They’ll be millions of people who sort
of kill you in the public domain about how dare a CEO say what they do. I’m envious of my kids because
the stuff they tweet out, the stuff they put on Facebook. My God, scares me to death, but you know what this is the great
thing about being young. What they don’t know yet
is all of that is going to follow them for the rest of their lives. [LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH]>>That’s the tough you know? You and
I don’t have anything to worry about. [LAUGH]
Ted, I wanted to ask you a question. How do you manage to be CEO of Walmart, living in this small town where every move
that you make is tracked all the time?>>[LAUGH] What do you mean tracked? You mean everybody knows everybody? Like Mayberry?>>[LAUGH] Something like that. But we’re bigger than Mayberry, yes?>>Yeah, we live in a cool place
that’s actually changing a lot, but it’s still small and it’s a bubble. It’s not like the rest of the world in
some ways and so it’s really important for us as leaders to be out and
we travel a lot, we’re all over the world, but go back to this really small
place where you can go to Walmart, which I do,
everybody’s like hey Doug how you doing? People follow you around the store to
make sure that everything was in stock.>>[LAUGH]
>>So we have to be cognizant of the bubble. And not let it cause us to be comfortable. It’s not the most competitive
market in the world.>>That’s very true. You know when I go in market
research it’s the same thing. They set up the market for me so
I always see the perfect execution. So now when I go to any city and they say, we’re going to the following three
streets to do marketer I go, guess what. I’m going to decide where we’re going. And now they’re terrified because
I could pick a place that’s completely off the beaten path and I don’t want to see a prepared market
I want to see the market as it exists.>>Okay.
>>Normally for the consumer.>>That’s when we don’t
tell stores we’re coming.>>Right.
>>When yesterday when I popped into the store. One associate once told me Doug you’re
just like the Queen of England. And I said in what way? And they said everywhere you
go you smell fresh paint.>>[LAUGH] That’s a good one.>>You gotta remember that, right.>>Yeah.
>>You gotta remember that and stay real. I think we’ve got time for
maybe one more subject and the one I’d like to pick is
making a difference in the world. So you ended up in this position, probably growing up as a kid you knew
I’m going to be the CEO of PepsiCo. I mean you probably knew that. But now you find yourself here,
and you have this responsibility in this platform really to try and make
a positive difference in the world, how do you think about that, and how do you help
lead the board and your management team towards making that difference and
what’s that mean to you personally?>>You know Doug, the more I deal with
this whole idea of making a difference, sustainability, I’m convinced that unless
you feel it, unless you feel it deep down in your heart and you really understand
it, you’ll be doing good service. That’s the whole idea of sustainability. In my case, I grew up in Madras
in India where those days and even today I think there
wasn’t much water in the city. And we had so little water to
live on every day, that this whole notion of water availability and
water use was a crisis for me all my life. I didn’t know a time when water was
aplenty until I came to the United States, okay. So water was seared into my head. The second is we grew up eating and
drinking a certain way. And all of a sudden I realized
that as you look around the world, as you look around all of
the health issues around the world, food played a very important role in
the people’s health and wellness. So, one had to worry
about that aspect too. And then my daughter went to work for
the environmental defense fund, EDF, and I got a whole new appreciation for all of
the environmental issues beyond water. Whether it was the carbon footprint,
whether it was fisheries, whether it was any issue, she would
actually show me all of the statistics, what it was doing to the world. Overfishing in certain coasts or
plastic in oceans. And when you start to really
feel these issues and think of what your kids and their kids. You ask yourself, what is my role
as a steward of a large company? To make a difference in the world through
this incredible platform that I have called leader of a big company. That could either contribute to
the issues or help alleviate the issues. I knew that I didn’t want to
contribute to the issues. I had to start helping the issues and
to the extent that society had changed and I was perceived to contributing
to some of the issues, I had to make a change
to my business model. Therein was born our notion of
performance of purpose which is, how can we keep performing
while changing the portfolio, while fundamentally changing
our environmental footprint. And then third one, which is really the one that I am really
most excited about is, what can we do for our employees so that they can come to
work at PepsiCo feeling like PepsiCo is a place where you cannot just
make a living, but have a life. So that you can bring your whole self to
work, the company treats you in a fair and equitable way, provides you
the support system to be who you are, to allow you to be who you are. And we embrace you completely. And so, performance and purpose is not
a corporate social responsibility program. It is not. It is how we make money. Because our belief is that if
you don’t change the portfolio, we can’t keep delivering performance. If we don’t change our
environmental practices, we won’t get a license
from society to operate. And our cost goes up because we pay for
water. We’ll end up paying more for
plastic recycling. So we have to do that. And if we don’t get the best and brightest in terms of people,
we won’t be able to deliver performance. So performance and purposes how we make
money, not how we spend the money we make. Which is what corporate social
responsibility is all about. So that’s really what we are all about.>>Very well said. We see it the same way. I feel the same way. We want to open it up for questions. Fire a difficult one to Indra
if you could to start us off.>>The first question comes from Twitter,
it’s actually to you both and it’s a classic. What organization, and
what leader do you most admire and why?>>[LAUGH]
>>Need time to think. I got to be around Sam Walton a little
bit, Sam was the founder of Walmart. He’s the first person that comes to mind. There are a lot of
positive characteristics there that we’re still
trying to live up to today. In terms of who I admire at the moment, rather than one person I think I
would characterize a group of people. One of the awesome things about what
we get to do is we get to meet a lot of leaders and what comes to mind is
that there are people out there that are genuinely taking risk to try
to make the world a better place. And this would be a very
logical time to play it safe. It’d be a very logical time to try and
stay off the radar screen. But sometimes you gotta step up there and you gotta put some personal equity on
the line and try to change something. And there are people that are doing that. Some of the CEOs that live in this part of
the world are doing things like that to try and improve the world,
and I admire that.>>I’m going to give you two. One is something that sounds tested and
tried. When I became CEO, I called Steve Jobs and I said, I’d like to spend
a little bit of time with you. Just to sort of understand what it is to
run a company the way you have changed it. And he graciously agreed
to spend some time with me. And he gave me two or three hours,
I think, of his time. And some of the lessons he
taught me about design. How do you take something that you
truly believe in, and stick with it? As opposed to changing your point of
view because the outside world wants you to change your point of view. Phenomenal lessons, that he was so
gracious to give me the time. And that he gave me those
lessons I’ll never forget. I think the world lost
an incredible person in him. He did tell me a few things
like don’t be too nice. When you really don’t
get what you want and you really believe it’s
the right thing for the company, it’s okay to throw a temperature tantrum,
throw things around. People will talk about it and
they’ll know it’s important for you. And I think that in itself
was a valuable lesson.>>[APPLAUSE]
>>I honestly believe that. In terms of people I admire, I tell you
the people I have really begun to admire these days are people
who head up these NGOs. Because they don’t make much money,
in fact, they barely make ends meet, but yet they feel so
deeply committed to a cause. They do the research, they go visit
companies in their headquarters, they’ll do goofy things,
but you know what? It’s goofy if you look at it strictly from
the point of view of, they’re bugging me. But if you look at it through their eyes,
walk a mile in their shoes, you have to be proud that they feel so strongly that they
want to make the world a better place. So all of these people who run NGOs,
even though one side of me says god, I wish they didn’t have
such a big megaphone. The other side of me is so proud of what
they do and I think we’re all going to change and become better companies
because of their leadership.>>Who’d like to go next? How about right here? Hi, my name’s Nadu Lawson,
I’m an MBA too here. My question for you was, you mentioned
international growth before, and I’d love to hear how PepsiCo and Walmart
are thinking about the African market, specifically in the mid and long term. What do you think you’re going to have to
do differently to win the consumers there?>>I tell you PepsiCo in Africa doesn’t
have as big a footprint as we would like to have, but I think it’s
an actually wide open market in so many ways and I’ll tell you why. The African consumer is, the economic
plight of the African consumer is improving enormously, so
that’s a very good thing. Second, the continent is hungry for
the right supply chains, the right products to come in. So I think the market is
just now sort of taking off. I wish we’d been there earlier, but now that we are increasing our footprint
there, I think the challenge we have is how do we go into Africa with
healthy products right off the bat. And not start with the fun-for-you
products, start with more the good-for-you products, the more grains, fruit and
vegetable, stuff that contributes to the nutritional quality of the African
consumer which means, we have to setup the agricultural supply chains, which is
really what we are working on right now. So I think especially the sub
Sahara Africa region because in parts of Africa like Tanzania or South Africa or Nigeria we’re in already, but the rest of
Africa I think we’re working on setting up the agriculture supply chains and
there’s a lot of it available in Africa. We think the potential is huge.>>I’m really excited about
sub-saharan Africa and personally was involved in the investment
that we made there a few years ago, in what I believe is the best
management team on the continent. The best management team in Africa
from a retail point of view. We have various store formats where going
to end up with an important business in Nigeria someday, in Kenya, in South
Africa, where most of the business is now and we’re today in about
12 different markets there. Personally, I’ve been to five or six different countries in the region in
the last few years and I feel an energy. And an optimism and an opportunity that I
believe will be a very good business for us over time. We want to be local. We decided not buy a 100% of
the business because we wanted others to be able to benefit from
the business that we were growing there. We’re sourcing locally to the extent
possible, which is not that hard because most of it’s food and we are not
moving it a great distance anyway. So I think there’s an opportunity to
grow there for a long period of time and reach a lot of people and fulfill our
purpose, which is to save people money and help them live better. But we’re going to have to generation-skip
in some ways with technology. You, I’m sure,
know how advanced mobile is and how advanced some things like payment
are and some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. And so, just like the rest of the world,
we’ve gotta be on the front edge, as it relates to technology,
and do it in an African way. I’m very excited about it.>>All right, my name’s Ben,
I’m an MBA too. First of all, thanks so much for coming. So you talked about having
to be a bit conservative, or the pressures to be conservative,
as the CEO of a big company. You have to be conservative on Twitter. You have to be conservative
with your investors. So having to innovate, to succeed, in this
fast-changing world, how do you resist those pressures and what can CEOs like
you do to resist those pressures?>>I think personal
conservatism versus taking risks with the business
are two different issues. So, with innovation, you’ve got to write
the rules for our products because very often, if you really want advantage,
you’ve gotta be the first mover. So I think on the product side and
the product experience side, we can take as many risks as we want. When I was talking conservatism,
I was talking about personal messages going out or messages
that we put out on behalf of the company. We just got to be careful about
putting up personal messages. I tell you something on innovation. The bolder we can be, the better. The more we can break the rules,
the better off we’re going to be. Because you know the world
is full of ideas today and if we don’t do it somebody
else is going to do it. In fact, I’d say that little
start ups are capturing a lot off the growth today even in our space,
even in the food and beverage space. So, in many ways in our company, we have to act as if we
are a bunch of little start ups. That’s what we are,
a bunch of little start ups. So, in order to do that,
we have got to allow people to be bold, write the rules any way they want, and
that’s what they’re doing in our company. When we have $22 billion brands,
and now we’ve got another three or four in the pipeline,
each of them is a little start up. And they’re not conservative at all. Pepsi is not a conservative brand. As an individual, I am. I’m sure that next year’s going to
be less conservative than me. But I am a conservative person,
because I’m terrified of all of you. [LAUGH]
>>I think the advice I would give you, whether you’re going to start a business
or you’re going to join a business, would relate to values. And pausing for a little bit of time to
know who you are and what you stand for. In our case, at Walmart,
we have four core values. We respect the individual, we strive for
excellence, we serve the customer and we act with integrity. Those four core values resonate for
me personally, so it’s been quite easy to be part of Walmart because those are
the things that I personally believe in. And the reason that matters, in the context of your question is lots
of things are going to come your way. There’s going to be an emergency tomorrow,
something’s going to come up, and I’m going to have to deal with it,
or when you’re in these jobs, you’re going to have to deal with it. And we need some sort of
a foundation to stand upon. And pausing to remember what are our
values, my personal values, and how does my response here
relate in that context. If you don’t have that foundation,
you’re going to be moving around trying to figure out
one instance at a time what to do. Whether it’s a question
about risk-taking or how you handle a crisis or something else. So it sounds a little bit hokey,
I suppose, to pause and write down or think about what
you want your end story to be. But I think it’s valuable. Pretend that you’re at your
retirement celebration someday. What do you want them to say about you? What legacy do you want to have left? And predetermine before you start
that that’s going to be your outcome.>>Yeah.>>Not sure who’s deciding who goes next.>>Hi.>>Go for it.
