How to make a 2D Game in Unity

So, a question we get asked a lot is how to make a 2D game? Of course, this is a huge question to answer. But, hopefully, this video should help point you in the right direction. And this is actually filmed on our brand-new video camera. So, I hope the quality is all right. Apparently, this camera has a pretty narrow lens. So, we had to do this crazy setup to make it work. Luckily, making 2D games in Unity has gotten so much easier over the last couple of years Ever since they introduced the new 2D features in version 4.3 We’ve seen a bunch of cool features and workflows for different aspects of working with 2D in Unity Now, 2d games, of course, come in a variety of different art styles and genres. And the tools that are right for you are going to completely depend on the game that you’re making. But, in general, we can split Unity up into two primary workflows. Tile based. And sprite based. The tile based workflow is meant for games that are build on a grid As the name suggests You create environments by placing tiles. Which makes it pretty fast and easy to create and modify levels. The sprite based workflow, on the other hand, gives you more control As it simply means that you place object freely in the world As a result of this you can create more detailed and dynamic environments. But it might not be as quick. And, on top of that, Unity is also working on some tools for vector graphics In case you are really fond of illustrator. But, regardless of what workflow you choose We first have to create a project. So, to create a new project, we go “new” And your UI might look a tiny bit different here But that’s because I’m using Unity hub Which is still in beta But the idea should be the same We then select a name for our project I’m just gonna call mine “2D Game Example”. We then select a Unity version. I’m gonna be using 2018.2 Then we chose a save location I’ll just use my projects folder And, finally, as our template, we want to make sure that we select 2D. Let’s then hit create project And Unity is going to open up a new empty project. And, now, we can see we have this empty scene With only a main camera in it. And because we made sure to select 2d as the template Unity has set up some different settings on our camera And in our editor To work well with 2D. Awesome! Now, when starting with an empty project I really recommend visiting the Unity Asset Store to find some assets to use for your game. Of course, if you want you can always replace them with your own custom assets later. Luckily, there are some really great free assets available that we can use. I’ve gone ahead and compiled a list of some of my favorites. If you want to check them out you can use the link in the description. In here we have a pack for putting together cool pixel art caves They say picks up platformer pack As well as some more toony assets All these are based around tiles And so will fit perfectly with the tile based workflow. If you want to use the sprite based workflow There’s also an incredibly detailed art pack As well as a top-down dungeon pack that would work great for that Some of these also include characters But I’ve gone ahead and added a few separate ones just in case. Now, once you’ve picked something that you like We have to get it into Unity The way that we do this, it’s by opening up the asset store window. So, we’ll go window We’ll go under “General” and select the “Asset Store”. You can also press “Control 9”. We’ll then navigate to the package that we want to download. I’m just gonna get the free platform game assets. It’s right here. So we’ll click on that. And once you find the asset, you can simply click this red button to first download And then import it. We’ll then get this window Where we can see all of the different assets that are included in the pack And if there’s something in particular that you don’t want Let’s say, you already have a character And don’t need this one We can simply uncheck it, But I’d like to import everything. So I’m just gonna a select everything and hit import. This one is called BayatGames And under here we have the free platform game assets And you can see a bunch of different subfolders with the different aspects of our pack And most packs will also come with some kind of a demo scene. In this case, there’s a demo folder right here. If we open that up and double click on the scene to open it. We then go into the scene view And we can see this nice example of how you can combine the different elements to create a level. You can, of course, select the 2D Rect Tool at the top here. The shortcut for this is the T key And if you also make sure that you’re in 2D mode at the top of our scene view. We can then go in and simply click and change different elements around. We can, of course, move them. Rotate them. And scale them, as well. And so you can quickly start modifying these levels to make them your own. But, of course, we want to create our own custom level. So we’ll go back to the default sample scene And we can now start dragging in assets to use them. And how you go about this is going to depend on the pack that you’re using. This pack here splits up all the sprites into individual images. So, if we’re going to say “Tiles” and then “PNG” We have some different sizes available here. I’m gonna go under 256. I’m gonna select the “grass platform” and drag it in. And that works right away. We have all of our different assets and each one of them is a separate image. So, we can simply drag in some different images to sketch out a level. But what most 2D packs do is that they used a tile set And a tile set is basically just a very large image With a bunch of sprites laid side by side For example, if we go to the asset store and download the sunny land And open up the folder here We can see that on the artwork And then environment In here, we can see that there is indeed a file called tile set And if we have a look at this We can see that it’s basically just a bunch of smaller sprites in one larger image. Now, if you want to learn how to create your own tile sets And set them up in Unity. We have a tutorial that I suggest you check out But, luckily, this package has done all that for us. If we just select the tile set sliced here We can see that they’ve actually gone in and marked all the different tiles that make up this tile set And if we expand this arrow here We can actually see each individual tile in our tile set. Pretty cool! And just like any other image we can take any one of these. And simply drag them in to the editor. Now, this one is a lot smaller, but you can see it works just fine. So, now that we know how to work with sprites. Let’s try and build out a quick level here. So, we already have this grass platform here. That’s great. I’m just gonna place it here. Let’s also add a background. So, I’m gonna go under new background. Under PNG. I’m just gonna select the lowest version here Under background And here we have another file. Let’s simply drag that in, as well. And we can see this looks nice in our camera. But we can also see that it’s overlaid on top of a grass. And, of course, we want our background to be behind it. For this we use something called sorting layers So, to the right in our inspector here Under the Sprite Renderer We can see the setting called the sorting layer If we click this, we can add a new sorting layer. This takes us to another menu Where we can hit the plus sign to create a new layer Let’s call this one “background” And if we want this to be behind the default layer We actually need to put it on