>>Yup, thanks for sharing. I have a question. So Amazon is a huge competitor,
like if you were->>Who is that?>>[LAUGH]
>>Amazon.>>Amazon, got it.>>I mean, if both of you
could talk to Bezos right now, what would you say to him?>>Go on vacation.>>[LAUGH]
>>[APPLAUSE]>>All right. [APPLAUSE]
>>Jeff doesn’t need any money, but I’d be happy to pay for his vacation.>>[LAUGH]
>>They are doing such a good job, and, as a retailer, and somebody who grew up
serving customers, I admire the innovation and the solutions they’re bringing to
customers, and I’m challenged by it. And part of our culture is to embrace what
competition’s doing and learn from it and try to move quickly to adopt what we
should adopt within our own company. In some cases, that’s dangerous because it
can look like following and be following, and if you are following somebody you
are only ever going to be second best. So you have to, at the same time,
be who you are and innovate within the context
of who you are. But, clearly, what they and other
e-commerce companies, mobile commerce companies, are teaching us is that
technology can be used to solve customer problems in a different way, and it saves
them time, it makes life simple and easy. And we did that for
a period of time in one way. And now we’ve gotta do it in new ways. So I welcome the challenge. I like a competition. The one thing that I know for
sure is that customers are going to win. And they will decide who’s here and
who’s not here and, thankfully for us, we don’t compete against just one company,
we compete against a lot of companies. And what matters the most is how much
we’re improving and getting better. So I like it. Gets me up in the morning and I feel challenged and
I wouldn’t want it any other way.>>You said it all. [LAUGH]
>>Thanks for coming and sharing. My name is Erin Jung,
I’m from China and now MB 1. So I have a question for both of you, as more personal career development,
so one is for Doug. Doug, you have spent all your
career life in Walmart, but actually for now in our years,
it’s not very common. So I really want to know what drives
you to stay with one organization for your whole life? And then another question is for Indra. You have tried different kind of role and
different kind of industry. I want to know when you find your passion
and how you get this passion for it. Thanks.>>I think I’ve learned from
all the industries I’ve been in because it’s ranged from
when I was a consultant, you learn everything from chemicals
to banking to high tech, healthcare. I did everything. So it was fantastic to learn strategy
through the eyes of a BCG because you realize that strategy
is not industry-specific, it’s frameworks and how you think
about a business, so I learned that. And then through my journeys
at Motorola and ABB and then coming to PepsiCo,
just going from high tech to utilities and power plants, again, I learned so
many different facets of business. When in came to PepsiCo, even though I hadn’t really worked in the
consumer space, I could think differently. And that point when I joined PepsiCo,
PepsiCo needed new thinking. So I came in and started to shake
up status quo from day one. And PepsiCo gave me the leeway to go
ahead and make all the changes and suggest all the changes
that need to be made. And I think why I’ve stayed in PepsiCo and why I put down roots in PepsiCo From
the day I joined the company and this is one part of the culture
that has not changed. I feel like PepsiCo’s my company. It’s embraced me, and now I make
sure we embrace other employees. I feel it’s my company, it’s not
some public company called PepsiCo, it’s my company. Every aspect of the company,
I feel I can change it any time I want. I felt that way when I
was head of strategy. I felt that way when I was CFO,
when I was president. I feel that even also as a CEO. When you have that sense of
ownership about the company, why would you leave
something that you own? And so, I put down roots and
I don’t regret for a moment the 22 years that I’ve been at Pepsi Co
and it’s the greatest ride of my life. Whether I was CEO or not is irrelevant. It’s been the greatest ride of my life.>>My dad was a dentist and
dentistry’s hard. None of you are going to be dentists,
right? That’s why you’re here.>>[LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH]>>He was a dentist for 40 years and it is hard. You get up every day. You go to see people who
don’t really want to see you. They’re there, because they need to be.>>[LAUGH]
>>[LAUGH]>>And so, I was influenced in a big way to try and create a career for myself that was flexible,
because I didn’t want to be trapped. Trained for one job and have to do that
job forever, if I didn’t like it, so I went for a business degree. I went for my MBA and
my MBA was primarily driven, so that if I got into a situation where
I wasn’t happy, I could change jobs. I thought it would help me move but
then, I ended up working at Walmart. And I really started just because I needed
a summer job to make money for school and I loved it and that’s why I’m still here. I have had a blast. I have gotten to do more
than a dozen different jobs. I’ve worked across countries,
across formats. We deal with everything from marketing to
logistics to finance to legal to Africa. How fun is that? So, when I’m not having any fun anymore,
I won’t do this anymore, but for more than twenty five years now,
it’s been a blast. And I’ve come to care about it
an awful lot and I haven’t been bored. If I was bored, I’d do something else or if I’m working
around people I didn’t like, I’d leave. But there are lot of great
people around where I work.>>Thank you very much for coming. My name is Sarah Foo and
I’m a second year MBA student and and I’m told I very lucky
got the last question. [LAUGH] So, my question to you is, so obviously you talk about a lot
of changes and taking risk. But a lot of that is only going to be
measured or seen or evaluated over years. But also today, if you look around
the world like investors or just the market in general
is very short sided. And then, there is that so
much noise in the market. So, how do you balance
this short term demand for you to deliver versus
the long term vision. To take risk and make long term changes
that are actually good for the business? That’s really well said.>>I know.
>>I think you get it.>>[LAUGH]
>>Now what do we do about it?>>What do we do about it? You know I’ll tell you something. I think you got to look at the investments
you make in the company, as a portfolio. There’s a bunch of stuff that
delivers in the short term and that gives you the breathing room into
further to invest in the long term. Because I don’t think, especially now, industries that are more
established unlike a startup. I don’t think you can say, look, wait for
three or five years and five years, you’ll start seeing huge results. Nobody is going to believe you,
because we are expected to deliver, because we established legacy companies. So the way it is,
I look at things in Pepsi, because I know what we need to invest in. Constantly balancing projects
that will deliver today, countries that will deliver today. Which can then provide the ammunition for
us to invest in long term initiatives. You can’t have too many
long term initiatives or too many short term initiatives. Because you don’t want to spoil
the investor with too many short term programs. That then don’t give you the position
to invest of the long term. So, this judicious balance is
what we worry about all the time. And I can tell you, the only way you can
do that is if you have the support of your board of directors. For public companies, the board has to
completely buy into your program and back you. In case investors say,
we don’t like the shape of your delivery.>>If we ran these businesses for
one quarter of one year, we would harm them greatly and
we care too much about them to do that. But as we’re articulating
that long term vision, which in some cases may be
beyond one investment cycle. We have to communicate clearly
what our strategy is and be held accountable to
milestones along the way. So it’s not enough to say,
I am managing this business for the long term get back to me in
five years, we’ll see how it goes.>>We’d like to try that. [LAUGH]
>>So I think as long as you are deliberate,
thoughtful, you build relationships. And communicate,
whether it’s the investment committee or your board, you can do it. In our case, we have a family that owns almost
half the business, so it helps a lot. If they believe in what you’re doing,
it helps us have a long-term perspective, not just a perspective that’s
>>[CROSSTALK].>>If you ever have the chance,
I recommend it.>>Please join me in thanking Doug and
>>[APPLAUSE]>>Thank you very much.>>Great job, thank you.>>Thank you. [APPLAUSE] [MUSIC]

I. M. Pei at MIT – Tech Day 1994

speakers will, in fact, talk about a specific
relationship between mene et manus, between
art and engineering, in the world of architecture. We are very honored
today to have with us architect IM
Pei, class of 1940, formerly with the firm of
Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Of course, Mr. Pei
is very well-known for many, many buildings. And I will not list them all. Some of them are particularly
important for the arts, including, of course,
the Louvre, the East Wing of the National
Gallery at Washington DC, and many MIT alums are familiar
particularly with the Meyerson Hall for the Dallas
Symphony Orchestra, a remarkable building. At MIT, Mr. Pei has not only
designed the Wiesner Building on Ames Street but the arch
to that building, which is a gateway into East Campus
as you cross Ames Street, also– not, I think coincidentally– when you are walking
toward the campus, frame his three buildings
in the main quadrangle with, in perspective,
the MIT dome overall, the three buildings on
the main campus with their very stark geometry of verticals
and horizontals, triangles and rectangles. Most recently– or not most
recently, but among Mr. Pei’s most recent works– are the Bank of
China in Hong Kong and the Four Seasons
Hotel in New York City. And I think we will be hearing
about some of these works today. Mr. Pei has also been
affiliated with MIT since 1972 as a member of the Council
for the Arts at MIT. And we appreciate his years
of membership on that group. Talking to Mr. Pei today will
be Dean William Mitchell. Dean Mitchell has been
at MIT since 1992, and he is particularly
well-known for his book, published by The MIT Press,
The Reconfigured Eye, which deals with digital
photography and, in fact, visual images that do not
represent the real world. [LAUGHING] Dean Mitchell is
working very hard in the School of Architecture to
lead the School of Architecture into the 21st century
with his Virtual Design Studios and The Design
Studios of the Future using computer technology
to create a seamless process from the initial designs
through to the communications with clients,
engineers, and others. Please help me to welcome IM
Pei and Dean William Mitchell. [APPLAUSE] MITCHELL: Redoing the Louvre– that sounds much better. Redoing the Louvre
is an extraordinarily large and complex project
involving technical problems, organizational problems,
political problems, certainly, problems of very complex
cultural symbolism. So what we thought
we’d do today is to ask Mr. Pei to describe
a little bit of his thought processes, what the problem
was about, the solution that he finally derived. And then, we’ll take some
time to discuss this truly magnificent project. So Mr. Pei. PEI: Professor Morrison talked
about hundreds of centuries. I’m talking today on the
subject of the Louvre about eight centuries,
the history of 800 years. But these are very important 800
years for the French, at least. [LAUGHTER] It’s the building of the period
during which French nation was born. It’s a period that,
I would say, that’s roughly parallel the
recent French history. In fact, it’s also a wonderful
symbol for them, at least, of French civilization. So therefore, the problem of
the Louvre for the architect is not just a technical
problem, architectural problem. But it’s a problem that
has many, many challenges. I would like to start
off by telling you something about the
history of the Louvre. Now, I don’t have too
much time, but I’ll try to make it very brief
and, therefore, incomplete. It started in 1202 by, I think
that you can call him a French King, Philippe Auguste,
who built this fortress on the right side of the sand
to protect the Ile-de-France, which is now the Il de la
Cité, which is the place where the heart of French life at
that time in Paris took place. It was built as a fortress,
le donjon, as they call it. And it’s important
because I wish I’d taken some slides to show
you what it is like today. But anyway, it was
a wonderful building where they put prisoners,
where they put ammunition. It’s a very important
place to protect, let’s say, something
that they considered to be very important. It lasted as a donjon,
or as a fortress, for roughly, I would
say, maybe 200 years. It did not become really
a place for the Kings to live in until about
the end of 14th century. And I think Charles V was the
king that one should remember. Because that’s the
beginning of Louvre, not only as a place for the
king to live in but also the beginning of French art. The first library
of France was there, and the collection of many,
many objects of Charles V was displayed there. Now, for how many
years since then– 1400 to today? I would say 500
years, 600 years. Nearly all the French kings that
you know of of any importance have either lived there,
died there, married there, and born there. So therefore, it’s
an important place. So therefore, this is
not really surprising that when someone like myself– I guess I can consider myself
an American of Chinese descent– has to tamper with a
very important part of French history. So I’m going to go
through this in two phases to show you what I went through. Phase one lasted five
years, from 1983– six years– to 1989. And during those
six years, the plan was laid, how to deal
with the problem. It’s a very complex problem. And the pyramid was built. But before the pyramid was
built, we had a lot of trouble. We wasted two years. It’s a media that I had
to deal with at that time. And I was totally unprepared. And my French language is just
not adequate for that purpose. But I had to deal
with the media to try to convince the French that
this was the right thing to do. So therefore, even though
it took six years, but only four of those six
years were devoted to architecture and the
building of the phase one. Now, phase two is
less spectacular in the sense of
public information but is perhaps the more
important of the two. Because it completed a
wing called Richelieu. And without that wing, there
would be no Louvre today. And we couldn’t get
that wing until 1985. The wing– I tell
you what the wing is. The wing was occupied by
the Ministry of Finance ever since, oh, I would
say Napoleon III. [LAUGHTER] Only 200 years– 150 years. No, less– 1856– 150 years, yes. And they refused to move. [LAUGHTER] And at that time, the
pyramid is already discussed. And people say, OK,
if you must have it. Yes, Mitterrand must want it. OK. But I said, look
here, there’s no point to build the pyramid if we don’t
have the Ministry of Finance. So that gave the president
another headache. [LAUGHTER] But long story short, we
moved them out in 1989. So the second phase is the
building of the Richelieu wing. It’s architecturally not,
of course, spectacular but very important. Because why? Because I have to
keep the facade. The only thing I
could do is inside. And we demolish
everything inside except a big suite of
Second Empire rooms– very beautiful rooms,
you must go and see it– and two or three staircases. And the rest of Richelieu
was completely gutted. So it was a major
engineering project but not very spectacular, except there
are some interesting things inside, which you will
see when you come. So because of time, I’m going
to start with phase one quickly. MITCHELL: You have
your slide changer. PEI: Oh, yes. I’m going to have to
learn how to use this. MITCHELL: Press the top there. PEI: Nope. Oh, yeah. MITCHELL: Yes. And this one for the other side. This one here. PEI: Excuse me. MITCHELL: We have to sort
out the technology here. PEI: Oh. Oh, I see. MITCHELL: There we go. PEI: Oh, I see. Now I understand. OK. Now Louvre, as you
know it, perhaps without too much debate among
architects and planners, is perhaps the most important
urban composition in the world today. There’s no other that
can compare with it. It’s history– 800
years in the building. It started as a
fortress and then was added on by kings after kings. But the important
kings to remember that built the
Louvre are probably, I would say, Charles V,
Francis I, Henry II, Henry IV, Louis XIII, Louis
XIV, and eventually, Napoleon I and Napoleon III. And there are many other kings
in between that added something to it. But those were the
important kings. And it can also be
said that, perhaps, every important French
architect– nearly every, from Lescot to Mansart to
Le Vau under Louis XIV– many, many others– and then
eventually Lefuel, Visconti– they all participated
in the building of it. So therefore, it’s
not surprising that if you come into this
wonderful complex that’s already formed and to try
to do something with it. Now, the reasons why something
had to be done to the Louvre is for the reason that you
know, that it was built first as a fortress, and
it was added on and added on to try to make
it more comfortable for king after king. And to turn it into
a museum in 1793, the convention is a
move that was correct– interesting– because
it became Louvre. It became a public museum for
the first time 200 years ago. But it was not at all
suitable for a museum because it was meant for
life, for kings to live in. So the Louvre has never
really worked as a museum. I was there for the first
time on a fellowship– not MIT but Harvard fellowship. [LAUGHTER] I did receive MIT fellowship,
but it was during the war. I couldn’t do anything with it. I live across the
street from the Louvre in a very tiny, little hotel. And I went over there
every day to look at it. And I’ll tell you,
in those years, you really have to have time
to see the Louvre because you get lost in it and you don’t
know where anything was. And there are no
toilets, no restaurants– nothing of that sort. But it had a
wonderful collection, and you have to go back time and
time again to find surprises. And that was the way Louvre was
to all of you, to many others, until something
happened in 1989. So therefore, Louvre is a
wonderful complex of buildings. But Louvre Museum was not. Louvre Museum happened to
be a tenant in the Louvre. That’s all. It was occupied by the
Ministry of Culture running the Museum of France. It was occupied by the
Ministry of Finance, occupied by many, many others. Louvre Museum occupy a long,
long wing along the Seine. And it’s about, I would
say, 800 meters long. And that wing was
almost impossible to go from one end to the
other without going up and down and there. So therefore, most people
who went to the Louvre, as I did, probably only