top That’s because this actually represents the drawing order In other ways, we first draw our background And then we draw the default layer on top Let’s just go in and add another one here called the “foreground” In case you want to have some foreground elements as well. So, now we can go into a new background And we can change the sorting layer here to background. And “voilà”! A grass platform appears. We can also maybe add a coin to our game To do that we’ll go under the coin animation. Let’s go into PNG again And let’s just select the small version here And as you can see this has a bunch of different images And if we go through these quickly We can see that they make up an animation. So, to add these as a single animated object. We simply select the first one Hold down shift And select the last one And we then drag all of them in Unity is going to notice that we are dragging in a bunch of images And so it’s gonna ask us to create a new animation with these images. I’m gonna make a new folder for this I’m gonna store all of our animation in here. Let’s open it up. And let’s call this the “coin animation”. Let’s hit save And inside of our animation folder Unity is now going to create both a animation file As well as an animator controller And this is currently named after one of our images. I’m just gonna rename this to “coin animator”. And now if we select our coin We can see that it has an animator component as well If we go to the animation window Which you can always find on the window Animation We can actually go through each individual image in this animation If we hit play We can play through it Or if we simply hit this button to play the game We can see that the animation plays and repeats by default. So, now we have an animated coin in our game We can, of course, move this around Put it anywhere that we would like And just like when creating any game in unity We can then add components to our different game objects in order to make them do different things Say, for example, that we wanted this coin to have physics applied Well, then we could go ahead and add a new component. We can go under physics 2D And here, we have a bunch of different components for adjusting 2D physics on our game object. I’m just gonna select the Box Collider 2D If we then go into the Scene view and select our coin and hit F to focus on it We should be able to seeing that there’s actually a green line surrounding our coin. It might not be too visible from the screen recording, but it is there. I’m just gonna give it a size of 1 on the X This way we can kind of see it more clearly And the Y is just fine as it is. But adding a Collider is not enough. If we want this to fall onto our platform We also have to apply physics to it To do this, we’ll go add component And we’ll search for rigidbody 2D This will apply it physics to our coin And if we now hit play We should see that immediately our coin falls. However, because we don’t have a collider on our grass, It’s just gonna fall right through on platform So, that’s here go and add a box Collider 2D. And we can go in and edit the collider here And I’m just gonna drag the top a bit down So, that it looks like our coin is landing at the center of our platform I’m also going to take the platform and drag it down a bit And if we now hit play once more We can see that the coin falls and lands on a platform We also see that we have this weird issue Where sometimes our coin is behind a platform And sometimes it’s in front And that’s because they’re currently on the same sorting layer And not only that they have the same order within that layer To change that we can go to our coin here And we can increase the order in layer So, if we set this to any value greater than 1 It will be drawn on top of our platform I’m just gonna set it to something like 10 And now when we hit play Our coin always appears on top of our platform. So, that is kind of the very basics of working with 2D objects in Unity, And currently we’re just using the default sprite workflow We can take any of these objects and drag it around freely. In other words, we aren’t restricted to a grid. However, because this platform actually has a bunch of different tasks in it. It would work great with the tile based workflow. So, let me just give you a quick preview of how that would work. If you want to learn more about using Tile Maps in Unity, We have a tutorial dedicated to that. So definitely check that out. So, for now I’m just gonna take these two objects and remove them And instead I’m gonna right-click in our scene and I’m gonna go to the object And create a new tile map This creates an object in our scene called grid And as you can see this does overlay a grid on top of our scene. I’m gonna set the cell size of this grid to 2 by 2 This way it’s a bit larger And under this grid, we have the tile map. We can also go and open up the tile set window So we’ll go window 2D And select the Tile Palette Let’s dock this to the side of our Scene view And the tile palette is basically just the window where we add all of our tiles And then we can select between them in order to paint them into our scene. So, I’m gonna create a new palette here Let’s just name it something like “Grass Platform palette”. I’m gonna hit create And I’m just gonna store it in the base folder here So, it’s select folder And now we can simply drag sprites in here in order to add them to our palette Of course, we have a bunch of tiles right here So, I’m just gonna select all of them and drag them right in. And it’s going to ask us where we want to generate all the tile assets I’m gonna right click and create a new folder for this. Let’s call it tiles And it’s it that folder It’s then gonna generate all of our tiles And voilà! We can now see all of our tiles inside of this window And we can select any one of them by simply clicking on it And by selecting the brush tool at the top here We can then start painting them into a scene. We can also see that they don’t quite line up with our grid To change that, we need to select all of our sprites. And to the right here, we’ll change the pixels per unit And each of these sprites is 256 by 256 And we want each one of them to be two units wide Because we set our grid to 2 by 2 And so we simply need to take this value and half it And that makes 128. So, we’ll set the pixels per unit to 128. And if we then apply that We can see that they snap right into place So I’m just going to use the paint brush and erase the two two a quick level here Awesome! Again, I really suggest you check out our tutorial on tile maps If this is the workflow that you want to use. So, hopefully, that should give you an idea of what tools you have at your disposal When starting to make 2D games in Unity. Of course, this is only the beginning And we’ll be releasing new videos on the different aspects of making 2D games going forward Starting with player movement If there are any particular subjects that you would like to see Like enemies, one-way platforms or shooting Definitely let us know in the comments Until then I recommend just playing around with Unity And having some fun sketching out your own levels Also if you like this video and the content in general Consider supporting us on Patreon Patreon allows you to make a monthly donation with an amount of your choosing You can cancel it at any time And it’s just a great way to help us keep making these videos On that, thanks for watching! And I will see you in the next video! Thanks of the awesome Patreon supporters who donated in June And especially thanks to… You, guys, rock!

“Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow is Good Business(TM)” Leadership Simulaiton – Trailer

(ALEAS® Adaptive Learning Solutions) (Extraordinary) (Extraordinary)
It was the most extraordinary time of my life … (Biggest challenge of your life) (Biggest challenge of your life)
The company wasn’t too large but my appointment (Biggest challenge of your life)
was certainly the biggest challenge I’ve ever faced … (High tension)
There was so much tension in the air (High tension)
you could cut it with a knife … (Heated conflicts)
Every working day was dominated by (Heated conflicts)
conflicts filled with bickering and rivalry … But I did notice …
… and the old man also knew … The chief executive staff was (8 very complex people)
made up of a team of eight people … You will be managing complex people here.
You have an important job to do. I need to talk to you right now
so please don’t blow me off. Are you dissatisfied with these products because you have
a painful personal link to them, namely your ex-wife? Actually, Ellen, it was my idea
so I’d really like to be involved! It’s not your area, Jen … You’re right, Ellen. It’s actually MY area! If I could only get them to understand the process of flow … (Flow is good business)
I know they could turn this company (Flow is good business)
into a really good business. All right, I’m going, but I can see you’re trying to make
light of the situation and don’t take my concern SERIOUSLY! So, what do you think of him? This trailer is NOT based on a true story … … because it IS a true story! Each day arrives and ends with a new task list. I GUARANTEE that every workday at the winery also involves
interruptions, meetings, conflicts, decisions … I thought you knew about his wife, Kate.
You should have let him go to her much earlier. Nobody cares about MY opinion,
this is going to be a disaster! The question is what approach are you taking. Because if you insist on continuing
with your marketing-driven approach we may be lucky enough to obtain
the instant, widespread recognition you so desire but it may not last! I am the new General Manager of Turul Winery,
a family-owned business with traditions and a reputation
steeped in a hundred and fifty year old history … I am the new General Manager of Turul Winery,
a family-owned business with traditions and a reputation
steeped in a one hundred and fifty year old history … What’s a … What’s going on here?
What’s this about? Where have you been? I’ve been waiting for you! I was sharing my night harvest idea
with our new “GM”. Larry, come on, we have other priorities right now … Although my predecessor maintained
a stable financial basis … … the company was reeling from a change of character
which left them around in turmoil. It doesn’t make any sense to me … That’s right! I don’t trust Alex! Excuse me! Did I hear you correctly?
What are you scheming? I could say a lot of things about the people in this winery,
but they are all pretty sophisticated … I only had a very short time
to turn this time the situation around … I just had a breakthrough! Team! T-E-A-M! Oh, it stands for “Together Everybody Achieves More”! In case you’re wondering what I look like … … I look like YOU! Hi, I’m Joe Salieri … Because I AM YOU! … as you know I am the PR and Events Manager …
You know, I practically grew up at the winery … You are the General Manager of Turul Winery. You are the General Manager of Turul Winery. Ok, then see you at the meeting! It certainly didn’t feel like a game to me … It’s like being the main character in a film … The stakes are much higher
than you might imagine … The first totally realistic
interactive simulation ever released. And … it’s a serious management
training tool. Flow is good business Be in it. Soon.
(Csikszentmihalyi’s Flow is Good Business™ Leadership Simulation) (

Working with children to understand how brains develop

>>JEFFREY LOCKMAN: My name is Dr. Jeff Lockman
and I’m a developmental psychologist. When I went to college, I took a psychology course,
and I fell in love with the idea of applying scientific methods to the study of behavior.
I study infants and young children. What I do is use nonverbal methods in order to, in
a way, enter their minds. One of the joys of being a psychologist and
having a research lab, is that I get to work with great students. Together, we formulate
what the questions are, how we’re going to conduct the study, how we’re going to
analyze it, and then write it up. We want to unpack the mystery of how this developmental
process unfolds. We have a number of research projects that
are ongoing in our lab. We’re looking at how the early banging behaviors of babies
sets the stage for tool use behaviors, such as hammering, pounding, and so forth. We are looking at how young children fit objects
into other objects. That’s very important for problem solving. We’re looking at the beginning of writing
skills. We’re looking at the eye-hand coordination component of that. When we do these studies, we’re very careful
to use a scientific approach. We use a set of procedures known as motion
tracking or motion capture technology. This is very similar to what is used in movies.
We can uncover the organization of their motor skills and what’s changing with development. What I love the most about my job is constantly
discovering new things. It’s a little strange to think about babies teaching you something,
but they’re teaching us something all the time. From our research, we’ve learned that some
of the building blocks for both the preschool period and later adulthood are really present
in the infancy period. It helps us understand: what are the milestones in development? When
is a child supposed to do this, at what age? And that’s very important for people in
professions like physical therapists, occupational therapists, where you need to be able to diagnose
whether a child is on track in development. Our research benefits teachers in schools.