saw, maybe, 25% of it. And the rest, you just miss. You have to have a guide. And I didn’t have a guide. So therefore, I had to
go back time and time again to find new
things, new surprises. So Louvre did not
work as a museum. And the French knew it. But they wanted, finally,
under Mitterrand, to do something about it. And the one move that was
perhaps the most important move of all I mentioned earlier. It was the recapturing
of the Richelieu wing from the Ministry of Finance. [LAUGHTER] Now, this is perhaps
not a very good slide. I apologize. But you can see the
importance of Louvre in the heart of Paris. Because it’s situated perhaps
in the most important– really in center– heart of Paris. And yet, it separated the
left bank from the right bank. There’s no way to
penetrate except by car from left bank, which is
below to the right bank. So it became,
actually, a barrier. And that became an urban design
problem of first magnitude. Because we have to
open up the Louvre. To open up the Louvre, then you
rejoin the two parts of Paris, not by car– you can always drive
around– but on foot. And this is one of
the challenges that is least talked about but
has, in my opinion, the most important. The access of the Louvre leads
all the way to Saint-Germain. And it all, probably,
is, again, when I say the most important
urban composition, I really should say that
it’s the most important axis of the world. There’s no axis
like that that leads all the way from the
Louvre to Saint-Germain. It went through the Garden of
the Louvre, which you all know, Place de La Concorde, up
Champs-Élysées to the Arc de Triomphe and then on to La
Défense and then La Défense [? beyond. ?] Now, this is a
diagram of the Louvre to show you the gray area on top
was occupied by the Ministry of Finance. [LAUGHTER] The ochre, the yellowish
color wing, 800 meters long– half a mile long– occupied not just by the
museum, by the museum and by the museum
administration of France. And French bureaucracy, I tell
you, takes up a lot of space. [LAUGHTER] So it’s not all museum. You can see that people come
by one side of the courtyard and enter there
while you’re waiting in line if you’re lucky– a good day. You don’t mind,
but then you’ll be pestered by people trying to
sell you all kinds of things that you don’t want. But nonetheless, the people– three million people–
continue to come. Why? For this collection. But you really have
to go through, really, a very uncomfortable
experience in the process. Now, what I saw
at that time when I was asked by the
French government to say, can you do something
about the museum? I said, I don’t know. But anyway, I’ll try. And the one thing that
became apparent to me, when I look at this problem,
I said the Ministry of Finance has to go. [LAUGHTER] And I said, the
reason is simple. I said, when you want to
build a modern museum, Louvre, why it is not a modern museum– for simple reason. And that is in modern museum– which I knew well then because
I finished the National Gallery already– about 50% of exhibit
space has to be matched by 50% of supporting spaces– reserve, conservation
laboratories, restaurants, auditorium, lecture halls,
public reception spaces, toilets, things like
that– which it did have– tiny little toilets. In fact, I remember very
well that when I went there, I frequently had to leave
the Louvre because I have to find a place to go. And then, when you
leave the Louvre, some people don’t
come back again. [LAUGHTER] So they lost a lot of people. And it’s not really surprising
that the average stay of visitors to the Louvre
is only one hour and a half, whereas the National Gallery
is three and a half hours. Metropolitan Museum–
about the same. So I said that the
key to making Louvre function as a museum is to
change the Louvre from 800 meter long– up and down, up and down– to something very compact. But you can give up this
wing, the floor where the Spanish paintings were– or still are– and
give it to other uses. But you must move the
Louvre to that part. And that way, you
accomplish two things, which is essential to making
Louvre Museum function. Number one, you can
excavate that court– which is in gray area– the Napoleon court. We can go down two levels. It goes to the
level of the Seine, which is about 10 meters down. You can go down two levels. And you can recapture half a
million square feet of space just by excavating that. And why not? You can use that
space for reserve. You can use that space
for all the infrastructure support that a
modern museum needs. Because under the old Louvre,
there’s no foundation. There’s no space. They have some pipes
and that’s about all. But nothing there– there’s
some sewers that go through. But that is the key
to making the Louvre into the modern museum. Second reason is that if you
put the center of the Louvre not on one side, down
below, but really in the middle of that
gray area, you’ve got the center of gravity
of the Louvre right there. And from that point, you
can go to the three wings. Louvre had three wings. Do you know? Venus de Milo is there,
and Mona Lisa is there. And to Richelieu and to
Sully, very short distance– not 800 meters anymore. It’s going to be only
about something that’s 50 meters, the difference so
that you can divide Louvre into, really, three parts, even
though they’re interconnected upstairs– three
parts, and each part is at least several days’ visit. So a big museum, you
may wonder whether you need a museum this size. But be that as it may,
it’s a big museum, and that’s the only way
to solve the problem. So therefore, I
told the president, I said, you’ve got
to do two things. You’ve got to let us
dig under the court. Because there may
be relics there. The project could have
been stopped if they found something important there. And then, you also
have to find a way to move the Ministry of Finance. [LAUGHTER] At this point, it’s not
so funny at that time. [LAUGHING] But this tells you something
about the man who is still the president of France. I don’t know of
any heads of state in the world that has the kind
of breadth of understanding of the history and
culture not only of France but of the world. He’s really a remarkable man. He may not be the
greatest politician. I don’t know. Time will tell. But he was and he is a really
exceptional leader when it comes to art and culture. And I could not have done
anything there without him. That’s obvious. The court, before we
did anything with it, was a parking lot. It’s a parking lot for the
bureaucrats that occupied the Ministry of Finance. [LAUGHTER] The court, after excavation– one year, archaeologists were
digging, really, literally, with brushes. And they found
things, all right, but nothing terribly important. Because this court,
unlike the court which I wish I had slides to
show you with the marvelous donjon foundation,
is now on display, which, when you
go there, you see. This court was inhabited by
people who served the kings. They’re bakers. They’re cobblers. There’s a little church. And that’s about all. And therefore, there’s
nothing that is so important that they say stop. We were very fortunate. From ’84 to ’85,
that year, we were waiting to see what happened. We wish they discover nothing. And the archaeologists,
of course, wish they had found something. But anyway, they found
nothing of importance, and we proceeded to
get the green light. Now, here I want to show you
the organization of the Louvre. This is the court. The rest of the
Louvre’s not shown here. It’s only the Napoleon Court. By putting an object– something– in the
center of this court– let’s say Napoleon Court– you can connect
the three pavilions in a very short and direct
way and very understandable. You can see it. When you are in the court
or in the hall below, you can look out, and you
can see Denon, Richelieu, and Sully. And that clarity of orientation
is key to a big museum. This is an urban study. So to try to ventilate
Paris, you must first ventilate the Louvre. To ventilate the Louvre, you
have to do several things. You can come over from the left
bank over Pont des Arts, which is a pedestrian bridge– a wonderful bridge,
architecturally. From engineering point of
view, it’s a wonderful bridge. And then you enter into Cour
Carrée and then turn left. But you have to do two things
in order to make it truly open. One is that you have to open
that passage under Richelieu, called Passage Richelieu,
to lead you to the Place du Palais-Royale, which is right– and then, from then
on, to Palais-Royale, and then to Pompidou
Center, which you know. The second thing
that you must also do is to open up the garden. A new bridge is
being built. I think it’s about to start construction
here so that you can walk from Orsay, which is where
the wonderful Impressionist collection is today, from Orsay
all the way to the Louvre. And that will open
up the Louvre. And once that Louvre is opened
up, it no longer is a barrier. It becomes a connector. This was a drawing done
by Steve, who’s here, Steve [? Oves. ?] I show this
drawing to the president. And he was not shocked. Perhaps he was the only
man that was not shocked. But when I show it to the
press, they were shocked. And I tell you, from
that point on, as I say, 18 months of just nothing
but harassment by the media. But still, we got
the green light. And the president, as
well as his official, who was in charge of the
Louvre– an important man, Biasini– said, let’s dig. Because the archaeologists
has already said it’s OK. Let’s dig. And this was what you see. And that was the beginning
of another furor and people demonstrating and everything
except they didn’t do anything really serious
like committing suicide and like that, but very close– very close. There were a few. [LAUGHTER] Now I’m going to go
quickly because of time. Quickly, to show you how
the building process did. And the building of this
palace was remarkably fast. The French contractors
are incredibly good. They’re very, very good. These are slides that
shows the construction. This is Napoleon
Court, by the way. This is not the rest. It’s only one part– the important part. This is the part where
the pyramid must emerge. And the square grid that you
see, the structural steel member there, they’re
all on bearings. It can move. [CHUCKLING] It can move. And they’re supported on
four columns, and that’s all. We had about 60 or some slides
because from one vantage point, they took pictures
every so many months. But I’m only showing you a few. So that’s very quick. But it took– [LAUGHTER] [APPLAUSE] Thank you. It took 18 months
to reach this stage. And at this point, I would
say, it’s the end of phase one. It was open in spring 1989. And Mitterrand was
there to cut the ribbon. And it was rather
well-received by then. But still I would say
there were, maybe, 30% or 40% people still
not very happy with it and for any number of reasons. But nevertheless, it was built. And since this is MIT, I thought
I have to bring this slide. If I show it to
another audience, they would not be
interested in it. And I’m going to show
you some of the slides of the construction. But one thing that
should also interest you that the French government
make no secret of it, they want everything
to be made in France. And the only exception,
which I asked the president to allow us, is to have all
the tension elements made in Massachusetts by a small
rigging company that did the America’s Cup, the yachts. I don’t know whether
Bill Coke is here or not but he would know. [APPLAUSE] And we are the best. And I showed him some
samples of the rigging, how the 10 buckles fit into
the cable and all that. And he was fascinated with it. And because he liked it so
much that he didn’t even bother to say, is there a
French equivalent to it? We just say, go ahead. So we did it. And on the other hand,
the glass problem. You see, glass has to be
white, has to be clear. If the glass is not clear– this is laminated, you
know, it’s double layer. It’s very thick. It’s about almost
3/4 of an inch thick. If it’s not clear,
it will be green. And you will see it through
the corner of this glass. It will be very dark
green, bottle green. So therefore, that is not
acceptable because the Louvre, you see, the composition
of the Louvre must be seen. And the ochre color stone
shouldn’t look green. So therefore, I requested
the French manufacturer, Saint-Gobain, to
make this glass. They say no. We no longer make them. And then, finally,
they say, well, if you built 1000 pyramids,
we’ll make them for you. So I didn’t report
this to the president. I went to a German
firm, Schott Glass. I say, can you make it? Yes, we can. Saint-Gobain said,
we’ll make it. [LAUGHTER] I’m going to go very quickly– the making of the pyramid. The pyramid has one virtue. It’s a very stable form. You know that. And consequently, it requires
the least amount of steel in order to support it. And consequently, if you
use the finest technology available to you,
technologically, to build it, it will be the most
transparent form. And it must be the
most transparent form because you want to
see that composition. That composition is so
important to the world, not just to France, So you may ask, do you need
something that projects? Many architects in
France, as well as abroad, suggested, why not just have
a glass sheet on the ground, and you bring light
in just as well? But I said, no. I said, you have to have space. You go into the lower level 10
meters down, nine meters down, and you don’t want to
have a glass ceiling. That word may mean
something to some. [LAUGHING] You don’t want a glass ceiling. You want space. And so something has to project. And I defended the pyramid. And the pyramid, for those
of you who know France, is a very important
symbol to French. I think the French are probably
more conscious of pyramid as a form than any other people
because of Napoleon, I guess. They really went to Egypt. They took a lot of
things away from Egypt. So the pyramid form is
necessary to give you space. So give you light, give you
space, but at the same time, transparent. You can see through it. And also, you need a symbol. Because if this is going
to be the main entrance to the Louvre, it cannot
be just a subway entrance, so simply cannot be. Glass was put in this manner. And for a long time,
there was a debate. Can you clean the glass? And we tried different ways. They hired some Indians
from Canada to clean it. They even tried robot. Eventually, we clean by robot. But finally, we
got some alpinist to get up there, hang the rope
from the tip of the pyramid, and wash it. And it only took
two days to wash it. But now, it took less. Now, one day is all we need. So the washing problem
no longer a problem. But for a while, that
became also a problem. Because the French want to find
any reason to object to it. And cleaning the pyramid
also kept us quite involved. Now, you’re inside the space. And you can see the Louvre. You can see the
Louvre through it. Ah. That was D-day. [LAUGHING] But no booing– no booing. Lots of applause, no booing. Ah. I like that photograph. You don’t see anything. There’s a story
about this statue. During Louis XIV’s time– I’m short of time. I would try to go quickly. Louis XIV’s time, they invited– and this shows that in those
years, the kings of France are already very
cultured people– he invited Bernini
from Rome to come. Bernini had just finished the
St. Peter’s arcade, that wing that enclosed that space. Perhaps [INAUDIBLE],,
he and Borromini were the two most important
architects of that time. And the French king
wanted the best, so he invited Bernini
to come to do something in the back of the Louvre–
not the this part– in the back of the Louvre. And he was there six months. And he did not survive
the French architects. And the only thing he left
behind– there a few things he left behind,
not of importance. But the only big thing
that he left behind is a statue of Louis XIV. But that was made in Rome,
and it was shipped to France afterwards. But Louis XIV never liked it
because his image at that time was 25 years ago. He was a young man then. He’s no longer young. So he banish it to Versailles,
and it remained there. And because it was not known,
it was never vandalized and never broke– I mean it was never
destroyed during the war because they just left there. But it was marble. It was vandalized by
a man from Brittany– anarchist, I guess– and
no longer salvageable. But I persuaded the
conservator of Versailles to let us make a cast of it– the only way. And they did. And it’s made in lead. And I thought, we should
put it there to remember him as someone who tried. [LAUGHTER] But that very important,
that location. I needed something there
to terminate the access of Chance-Élysées because
that axis of Le Notre– the Le Notre axis– was not terminated at Louvre. Because the Louvre is a
little bit like this– like this. So it has to be terminated–
not by the pyramid, by something else, and
something that’s strong. And I was fearful of
commissioning a French sculptor at that time. You don’t know what’s
going to happen. I’m perfectly frank about it. You just don’t know what– so that was my escape
from responsibility. Now, the second
phase of the Louvre– not spectacular, not
at all polemical, but extremely important. Because now, it opened
only a few months ago. If you go there
now, you understand why the pyramid was put
there in the first place. And I think the vindication
of the whole plan is now made possible through
the completion of this wing. And for that reason, even
though architecturally, it’s not spectacular because
the facade had to be kept and everything has
to be internalized, done inside– number
two I had to work with two French architects,
which is reasonable. Because after all,
I can’t hog it all. Now, you see under
the Napoleon Court, and this is what it looks like. This is 10 meters below ground. You go up three sets of
escalators to a intermediate level– still below ground– and you can enter into the
three wings of the Louvre. And the fourth wing,
going this way, goes to shops,
parking, bus terminal. Eventually, all the buses
that you see on Rue de Rivoli, as well as on the
[? Quai, ?] will disappear, as they have now. They’re all underground now. So urbanistically, that’s
another very important contribution. And below, at this lower
level, we have auditorium. We have restaurants. We have a reception area
for the young people. And we have a bookstore–
enormous bookstore– and the shops and meeting
rooms and conference center. Everything is there. But below this level,
it’s all circulation. There is at truckway that
connect all the departments underground. And there’s a large reserve
so that all the collection– nearly all the collection of the
Louvre– now comes back home. Now, we have to talk briefly
about Richelieu wing, even though,
architecturally, as I say, it’s not very spectacular. The two courts were proposed
way back to be covered. They were parking and trucking
for the Ministry of Finance before, so not used. By covering it, we can
turn it into an exhibition space for French sculpture. And further, we also proposed
to dig down below the Richelieu wing, as you see, so
that the two courts are connected at the lower level. And this was a
trucking area, which now become exhibition
area for French sculpture. This wing house
four departments– the sculpture department,
the oriental antiquities department, the objet
d’art, which is probably the most important objet
d’art collection in the world, and paintings. I put this in mostly,
again, because this is MIT. This is a pyramid, about
50 feet square, inverted. Why inverted? Because its positioned
at the place where the circular rotary is. And you don’t want to see any
projection there coming up. Because one pyramid
is quite enough. But to use the same theme– and we wanted to
bring light in– this is the intersection. If you go to the bus
terminal, to the parking, and to the shops, you have
to go through this point. So therefore, it’s
nice to have something to make people feel they’re
still in the Louvre. So now, this suspended pyramid
is a major engineering project. It was designed by
a man, Peter Rice of Arup Associates in London. And too bad I don’t
have the drawings. It’s actually a very
brilliant design. The whole thing, there are only
four rods in the center, all suspended. And the rest are all cables. It’s cables and four
rods, and that’s all. And it has one other
very exciting byproduct. [LAUGHTER] Clearly, I was very proud of it. Another very important
byproduct of this is the prismatic
effect of the glass. You see the glass,
because we don’t have to keep water
or rain out of this. Because inside, we can
polish the edges of the glass and bevel it. By beveling it, the spectrum
of the colors came out. So at times you see,
a sunny day like this, it’s just a rainbow inside. It’s really quite spectacular. If you go there, make sure you
go there on a good, sunny day. Now, the Richelieu
wing, there was one thing has to be done
to the Richelieu wing. Because it’s about the
painting collection is perhaps the most important
French painting collection in the world– not
perhaps, definitely. And yet, people don’t go there. Because the French
conservators want it upstairs because of daylight. They are very, very
insistent on using daylight– our conservators are less so– very insistent. And for that reason, they
take the attic space. They have a ceiling
not very high. But to get up there,
you have to walk up 75 feet, vertical space. And most people
don’t walk up there. So they miss a lot of visitors. I was told only about, maybe at
the most, 10% or 15% of people go up to the top floor. And that’s a great pity. So I proposed to
put in escalators. I hate to do that. It’s a 19th century
building, and you don’t install
something like that unless you have a good reason. That was a big battle. But it was won. And today, nobody disagree
that it’s absolutely needed. Because otherwise,
the interconnection up and vertically, it’s
very, very difficult. This is objet d’art. I show you the
sculpture actually. I show you the object d’art. These are the Maximilian
tapestries, never shown before– no place to show it. Now, they have a place. And it’s a must. The Maximilian tapestries
are a must to see. They are very dimly lit because
of the color of the threads. Now, before I go
into this, this work here was done by architect
Willmotte of France– of Paris, France. And my role in the
Sculpture Garden and this is what they call,
really, a [INAUDIBLE].. It’s sort of like a coordinator. I participated in all
the decision-making. I chose them as my architects. I had that responsibility. But they should get
the credit for it. Now, this was old Louvre. The lighting of paintings is a
really, a very special science. It really is. And it’s extremely important. It’s never studied enough. It just hasn’t been. We don’t have good daylight
galleries in America. We don’t have it in
the National Gallery. We don’t have it in the
Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. They’re all like this. They are laylights
with skylight on top, even though it could have
been artificially lit, and you wouldn’t
know the difference. And another disadvantage is that
the skylight is very bright. And therefore, the
brightest is the ceiling. The second brightest
is the floor. The walls, where you want
the light to be, looks dark. And consequently,
we decided this is something we want to
do a piece of research on. And I think one of the
major breakthrough, I consider, in this
wing is in the lighting. The lighting solution is this. We make the ceiling
into three layers. The first layer’s glass,
skylight, with a UV filter, of course. And then, below the
glass is an egg crate. And egg crate is
carefully calculated so that the orientation
is such so no direct sun rays will come in. It would have been better
if they were movable. Because then we get good light
all year round, all seasons. Unfortunately, the
French have experience with maintenance crew. They say it won’t work here. [LAUGHTER] And they are right. They’re right. So we use fixed louvers that
don’t have to be touched. We cut off a lot of
light– a lot more light than we wanted to. But it does remove the
headaches of the [INAUDIBLE] that was doing that job. And the reason of
the big cross is that people have to walk there. So it has to be wide
enough for people to walk, to clean, to relamp,
and that sort of thing. But you can see the sky if
you are walking on one side. But the light, as you see,
now is deflected to the walls. It’s no longer coming
down to the floor. So the walls now are bright. And they get light. And that is turned
out to be something that– the French conservatives
are very conservative, and they accepted this. And they now claim this
is the best in the world. They have to– something
has to be, always. And this, they like. And this is a very
important suite of paintings by Rubens
celebrating Marie de’ Medici’s journey and eventually
to apotheosis. All the way, and
you can see again, the light is no longer
bright on the ceiling. It’s directed to the walls. And this is another
version of it. This is octagonal room. That’s a long room. And the previous one, I
think, is a square room. And this is the way
the light looks– no reflection, no reflection. I guarantee you that– no reflection. All right. Richelieu wing was
finished in November, open in November 1993, exactly
200 years after the founding of the Louvre. And the Richelieu wing, together
with the Napoleon Court, is now complete. And therefore, Louvre
finally functions as the way we had planned to. And some of these
slides are mostly to show you what it looks
like when it’s all finished. And young lady is
celebrating the event. So there you are. I think that’s– oh. I’ve used up too much time. Well, sorry. [APPLAUSE] I’m sorry.