Our research helps parents to understand their babies better. So a baby banging an object
at a restaurant may be very annoying, but if you look at it in a way that, “well,
this baby’s really trying to explore something,” it makes parents interact with their babies
in a more positive way and that’s science in action.

Brad Wright Working On New Stargate

For those who have been waiting with bated
breath for news about the future of the Stargate franchise, the first sign of things to come
has arrived in the form of an interview with Stargate veteran Brad Wright. In a recent appearance on the Nerks of the
Hub Podcast, the Stargate SG-1, Atlantis, and Universe co-creator confirmed that conversations
to move the Stargate franchise forward are happening in the halls of MGM — and even
more importantly, that he is involved in those talks. “MGM has recognized that they have a genuine
franchise in their hands, and they’re looking at it quite seriously,” Wright said on the podcast. “So our first conversation was after Stargate
Origins … They had reached out to interview me for the twentieth anniversary [of SG-1],
which would have been lovely. But I said: ‘I’m surprised you want to
talk to me since you seem in your latest effort to be trying to avoid Stargate SG-1’s canon,
and anything that I had contributed.’” He then added: “And that may have been so,
but they have since changed their mind.” Now in regards to Wright’s comment about
SG-1 canon, it’s important to understand the context around Stargate Origins. In February of 2018, MGM released the modestly
budgeted, 10-part digital series Stargate Origins — which was the first Stargate to
be produced since SGU’s series finale, “Gauntlet,” which aired in 2011. Origins followed the adventures of a young
Catherine Langford in a story that took its tonal, thematic, and narrative cues from the
original 1994 Stargate feature film. In the vein of “Star Wars: The Force Awakens”
and “Jurassic World,” Origins attempted to recapture the feeling of the original movie
that birthed a franchise. Origins worked to tell an in-canon story that
celebrated the source material, yet also furthered the franchise’s greater mythology. Now, whether it achieved that is up to an
individual viewer’s discretion. But Origins’ objective was clear: cultivate
nostalgia, and tell a retro story that re-energized fandom as a tease for things to come. Origins wrapped up its 10-part story last
March, and was later re-released in the form of a feature cut called “Stargate Origins:
Catherine” — sold exclusively on digital markets. But while Origins was meant to reopen the
franchise, things fell quiet after the feature cut’s June release date. The first sign of any progress came last September
at Gatecon: The Invasion where former Stargate producer Brad Wright revealed that he and
MGM are once again talking about the Stargate franchise. At the same time, he was rather vague about
details, and his brief mention sounded more like a non-statement than a tease for things to come. But Wright’s more recent statements should
give more confidence to fans who are hoping one day to see the full-fledged return of
Stargate — and also assure them that a high standard of quality will be required for whatever
the studio decides to produce. Wright explained: “We’ve had conversations
about what may or may not be able to happen going forward, and it’s sort of starting
from scratch in so many ways. And very much in the acknowledgment that whatever
the next step forward is, it has to be of certain quality and honor the several hundred
hours of show that’s already out there. I don’t mean ‘honor’ — I mean acknowledge it. And they agreed.” He added: “That’s really still where we
are, I don’t expect — and certainly don’t anyone expect — another television show
to appear around the corner. But Stargate is an important part of their library. And so … maybe we’ll think of something! That’s all I can tell you! We’re working on it.” So nearly a year after MGM tested the waters
with Stargate Origins, it sounds like the studio is actively eyeing options
to move the franchise forward. And while we don’t know what the plan is
yet, at least the maestro himself is involved in the planning stage. He isn’t just “talking” with MGM: he’s
talking about Stargate’s future. Wright also opened up in the podcast about
the impact of MGM’s bankruptcy on Stargate Universe’s lack of a third season renewal
back in 2010. He explained: “What happened with Stargate
Universe is MGM went through a major restructuring — basically a structured bankruptcy. Everyone who I knew at MGM simply was gone
within a month of this event. And so even Syfy — who wanted to talk about
a third season, or at least have the conversation — really had no one that they could talk to.” He also admitted: “It was kind of sad. And it was kind of a perfect storm of not
great ratings and the studio disappearing.” You can listen to Brad Wright’s 50-minute
conversation with Nerks of the Hub now at Anchor, iTunes, or wherever you find your podcasts. As always, be sure to follow GateWorld in
2019 for breaking news, editorials, videos, interviews, and all things Stargate! Subscribe to the channel now below, and click
the bell icon to enable alerts. You can find all the latest Stargate news
and features at

Urgent! Deal With Your Resistance Before You Do Anything Else – Teal Swan

Resistance is the big bad wolf in a land called: ‘trying to
get what you want’. For this reason, it is something that you hear about
constantly in healing circles, self-help circles, spiritual circles. But most people have no idea
what resistance actually is. More than that, people have an even
harder time figuring out that they are in fact in resistance. What is Resistance? To understand resistance perfectly, I want you to imagine a stream. And in this stream, that has
a very fast-moving current, there is a boat. Inside of this boat,
you have six oarsmen. Three of these oarsmen, are faced downstream
paddling with the current. Three of these oarsmen are faced in the opposite direction
paddling upstream against the current. The oarsmen that are paddling
upstream, against the current, in a land called: “what you want is downstream” are in resistance. Resistance is nothing more
than oppositional force. Now what do you know from life? You can meet with
opposition externally, and you can meet with
opposition internally. External opposition is obvious. It’s things like people
that are opposing you, circumstances that get in your way, anything that is opposing
your forward movement in the direction of what
you are wanting, or consciously aware
that you’re wanting. Now what we don’t understand, but we need to is that
external resistance, is a reflection of internal resistance. These are thoughts words and actions, that oppose your desires. That oppose your direction. That oppose your highest good. In other words, internal and external
resistance go hand-in-hand. The resistance we encounter
on the outside, is a reflection of internal
resistance that exists; usually internal resistance that
we are completely unaware of. So let’s take a moment to
understand internal resistance, because it’s the most important
thing to understand. It can come in the form of usually,
thoughts, words, and actions so let’s look at an
oppositional thought; If you want to think a thought like: “I am completely abundant”, if you want that to be
the truth of your reality, and you think the thought:
“nobody has enough money”, “I’ve never had any money”, then basically that is a thought
that opposes abundance. It’s a thought that opposes abundance, therefore, It is in
resistance to abundance. An example of resistant words, maybe telling someone you love
them, when in fact you don’t, or any other form of inauthentic speech. A resistant action could be, getting drunk, when you
have vowed to stay sober. The main source of internal opposition, is in fact, internal splits within
a person’s consciousness. Even though we have one body, within that body we have,
in fact, multiple selves. We are fragmented. The best way to picture
this is to imagine that inside your body you have
a collection of “Siamese Twins” They are technically all conjoined
because they all share one body But each has its own identity,
desires, needs, perspective, strengths, weaknesses,
and appearance. This is the primary unconscious
coping mechanism within people. And these selves, or fragmented
internal aspects, often oppose one another. When they oppose one another
you end up with internal resistance. To understand this
concept in depth, and learn how to reverse the
process, watch my video titled: Fragmentation
(The Worldwide Disease) So obviously when we’re trying to get
what we want or we’re trying to heal or trying to move in
a specific direction, any form of resistance
causes us to be torn in half. It obviously leads to a state of pain. We cannot move forward as one integral and whole
being in that moment. Now it’s how people react to
this resistance internally, that causes the greatest amount
of distress and suffering within the human embodiment What people do when they encounter
this resistance internally, is they try to push through it,
ignore it, deny it, suppress it, and they try to accomplish what
they want to accomplish anyway. Now, here’s the most
important thing to understand; We all know that what
we resist persists, right? You’ve heard that a
million and a half times? What happens when you resist resistance? Which is what you’re doing
when you approach resistance, in any other way, than
dealing with it directly. It becomes like a horrific
game of tug-of-war. Where all you’re trying to do is
to overcome or win the game, by adding more pressure to one side. The sides you want to have win. In other analogies, It’s like two people
paddling in two different directions. You end up stuck or spinning in circles,
or having to put forth so much effort to try to get where you want
to go or get what you want, that you eventually give up. The way that people try
to deal with resistance, is to try to combat that resistance, by adding as much energy
as they possibly can, to whatever positive side of that
resistance that they can find. For example, let’s say that a person has an issue with “Abundance”; They feel like they don’t
have enough money. Instead of looking at the
aspects of themselves, that are in resistance to abundance, what the majority of people
do is they say affirmations. “Oh, it doesn’t matter what
the resistance that I’m in is, I am wealthy and abundant
right here in this moment.” Or they attend a three-day workshop, trying to manifest money. To use the previous analogy, when we take this approach, if
we are in a state of resistance, what we are actually doing, is akin to giving the three oarsmen
that were faced downstream, better paddles. So all we’ve done, is give them more tools
to oppose the aspects of the people in the boat, (in this analogy), that are paddling upstream. It has done nothing to end the
battle between these oarsmen. It has done nothing, therefore,
to end the resistance. It’s added to it. So obviously, long story short, this is not a very wise
way to go about it. I got to give you another metaphor,
because I like this one a lot; not dealing with your
resistance directly, and just trying to push
through your resistance, or add energy to the aspects of
you that are not in resistance, is a little bit like trying to set sail, when you’ve got an anchor,
down on the bottom of the ocean. Now what is the point
of putting up better sails, and trying to push the boat forward, instead of trying to pull up the anchor? What we have to become
comfortable with, is that the universe at large, only benefits by us getting what we want. So you don’t actually
have to try very hard, to accomplish things like abundance. To accomplish things
like a good relationship. All you have to do,
is to find the resistance that you have to those things, and create resolve in those areas. What you have to do, is to become aware of
the resistance you have, and directly address that resistance,
and try to create some alignment, so that you can have all of your personal
energy going in the same direction. This will reflect externally in
the world as external circumstances working with us, instead of against us. This is to say we need to dive
down and pull the anchor up, so we can set sail. not try to improve our sails, so they
can afford the drag of the anchor. If you have any resistance taking
place within your being you must directly deal
with the resistance first, before doing anything else. No action should be taken
from a place of resistance. So when we feel ourselves
putting the brakes on something, when we feel like we can’t get
completely on board with something, or when we notice that
no matter what we do, we can’t really manifest
what we want in our lives, we need to stop right
there in that moment. And really try to look for
the resistance that we have, to that thing that we
are consciously thinking that we want so much. To do this, obviously, we have to be
completely honest with ourselves, regardless of how much
shame we might feel about it. So often, when it comes to
us trying to heal some aspect of our life, the reason we’re
not getting anywhere is because we have no
idea about the resistance we have to the actual healing. I mean, nobody on earth would
want to look at the fact that potentially there’s something,
some part of them, that doesn’t want the healing
to take place, for example. But that may be a form of
resistance that takes place, that disallows us from
moving into the space, that we are wanting to occupy. A space of health,
the space of wealth, a space where we have
company in our life, and we feel close
to other people. But we have to become brave
enough to consider that those parts actually