Why you should make useless things | Simone Giertz

Hello. My name is Simone. You know how people tell you
if you get nervous when onstage, picture people in the audience naked? Like it’s this thing that’s supposed
to make you feel better. But I was thinking — picturing all of you naked in 2018
feels kind of weird and wrong. Like, we’re working really hard
on moving past stuff like that, so we need a new method of dealing with if you get nervous onstage. And I realized that what I’d really like is that I can look at you
as much as you’re looking at me — just to even things out a little bit. So if I had way more eyeballs, then we’d all be
really comfortable, right? So in preparation for this talk,
I made myself a shirt. (Rattling) (Laughter) It’s googly eyes. It took me 14 hours and 227 googly eyes to make this shirt. And being able to look at you
as much as you’re looking at me is actually only half
of the reason I made this. The other half is being able to do this. (Googly eyes rattle) (Laughter) So I do a lot of things like this. I see a problem and I invent
some sort of solution to it. For example, brushing your teeth. Like, it’s this thing we all have to do,
it’s kind of boring, and nobody really likes it. If there were any
seven-year-olds in the audience, they’d be like, “Yes!” So what about if you had
a machine that could do it for you? (Laughter) I call it … I call it “The Toothbrush Helmet.” (Laughter) (Robot arm buzzing) (Laughter) (Applause) So my toothbrush helmet is recommended
by zero out of 10 dentists, and it definitely did not
revolutionize the world of dentistry, but it did completely change my life. Because I finished making this toothbrush
helmet three years ago and after I finished making it, I went into my living room
and I put up a camera, and I filmed a seven-second
clip of it working. And by now, this is a pretty standard
modern-day fairy tale of girl posting on the internet, the internet takes the girl by storm, thousands of men voyage
into the comment sections to ask for her hand in marriage — (Laughter) She ignores all of them,
starts a YouTube channel and keeps on building robots. Since then, I’ve carved out this little
niche for myself on the internet as an inventor of useless machines, because as we all know, the easiest way
to be at the top of your field is to choose a very small field. (Laughter) (Applause) So I run a YouTube channel
about my machines, and I’ve done things
like cutting hair with drones — (Drone buzzes) (Laughter) (Drone crashes) (Laughter) (Drone buzzes) (Laughter) (Applause) To a machine that helps me
wake up in the morning — (Alarm) (Laughter) (Video) Simone: Ow! To this machine
that helps me chop vegetables. (Knives chop) I’m not an engineer. I did not study engineering in school. But I was a super ambitious
student growing up. In middle school and high school,
I had straight A’s, and I graduated at the top of my year. On the flip side of that, I struggled with very severe
performance anxiety. Here’s an email I sent
to my brother around that time. “You won’t understand
how difficult it is for me to tell you, to confess this. I’m so freaking embarrassed. I don’t want people
to think that I’m stupid. Now I’m starting to cry too. Damn.” And no, I did not accidentally burn
our parents’ house down. The thing I’m writing about in the email
and the thing I’m so upset about is that I got a B on a math test. So something obviously happened
between here and here. (Laughter) One of those things was puberty. (Laughter) Beautiful time indeed. But moreover, I got interested in building robots, and I wanted to teach myself
about hardware. But building things with hardware,
especially if you’re teaching yourself, is something that’s really
difficult to do. It has a high likelihood of failure and moreover, it has a high likelihood
of making you feel stupid. And that was my biggest fear at the time. So I came up with a setup that would
guarantee success 100 percent of the time. With my setup, it would be
nearly impossible to fail. And that was that instead
of trying to succeed, I was going to try to build
things that would fail. And even though I didn’t
realize it at the time, building stupid things
was actually quite smart, because as I kept on
learning about hardware, for the first time in my life, I did not have to deal
with my performance anxiety. And as soon as I removed
all pressure and expectations from myself, that pressure quickly
got replaced by enthusiasm, and it allowed me to just play. So as an inventor, I’m interested in things
that people struggle with. It can be small things or big things
or medium-sized things and something like giving a TED talk
presents this whole new set of problems that I can solve. And identifying a problem
is the first step in my process of building a useless machine. So before I came here, I sat down and I thought of some
of the potential problems I might have in giving this talk. Forgetting what to say. That people won’t laugh — that’s you. Or even worse, that you’ll laugh at the wrong things — that was an OK part to laugh at, thank you. (Laughter) Or that when I get nervous,
my hands start shaking and I’m really self-conscious about it. Or that my fly has been
open this entire time and all of you noticed but I didn’t, but it’s closed so we’re
all good on that one. But one thing I’m actually really
nervous about is my hands shaking. I remember when I was a kid, giving presentations in school, I would have my notes on a piece of paper, and I would put a notebook
behind the paper so that people wouldn’t be able
to see the paper quivering. And I give a lot of talks. I know that about half of you
in the audience are probably like, “Building useless machines is really fun, but how is this in any way
or form a business?” And giving talks is a part of it. And the arrangers always put out
a glass of water for you onstage so you have something to drink
if you get thirsty, and I always so badly
want to drink that water, but I don’t dare to pick the glass up because then people might be able
to see that my hands are shaking. So what about a machine
that hands you a glass of water? Sold to the nervous girl
in the googly-eye shirt. Actually, I need to take this off
because I have a thing — (Googly eyes rattle) Oh. (Clanking) (Laughter) I still don’t know what to call this, but I think some sort of
“head orbit device,” because it rotates
this platform around you and you can put anything on it. You can have a camera;
you can get photos of your entire head. Like it’s really —
it’s a very versatile machine. (Laughter) OK, and I have — I mean, you can put
some snacks on it, for example, if you want to. I have some popcorn here. And you just put a little bit like that. And then you want to — there’s some sacrifices for science — just some popcorn falling on the floor. Let’s do the long way around. (Robot buzzes) (Laughter) And then you have a little hand. You need to adjust the height of it, and you just do it by shrugging. (Laughter) (Applause) It has a little hand. (Hand thwacks) (Laughter) (Applause) I just bumped my mic off, but I think we’re all good. OK, also I need to chew this popcorn, so if you guys could
just clap your hands a little bit more — (Applause) OK, so it’s like your own
little personal solar system, because I’m a millennial, so I want everything to revolve around me. (Laughter) Back to the glass of water,
that’s what we’re here for. So, I promise — I mean, it still has — it doesn’t have any water in it, I’m sorry. But I still need to work
on this machine a little bit because I still need to pick up the glass
and put it on the platform, but if your hands
are shaking a little bit, nobody’s going to notice because you’re wearing
a very mesmerizing piece of equipment. So, we’re all good. OK. (Robot buzzes) (Singing) Oh no, it got stuck. Isn’t it comforting that even robots
sometimes get stage fright? It just gets stuck a little bit. It’s very human of them. Oh wait, let’s go back a little bit, and then — (Glass falls) (Laughter) Isn’t it a beautiful time to be alive? (Laughter) (Applause) So as much as my machines can seem
like simple engineering slapstick, I realize that I stumbled
on something bigger than that. It’s this expression of joy and humility
that often gets lost in engineering, and for me it was a way
to learn about hardware without having my performance
anxiety get in the way. I often get asked if I think I’m ever
going to build something useful, and maybe someday I will. But the way I see it, I already have because I’ve built myself this job and it’s something that I could
never have planned for, or that I could — (Applause) It’s something that I could
never have planned for. Instead it happened just because
I was enthusiastic about what I was doing, and I was sharing that enthusiasm
with other people. To me that’s the true beauty
of making useless things, because it’s this acknowledgment that you don’t always know
what the best answer is. And it turns off that voice in your head that tells you that you know
exactly how the world works. And maybe a toothbrush helmet
isn’t the answer, but at least you’re asking the question. Thank you. (Applause)

The Millennial Guide to Moving to Nashville and Starting a Business | Fast Company

(upbeat music) – [Narrator] Nashville is a city known for its deep-rooted country music, its infamous hot chicken,
and its southern hospitality. But the country music Mecca of the south is now known for something else, growth, attracting over 100 people to
move there every single day. So how did Nashville become the seventh fastest-growing city in America? As Millennials flee insanely pricey cities like New York and San Francisco in search of a better cost of living
and more opportunity for growth, Nashville’s
relatively affordable lifestyle has made it a prime destination for young professionals. (upbeat music) Katie MacLachlan and Robyn Donnelly both had successful, well-playing careers in New York but decided
to leave it all behind to move to music city. – One of there reasons I
moved down and why a lot of people move out of
New York, even, you know, I had a good job there, I had an apartment but there’s this sense of still being in that rat race and getting up every day and grinding but not
feeling like you’re really getting anywhere. So while I had a, you know, a great job and a great apartment, I didn’t see how that would translate in the future to having a house or
having work-life balance or other aspects of my life that I wanted to be more fulfilled in. I didn’t feel like New York City had that to offer unless you’re a billionaire. (upbeat music) – When I moved to Nashville, I was like, “You know what, I’m gonna start a bar. “I can do it here.” And then I spent one day
writing a business plan and I was like, “This is so boring alone. “Do you wanna do this with me?” – And I was like, “Sure, I’ve never worked “in a bar before but it sounds cool. “Let’s do it.” – Yeah. We had a certain budget
that would’ve never flown in New York. We would have had to have
like probably multiple investors and basically we got this place, we had a budget for
redesign, we stuck to it, and we opened and we had
a little bit of runway. And we haven’t had to
invest any more money to date so fingers crossed
that we can keep that up. (upbeat music) – Walden is a neighborhood
bar in East Nashville. So I moved here in 2015
and even in the last three years, East Nashville
has changed so much. There are so many new
businesses popping up left and right. – The startup community
in Nashville is great. There are so many people
here that are so creative, talented, successful, and very friendly. It’s a very close-knit community. I think we’re all kind
of supporting each other with all of our endeavors. – I would say the majority of the people that we meet are in a similar situation. They have moved from another city and the majority of them are seeking that work-life balance or they wanna start something on their own,
and there’s not that sense that you can do that in
New York or San Francisco. I think the unique thing about Nashville is that, even though if it’s a city, you can be in a neighborhood and be seven minutes from downtown
and there’s still housing that’s available. (upbeat music) – [Narrator] Nashville’s vibrant bar and restaurant scene is booming. And across the skyline,
cranes and new luxury high-rise apartments are a symbol of the city’s meteoric rise. And the city isn’t only
beneficial for business. With the cost of living
in Nashville nearly 50% lower than in New York,
the city is a great place for younger people to plant roots. – My favorite things about Nashville are the sense of community. I think that even though there are a lot of transplants here, when
you move to Nashville you feel like you’re a part of it and everybody’s sort of in it with you. And so I think that has helped not just like in our business but in, you know, that quality of life and
connecting with people. – Yeah, I’ve never had a better income to cost of living ratio than in Nashville. So that’s, you actually get to enjoy what you’re working so hard for too. – Both Robyn and I have been
able to buy our own homes. We’re purchasing a condo across the street from the bar to do an Airbnb. So seeing it working, like moving here and starting our own
thing and then being able to reinvest that money back into ourselves and our future, is really valuable.