do exist within us. And if we haven’t created the
life that we want to create, there must be an aspect of ourselves
that is actually in opposition to it. The same goes for truth. We are so incredibly opposed
and resistant to seeing truth, we don’t want to admit to it. We love to go into denial instead, because sometimes it’s so
incredibly painful to see the truth. But if you’re in resistance to truth,
you’re in resistance to awareness. And therefore, your
entire spiritual practice has just been derailed by resistance. I’m gonna give you a little example, of the resistance that needs to be
dealt with, before moving forward. Sometimes you can have
resistance to a specific teacher. You’re in opposition to
them in some way, or some part of you is
in opposition to them, even if the rest of you
really loves them. Now this resistance
closes you down, it makes it so that you
can’t be super open to the things that this
teacher is teaching you. In that moment, instead of trying
to bulldoze through your resistance to that teacher, you need to stop
and deal with the resistance, to the teacher, before you try to learn
from the teacher. Here’s another example of
how resistance may crop up; Let’s say that you’ve got a woman, and that woman goes
into infertility treatment, and she is convinced
that she wants a baby worse than anything
in the world. She’s desperately pouring
effort into trying to conceive and into fertility specialists
without even realizing, that she has parts inside of
her that are subconscious, and person who have even more
weight inside of her than the others, who are completely opposed
to the idea of being a mother. We need to consider that if we have
not manifested something already It is because parts within us
actually oppose the manifesting of that thing and have very
good reason to do so. Another example is that someone can be
trying to reflect something to us about us, that might change the way
that we live for the better, but we feel that acknowledging that part
of ourselves would make us a bad person. Our self-concept is in resistance,
to the truth of us. So we lie about ourselves and go
into denial about ourselves instead. The process that we go through, to resolve any type of resistance, depends so highly on the
specific circumstances that we find ourselves in. But I’m going to give you something
that is a unanimous truth when it comes to resistance. We cannot resolve resistance, if we are in resistance to the resistance. Therefore, you cannot approach any part of you that is
in the state of resistance, as if it is invalid, as if you don’t like it, as if
you want it to go away. It has to be seen as
valid and important regardless of whether
it is true or not. If you do not treat it this way, if you approach resistance with
resistance, by already deciding, that it’s stupid or shouldn’t be there,
and needs to change its stance, you will not be able to listen to
that resistance and understand it, with compassion enough to
create resolve with it. You also will not be able to arrive
at your personal higher truth in any given situation. I need to make you aware of following, Sometimes our conscious mind tells
us we want something desperately, because we have suppressed
the aspects of ourselves, that are in fact in resistance
to a given situation or a circumstance or a thing. Now, if you have an open mind
enough to resistance, what can happen sometimes is that
you find the greater truth for yourself. For example, some people think consciously
they want something super bad, and when they actually
acknowledge these parts that are in the state of resistance, instead
of purifying and resolving the resistance so they can continue to go in the
direction they wanted to go, what they find is that
the deeper truth, was actually hidden in
the resistance itself. And so they may
change their stance. They may change
what they need. They may change their entire
personal truth based off of uncovering and re discovering
these aspects of themselves that were in resistance,
but subconsciously. So you need to stay
open to the concept that even though you think
you consciously want something, Once you become aware
of the resistance, you may actually change
what you want. You may actually change
your direction. You may actually change your definition
of what healing actually is. Or you may become
completely aware of what it will take to get all of you on
board with what you’re already aware, that you consciously
want so badly. So remember, if you aren’t
getting anywhere with something it’s because there is
resistance involved. if we are in resistance we need
to stop dead in our tracks. Zoom out to see the resistance and
resolve it in whatever way we can, before we move forward with
that thing we are in resistance to. Everyone experiences
resistance in their life. And I would say,
even at this point, everyone experiences
resistance on a weekly basis, if not a daily basis. So there’s nothing wrong inherently with being in a state of resistance. But the people who are the
most successful on this planet with regards to creating the life
that they want to be living for, they are the people who are
capable of facing their resistance, and resolving resistance, so that all aspects of
themselves, are not split, but are instead faced
in the same direction, and moving towards what
is genuinely wanted. Have a good week. Subtitles by: Tanya Duarte &
The YouTube Community Subtitles by the community

Powerful! Mind Secrets you MUST know! – The Key To Permanent Change (Law of Attraction)

Powerful mind success secret law of attraction the moment you shift how you think about
yourself and your circumstances both you and those circumstances will begin to
change hello this is dane spots I’m sure you’ve
heard the idea that our thoughts somehow shape the reality we experience that
negative thoughts influence the world around us and bring about negative
circumstances while positive thoughts somehow bring about positive
circumstances well an entire industry of motivational
speakers have been created around this premise almost all of us have been exposed to
the tenants a positive thinking but if it works so well then why isn’t
everyone who attends these seminars and read these books rich and successful and
most of all happy if all we need to do is to think positive thoughts we should be able to create a positive
world almost overnight shouldn’t we what’s wrong with this picture well I
spent the last 20 years trying to find out and what I discovered is a
philosophy that i’ll share with you along with a set of tools and programs I think will not only be a tremendous
benefit but will literally I’ll allow you to become your potential and derive
the maximum pleasure out of life much of what i’m about to share with you
will seem simple in concept the best ideas usually are powerful mind secret law of attraction and so I should warn you that there’s a
tendency to view these simple ideas from a surface level without really
internalizing and practicing them therefore I recommended you listen to
this tape a minimum of four times ten times would be even better and each time you hear these ideas
rather than using your rationale intellectual mind which analyzes things
to death use your playful risk-taking side and
make the effort to incorporate these tools into your daily life the reason i’m asking this of you is
because I know that most of you will listen to this tape once and then stick
it on a shelf you’ll never really use the material I want you to use this stuff to practice
it and internalize it you see it takes a commitment a
conscious commitment to make positive change occur on a subconscious level the
tools and reprogramming processes must be used to make them work look there’s something I want you to
realize right now the old you will do everything in its
power to prevent change it will come up with excuses for not listening to the
tapes will procrastinate and make excuses for not using these ideas and
programs even if they’re good for you and the reason why you do that to
yourself is because the old you is powerful mind success secret law of attraction comfortable it has a built in survival mechanism to
protect the status quo and that’s why change is so difficult and it’s also why positive thinking on a surface level
always fails millions and millions of people attend positive thinking seminars
or buy books and tapes each year yet very few derive lasting
benefits from them if you’ve ever attended any of these
seminars or read any of these books are usually high from the motivational
uplift for about two days then you go back to your old self again listen it isn’t that the material is
invalid or doesn’t work it does it’s just the positive thinking
and motivational stories deal only with your conscious mind and
that conscious mind is not the engine that powers your life rather it’s the subconscious or the
unconscious portions of your mind from which our behavior and attitude spring
going directly into the unconscious and rewiring how you think about yourself
and your future is the key to permanent and lasting change and that’s precisely
what will be addressing in this program ok let’s begin first off powerful mind success secret law of attraction let me give you the philosophy behind
this program and also answer the question of just how are thinking and
beliefs on a subconscious level affects our wealth our health and our success or
failure in any undertaking let me read you something that sums up
rather nicely the point of all of this what we believe determines what we make
true let me read that again to you what we
believe determines what we make true our perceptions of reality how we think
about ourselves and the world around us what we look for and what we take to be
true is determined by our believes alter believe and you can change reality or at
least the reality that you experience when saying is it through your beliefs
you form your reality a friend of mine who is a very
successful in very wealthy real estate entrepreneur started without a single
diamond his pocket and he was able to amass a great fortune in only a few
years with a simple philosophy of faking it until he made it he convinced himself
on a subconscious level that he had already acquired a great fortune when in
fact he was really broke in his mind he became a millionaire the circumstances that brought about
that reality then followed now i’m sure that you’ve heard similar
stories what we take to be true on a subconscious level becomes our reality
how does that mean it’s skill and luck don’t play a role in wealth and
prosperity well money making skills are powerful mind success secret law of attraction learned and begin with a desire and a
belief that it’s possible remember what we believe is based on our
perceptions and what we perceive depends upon what we look for and what we look
for depends upon what we think and luck and
we all know those people who seem to be exceptionally lucky is created out of a core belief that
good thing should happen it’s an expectation expect to be lucky
and you will be it’s as simple as that now you’ve
probably seen this happen to you all the time but in Reverse you know when you tell yourself that
you’re having a bad day and sure enough you do what we believe determines what
we make true and that’s the entire premise of this idea as well as the tape are you still with me what I’m telling
you here is nothing new in fact it’s very old philosophers and
great thinkers have been saying it for thousands of years the Roman philosopher
Marcus Aurelius said our light is what powerful mind success secret law of attraction our thoughts make of it Napoleon Hill said exactly the same
thing and think and grow rich and everyone sense has said the same basic
idea but that doesn’t necessarily help you make it work better in your life you
see you’ve got to break through and encrusted mind script it’s made up of years of negative
programming that’s why we created mine development
tools here at saigon because the purpose of these tools is to deal with the issue
of beliefs and behavior at the deepest levels of your being and to anchor these
new beliefs into your subconscious where your beliefs are formed and reinforced
by your perceptions and thus made true to create lasting change you must be
script the core set of beliefs that forms how you think and perceive your
reality inside our subconscious minds we have scripted what we see as the truth remember what we accept to believe as
true is true or becomes true . in any evidence contrary to our core
beliefs is discarded or perceptually modified by our brains so if you’ve been told all your life
that you’ll never amount to anything or believe that being wealthy is something
beyond your grasp then that is the mine script is welded
into your subconscious and then that’s the reality you will experience now enough talk about that let me give
you now a very simple and very powerful tool that you can use to create the
reality that you’d like to experience to attract wealth and prosperity to bring
forth loving and positive relationships to make you shine and glow and achieve
in every area of your life powerful mind success secret law of attraction it’s a process I call vision earring what is it well it’s a program of mental
rehearsal of future events that anchors successful images to positive emotions
through a simple visualization technique it also programs the subconscious to
bring forth a desired goal into reality now you’re probably familiar with
visualization techniques and perhaps you experiment with them in your life that’s good most people try it for a
while but then they give up usually for two reasons the first is of
the old you creeps in again with excuses for not changing it also because you may
not have been doing it right so you never really noticed any positive