How to set up Jabra Engage with a computer

Hello. In this video, we show how to set up the Jabra
Engage with a computer. Start by plugging all the cables included
with the base, into the base. If you are not connecting to a desk phone,
you do not need to plug this specific cable into the base. If you are connecting to both a desk phone
and a computer, we recommend you view the video for Jabra Engage setup with a desk phone
instead. Next, plug the included USB cable into the
base and then plug the other end into the computer. This connects the Jabra Engage to the computer’s
softphone telephony, and also provides access to the settings and updates for your Jabra
product. For the Jabra Engage 75, use the USB port
marked with “PC”. For the Jabra Engage 75, you can optionally
use the USB cable to connect to a desk phone, for example, to enable headset audio and,
in some cases, remote call control. Acquire a suitable USB cable. Plug it into the base port marked with the
USB logo, and plug the other end into the dedicated USB port on the desk phone. Next, dock the headset, and then plug the
base into a power supply using the included AC adapter. Now you are ready to start the setup wizard
for Jabra Engage 75. Follow the onscreen steps to complete the
setup of the computer. For Jabra Engage 65, the initial setup of
the computer is completed. When the setup is completed, ensure the Jabra
Engage is set as the default playback and recording device in the Windows Sound settings. Also ensure the Jabra Engage is set as the
default audio device in your preferred softphone For example, Microsoft Skype for Business. To learn more about your Jabra product, use
Jabra Direct – the computer application that is available free of charge. Use Jabra Direct to adjust features and functions
according to personal preferences or company requirements. Also ensure your Jabra product is updated
to get the latest performance. Jabra Direct also enables remote call control
between your Jabra product and selected computer softphones. Visit for more information. Thank you for watching. For more information please visit

‘The Creative and Innovative Business Analyst’ by Ian Richards

My name is Ian Richards. I’m a Principal Business
Architect for Serco. I’d like to thank, start with thanking Chris for inviting me here to
speak. It came about that Jamie. Is Jamie in the… Jamie came to an IIBA presentation.
An event, I was presenting at for Barclays and Jamie said that I’d be an okay fit for
this kind of event. So I’m hoping he is right, but it is normally for the IIBA (International
Institute of Business Analysis). So, there’s quite a bit of a difference between Business
Analysis and User Experience, I guess. But as you can tell, I’m from Wales, I have got
this big sing song accent and please rest assured I’m not going to sing a song but I
do talk fast so hopefully, you can hear, you can understand me because I was glad that
Jamie asked me to speak at this event because it meant that he can understand me, talk fast.
And especially when I get excited, when I’m talking about rugby or something, the six
nations and so on. I can tell I’m not making many friends here (Laughter). Let’s get it
rolling. But as analysts we do this listening thing quite well so I’m hoping there’s some
fast listeners as well. So, BA and UX. I though how do I need to adapt my presentation for
User Experience because I don’t know a great deal about User Experience but then I tried
to draw parallels. Business Analysis and User Experience practitioners both employ analysis
and design thinking to bridge the gaps between business needs, user needs and technology.
Yes. So, BA is a more business-focus and User Experience is more user-focused. However,
in practice, neither can work in a silo and BA and UX skillsets overlap more than they
diverge. I did this little diagram. Can I have a show of hands – ones like that, like,
can I have a free beer kind of hands. Who sees themselves right at this angle, purely
UX. As I slide my hand, can you raise your hands to see so that I’ve got some sort of
idea what I’ve got here? Yeah, lots of free beers. So, that means that there are a few
who down this end where I leave – and there’s a quite a few. But there’s more, the majority
is here. So, thank you for that. It’s just so that I know what’s going on. So what are
we talking about today? Creativity and innovation in general but I’m going to pick up on four
subtopics. Does the current trend towards methodologies, templates, frameworks and reference
architecture catalogues stifle creativity for analysts? And we’re also going to touch
on, where can analysts “unleash the potential of the mind”, express their creative side
and have the opportunity to innovate? A question that was asked the other day to me was, does
it cease to be creative to re-use? Because it’s created. Past tense. We will just touch
on that. Just a thought that got me thinking sort, so I thought I’d add it in. Is creativity
and innovation key as a method for analysts to demonstrate their value to clients? So
I’m going to touch on those subtopics in this general envelope of creativity and innovation.
So, creativity and innovation. Creativity is the generation of ideas whereas innovation
consists of transforming these ideas into action through a selection and implementation.
Creativity, coming up with the idea. Implementation, making it happen. Albert Einstein came up
with a quotation “Creativity is seeing what everyone else has seen and thinking what
no one else has thought.” So, the human brain, we’ve all got them. On the left side,
this is the logical thinking brain… methodical. On this side is the chaotic crazy side. So
show of hands again. Who sees themselves at this side? The crazy, it’s a crazy gang. Who
sees themselves over here as the mathematical, kind of logical? Our brains are built for
creative problem solving, and it’s easy to both uncover and enhance our natural inventiveness.
I say it’s easy. It is easy. But it’s also easy to forget to use it. Our highly evolved
brains are always assessing our ever-changing environment, mixing and matching our responses
to fit into the situation. We all know them. They’ve got an answer for everything, yes?
We know some… There’s some in our families, I’m sure everyone’s family, who’s just quick
enough and can just compute very quickly. The human race is very good at innovation
and that’s why we kind of dominate on this planet. The late Steve Jobs said “Technology
is the intersection of science and engineering with the liberal arts and humanities.” That’s
us, I guess. We speak geek. Yet we still write poetry and prose. Does anybody know what this
is? I’ll give you a clue, it’s not Moses and it’s not Robinson Crusoe. Anybody know? Father
Christmas? No. (Laughter) Its da Vinci, I think we all know that’s Leonardo da Vinci
and he used both sides of his brain. Can anybody tell me what he used his more creative side
of brain for? Helicopters? (Laughter) You could argue that. I’m going to argue otherwise,
The Last Supper and obviously The Mona Lisa. Er, Helicopters. This is probably the more
– I guess it’s a part of creative thinking as well. However, it’s very logical and I
know mathematics gone into that. So, let’s have a look at not so creative people then.
Okay, we didn’t do very well with Leonardo Da Vinci, I’m sure we wouldn’t do very very
well at all with this – anybody who he is? Jamie, maybe? This is Harry Warner. He started
Warner Brothers. And he actually said “Who the hell wants to hear actors talk?”. They
do everything, the Harry Potter films and a lot more. I’d be amazed if anybody knows
who this person is. His name is Charles Duell, US Patent Office and he said “Everything
that can be invented has been invented.” And that’s in 1899. From more recently, anybody
know who that is? (Laughter) I guess we all know what he said “You can’t win anything
with kids.” But are these people not intelligent? Children. Who’s got children? Do they look
like that? Have they looked like that? (Overlapping Conversation) (Laughter) So, praise and encouragement.
I remember when I was a child and I’d come home from school with something like this.
My daughter, she’s eleventeen at the moment. But before, a long time ago, she came up with…
it hasn’t survived the journey. But it’s a lantern. Lantern. And I remember when I used
to go from school with this pile of old tosh. And my parents used to say “Oh great, look
at that”. And it was useless. I’ve still got some of the stuff now. But praise and
encouragement, they’ve got the ability to go wrong. Children are creative because they’re
inquisitive. The five why’s. That’s because children keep on asking “why?”. We use
it now. The child thinks innovatively. They’d put their hand over a flame. They run across
the road for an ice cream without thinking. Whereas adults, we seem to be focused more
on risk and benefit. (Laughter) So, many people think that creativity is a mysterious trait
like charisma — you either have it or you don’t. Now, I’d agree that people are better.
Certain people are better and more talented at creativity and innovation. But we shouldn’t
just leave it to those. It is a talent. There’s a talent in athletics. You have a natural
talent for something. However, with training and tools and techniques, we can all get better.
As a teenager, a young teenager. I mean, teenagers, they are bored, bored, bored. Is that not
creative? You think that’s not creative but it probably is because they’re trying to create
something to happen, yea? So, I think we’ve established that you don’t have to be intelligent
to be creative which is great news because I’m in with a shout. So, what happens, then?
What’s stifling our creativity? Are we as adults are afraid to be creative because of
senior management and colleagues? Are we afraid to break the mould… and stand out on our
own? This is the way we have always done it so why should we change? The group before
did it. The group before that and the group before that and my father’s father’s father’s
father did it. Like that – so if I do it like that, it might not be the great result that
I want but I won’t stand out. I won’t be blamed. The current risk, the current trend is for
the client to get us to take the risk. We go fixed price on a lot of things these days…
so we take the risk, not the client. Does that mean we should be creative? Or should
I go and do it like it’s always been done? I’ll come back to that. Because the competitive
environment in which you’re working today, sometimes doesn’t encourage us to take risks.
The environment, the financial state of industry today in our country. So, in an effort to
standardise our work, we’ve lost focus on the importance of creativity. Have we lost
focus on the importance of creativity? My guys come to me and they say, “do I really
have to use this tool?” “Do I need to produce, documenting this template, one size
fits nothing template?” “Do I need to use this methodology or follow this framework?”
“Do I need to work in accordance for this governance?” Am I channelled down this route
where I cannot step outside? “Do I have to reuse from this reference catalogue?”
When I say reference catalogue, what I mean is you create something and you put it in
the catalogue to be reused. I don’t know what that translates to the UX world. I mean, hang
on, isn’t analysis the most creative part of a team? Shouldn’t we have the most freedom?
We standardise down this route. Look what we’ve created as analysts. This is the new
checkout. (Overlapping Conversation) We’ve done it. We’ve standardised everything. So
most creative thing, is a doughnut like me walking down with [inaudible] and I don’t
know to put them through. Because everything else is standardised. But is this the way
– is this the same way that all professions are going? Will it mean that anyone can follow
a set of guidelines, complete the checklist, apply some metrics. I told you I talk fast.
Complete a template, assemble them into a proposal. Can anybody come in and do that,
go on a course and learn to do it? Why not? I’ve seen adverts on the TV with… so that…
people with very little technical knowledge can build a company website. Yes so why not?
My friend’s got a car which parks itself. So let’s look. Let’s look, like, more creative.
Before we get too down on our profession and the way that it’s kind of maybe heading, let’s
have a look at other professions. This is Andrés Iniesta, he plays for Barcelona and
plays for Spain, one of the most creative footballers in the world. And know that Cardiff
are in the Premiership he’s thinking of coming to Cardiff but watch your space on that. (Laughter)
Haven’t they got frameworks to work to? They’ve got a 4-4-2 or a 4-3-3, I’ll get the maths
right now, or a diamond formation or a zonal marking. Have they got these – these frameworks
to work to, same as us? I know this guy did, didn’t much last night if anybody saw it,
it’s pretty good. But step back a while and he – not just him but every footballer. They
have to follow a pattern and if they don’t, they won’t get selected for the next match.
And so, let’s have a look at another creative profession. Anybody here play a musical instrument?
Yes? This is William Tell’s Overture. These are notes – . so these – I mean, they tell
us how long to play a note for, there’s rules around it, there’s the Italian phrases or
words tell us to pietismo, fortissimo, morendo, crescendo. They tell us how to play it. Loud,
quiet. I mean, I’m in the regimental band of the Royal Welsh. So, I’m in a kind of TA
marching band. So, when I’m marching, playing the music, I go to beat of the bass drum.
I go to beat of the man with the big stick and the man with the conductor. There’s no
room, not much room there for me to be creative. So, when we’re looking at our own professions.
Let’s have a look at what we consider to be creative, not so creative. There’s me with
the Six Nations trophy (Laughter) I did say I’ll try not to talk about Rugby (Overlapping
Conversation). Jazz is a little bit different. You’ve got a bit more freedom here but you
still have 16 bars or however many bars you have to repeat and you have to take it in
turns depending on whatever you do. And there’s harmony. So, when I’m in my backroom, in my
corner it’s just me. It’s not very creative. But when I get a couple of people up who play…
a bit of harmony, then, it sounds a lot better. That’s the same with being creative. Maybe
you’re not very creative on your own, but get a couple of people, then it might sound
better, share it. My journey today. Let’s forget all professions for a while. My journey
today. I had to… these are my constraints… this is what I had to do. I had to follow
the highway code. Get my car – make sure that my car was MOT’d, follow the signs so I didn’t
go down the wrong way, one-way system. And I had my car insured. So, here’s where I get
a bit of choice. Do I choose a map or do I go online and print out a map, my route, or
do I use a Satnav? I choose to use the Satnav. It’s cut divorces in half. You know, people
who are reading the maps the wrong way around and asking questions. So, a bit more creativity.
Now, I’ve really got a choice, scenic route, direct route, avoid motorways. How many stops,
places of interest, clean the car – get the car serviced or not? I saw a couple on my
way up here who hadn’t had their car serviced on the side of the road. It’s their choice…
creative. (Laughter) What I’m trying to say here is that, yes, it’s constraints, not just
imperfections in everything we do. But there are little – you need to find the place where
we can be creative. Because we need to get the right balance between creativity, uniformity
and standardisation in our workplace. There’s lots of opportunity left where we can be creative
but these tools, these frameworks, these methodologies ensure that personal preference is removed,
ensure a standard output, nothing is missed, everyone is engaged, ground rules are followed
for comparison with other sites, I guess… and provide our clients with fact-based evidence
around benefits and usage. I’ve adapted a few of those for UX, kind of – I hope it fits.
So, let’s look at our own profession then. What is our 4-4-2? What’s the shape of our
football team or our orchestra? How do we get people buying tickets to come to our concert?
The reviews say that our tickets are overpriced the concert goes on forever and it’s hard
on the ears. So, how are we going to score goals instead of own goals? Right. I hope
you’re familiar with this, I found it. But I was hoping that it would be something like
this… because this is my rule book for analysis. This is the BABOK, I guess you have got the
equivalent. That one might not be it. I remember my parents, they have got this big static
caravan in Tenby. And I got my head in that for one week on my own. My mates called me
trailer trash and they said I should be on Jeremy Kyle if I stayed there longer than
a week. But I got my head into here and this is – and I always go back to that and say,
“Right, I’ve got this question. What did the experts say about this?” And they say
the – what they say about creativity and innovation, so Business Analysts may be effective in generating
new ideas for approaches to problem solving and in generating alternative solutions. Now,
I’ve highlighted some things in red that I like here. So, creative thinking involves
generating new ideas and concepts as well as finding new associations between or new
applications of existing ideas and concepts. They don’t have to be brand new. They can
be existing things. But they should be effective in promoting creative thinking in others.
This is very pertinent to you, I guess, as well as Business Analysts. So, we measured,
by the application of new ideas to resolve existing problems and the willingness of stakeholders
to accept new approaches. We need to be negotiating; we need to impress the importance of creativity
on our customs. So, some of the working relationships we have, all teams sometimes look for the
most creative and innovative way to form a solution within their disciplines. Let’s have
a look at the analysts. I’ve picked out three things. Three places where we can maybe have
a closer look and say, “Right, let’s be creative here.” Issues and problems, it’s
a given, stakeholders and product design. I’ll whizz through these, we’re in the business
of solving issues. So, without issues and problems, is there any need for analysts?
Yes, so we make it up as, “You know, I’ve got a problem.” You know, head in her hands
and says, “I’ve got a problem.” No, it’s not a problem. We need to look at this different
because we have a toolbox full of ideas and we identify the problem, break it down into
smaller problems. Yes, so instead of seeing an issue or a problem, couldn’t we create
a culture where we see there’s opportunity to create solutions and innovate? Let’s change
our thinking a little bit… let’s not be negative. How we deal with the emotional interpretation
by our clients. So, we have – we’ve all had them. We go and sit next to a client and say,
“It’s okay, I know what it’s going to be… I need this here, this here, same as them
down the road and then it will be great.” That’s what we need. So we need to find a
way of turning their mind and saying, “Look, I’ve got a group of people here, if they come
up with a better way of doing this, would that be okay with you?” Or words around
that. Be creative in ways to get the best out of everyone you work with in every discipline.
My – a colleague of mine said, “I start every meeting with a new client by going in
to say, ‘I’m the person who knows the least, who needs to know the most'” I said, this
is a good one size fits all. I said, that’s – it’s not always the right way. Get together
with your other mates, you know, with other Business Analysts or UX and say, “How do
I deal with this client?” Now, be creative. Inspiration, energy, enthusiasm, drive, professionalism,
creativity and innovation. We need to get a place in this market place. We need to be
there, we need to be considered not late, not only small budget. We need to be the scary
IT people who come and solve problems. Product design. Another sliding scale. Business requirements…
technology solutions. We need to come down here a little bit towards the techy guys.
Around about here is the sweet spot, I think, to get the best solution. We can’t just write
basic requirements and throw them over the fence we need to meet them half way. Now,
this is an example of a project I was involved in where we have a foreman out in the site
using a clipboard and a pen and we wanted to make that more electronic so that they
could do stock levels and staffing levels, etc. So, we had three options of what we could
take out in the field. And in the end, they went for this because the person who gathered
the requirements wasn’t there at the end point. And then, further down the lane, when they
say, “Okay Blackberry, great, we’re going to go for this.” We said, “Hang on a minute.
These foremen are ex-brickeys. Their fingers are that big so they’re not going to be able
to use this.” (Laughter). So, product design. So analysts tend to have a relationship with
the client. We share the stakeholders vision and expectations of the end product. We sit
with them. We see their pain and we solve their pain. We tend to deliver the solution
to our client. We’re like Father Christmas, there you are, that’s going to solve your
problems. So what happens if that’s the limit? (Laughter) It’s not going to be a very happy
Christmas for the client is it? So we need – we need to be there all the way along though
to delivery, not throw it over the fence. Okay, so I guess that in Agile working collaboratively
right across the cycle. A little graphic I picked up there was Agile and UX. It’s made
for it really, isn’t it? Prototyping, etc. Just want to cover reuse, slightly. This is
reusing a ladder. I can’t get excited about it myself. I wouldn’t have one in my kitchen
but some of you might (Laughter) Here we are, I would have this (Overlapping Conversation)
This is reusing a onesie and a rug to – And this, maybe, I’ve seen them on the tube in
London. They kind of sue themselves for whiplash. But if you shake the pattern about a bit,
you get something new. Otherwise, you get the same old pattern and the same old result.
I mean, of course reuse is a good thing, it cuts down on rework and it cuts down on effort
and cost. So try and do it, it’s worth investing and doing it. So creativity is using the same
things, back to what Albert Einstein said, creativity is using the same things and seeing
the same things as other people but creating something new. It’s not only you who is looking
at this reference architecture, this reuse catalogue. This is the best reuse, the best
example of reuse. Periodic table, 118 elements. Okay, about seven are from outer space but
our world is made up of these. We shake the box around a bit and see what comes out. So,
why do we as Business Analysts…so why do we as analysts need to be creative? So, what’s
wrong with going down and following due process, sitting with the customer? With your pad,
with your iPad or whatever. Because surely discipline done well is the difference between
a successful and a struggling project? “Your idea of doing it like this was genius.”
How nice is that to hear? That’s great, isn’t it? It’s great if you can make it your client’s
idea and kind of push them down the road. But it’s more likely that you would find a
creative and innovative way to work… if you find an innovative way it will save you
money. Now, back to what I was saying at the very beginning about fixed-price. Should we
take on the risk? Should we be more creative? According to this, yeah, I guess we should
be because it’s going to save us time and effort across. But what do we get all too
often? “That’s what you asked for so that’s what you’ve got.” Where is the added value
in that? “Clients pay inflated costs for skilled analysis, but some simply ask the
client what they want and write it down.” Is this unleashing the potential of the mind?
It’s just a thought. Isn’t the bad perception of IT as a result of an army of diligent and
dedicated IT professionals doing precisely what they were asked to do? Can’t we add more
value than that? This is probably the last but one slide or last but two. So, we’ve established
that there are rules and guidelines in any profession and every walk of life. We’ve had
a look at that. We’ve proven that, we’re the most creative professionals. Let’s be regarded
as clever analysts who will come and solve problems. Let’s keep our profession in demand.
Let’s not be the supermarket, the new, you know, the new supermarket person. We need
to promote a culture of creativity and innovation within ourselves and within our organisations.
It needs to be a culture, it needs to spread. Creativity and innovation. Because one thing
is for sure. Without the drive to come up with breakthrough ideas and the confidence
that a creative and innovation – innovative solution exists. One won’t be found. We have
to believe it to be there. I’ll just skip over this, I won’t read them out again. Those
are the four things we looked at, I know time is of the essence. But I will pause on this
a little bit. Last slide. Take a moment to reflect on the legacy of creative innovation
you have left in your wake, personally. Have a look back at how creative you’ve been in
the last 12 months. Not only the products that you have contributed, but with the coaching
developed in your teams and I’m sure I’m talking to the converted here because you’re all here,
you know, trying to learn something and trying to pick something up, and I’m sure that there’s
some creative and innovative superstars among you. But – so some of you will identify a
need for a slight amendment in your attitude and approach. Some of you have the right attitude
and just don’t know how to apply it. So just Google it have a look. Scamper, brainstorm.
There’s lots and lots of techniques out there to be creative and innovative. So that’s me
finished. I guess questions are not for here, I’m sure we’ve overrun but I am going for
a beer so if you want to talk to me there… (Applause)