feedback to justify continuing doing it well i’m going to give you a super
simple solution that’s going to work incredibly well but it’s up to you to
use it and there are three steps in the process before I give them to you let me give you a bit of a tip you must
set up a regular time each and every day for your vision hearing session we’re
talking about five minutes of that five minutes you can achieve any
worthwhile goal to desire morning or night it doesn’t really
matter just give yourself the five minutes you’re worth it now this five minutes
must be exclusively devoted to the vision hearing process okay are you ready for a session get
into a comfortable position close your eyes and with your eyes
closed roll them upwards slightly as if you’re
trying to see the center of your forehead and listen to yourself breathe
focus your attention on slowly taking deep breaths and the sound of the air
coming in and out of your long girls feel yourself relax do this breathing
exercise five times it will only take 45 seconds or so as you focus on your
breathing this is a simple relaxation exercise
that will immediately alter your consciousness putting your brain into an
alpha State in fact if you were to hook yourself up
to an EEG machine while doing a simple procedure you would see an increase in alpha way
production emitting from your brain in an only 45 seconds you know their seminars a charge upwards
of five hundred dollars to teach you this ok so you learn how to induce an alpha
brainwave state in 45 seconds the next step is to pick out an image of
a past memory where you were extremely happy really get in touch with that powerful mind success secret law of attraction experience it doesn’t really matter what it is or
when it happened the point is to conjure up a winning feeling or a positive
emotion that you can then use to connect with your image of a future event perhaps this is an image of the moment
you remember falling in love or receiving a standing ovation during a
high school play go back into your past and pull out a
very specific event that you will relive in every detail feel the pass on your back the loving
adulation remember the voices the smells the colors as you recreate
the scene let yourself re experience all of those
winning feelings what you’re doing here is bringing
forward into your consciousness a positive emotion that will
psychologically become connected with a future goal in your subconscious this has the effect of anchoring that
desired goal into the subconscious mind so that it’s energized it becomes a
subconscious reality now making it happen is really quite easy because of
the subconscious mind believes it it will alter your perceptions and we’ll
look for it to make it into a reality I’ll talk more about that a little bit
later ok once you’ve relive that positive moment and felt those winning
feelings welling up inside of you the next step is to envision the future
goal that you want to achieve as vividly as possible it can be through a mental picture a
word a musical note a taste in fact any sensory image that you can
think of each person is different some people respond better to pictures
while others words the key point here is to see yourself as if you’ve already
achieved that goal whether it’s in the form of a picture a feeling or words if
it’s money powerful mind success secret law of attraction see yourself as already having perhaps
the images are you going to the bank with a big deposit or you’re sitting at
your desk at work piled high with hundred-dollar bills smell the money
roll in it throw it in the air see yourself walking
down the street wearing the finest clothes driving your dream car and
hearing the whispers and comments of your friends wondering how you ever got
so successful if you’re a student taking a test see
that big red a plus mark across the top of your exam if you’re a salesperson see yourself
actually closing the sale if you’re giving a speech see the audience
clapping for you and telling you what a wonderful job that you’ve done let’s say you want a vacation home on
cape cod or in Malibu picture yourself walking through the
front door noticing the color and the texture of the walls the lawn the roof the entry area go ahead and
walk through the entire home in your mind filling in the details exactly as
you would like them to be in your reality give your images as much richness in
detail as you possibly can and don’t worry that first your images are a bit
fuzzy the process improves with practice
tie-ins sounds smells and touch in fact the more senses and the greater
the specificity the more ammunition that you’re giving
your subconscious mind to believe it and then to act on it ok you get the idea now let’s review the
steps here first you get comfortable close your
eyes and roll them upward focusing your breathing for five breaths second
recreate a winning feeling by bringing forth a positive image from your past
and reliving it for a minute or two three envision your future goal is if you’ve
already achieved it and do a mental rehearsal of that event or objective
with as much color and detail as possible powerful mind success secret law of attraction now there’s one last thing that I want
you to do at the end of every session that may seem a bit strange at first but
it’s very powerful and very important when you open your eyes I want you to say the following out loud
I now allow myself to have and then fill in the blank with whatever it was that
you want and then say so be it it is done this simple statement
yourself affirms the goal that you just programmed and releases it y release it what you want to do after
affirming it is to release it and not dwell on it dwelling on something is like telling
your subconscious mind that you don’t really believe that it’s possible it’s
like wanting something too badly you know when you want something too
much and that you’re afraid that you’re not going to get it this is what I call the chokes in Rome
when you try too hard you choke on it’s a very easy thing to do people who
wish for something fall prey to this all the time however if you vision errant you’ve
already created it now release it and let it go by letting
go of it they’re actually programming in your subconscious the belief that you
expect it to happen and dwelling on it only creates mental doubt that you
believe it’s really possible and there’s something else too you must
believe that you deserve it and not feel the least bit guilty about it for many of us we have an unconscious
guilt about being happy and you need to remove those feelings from your
subconscious once and for all why would we feel guilty about being
happy well it’s because somewhere along the
line our parents our schools our churches our friends have programmed
into us that we have to suffer to be happy or pay a price for happiness or
that just when things are starting to powerful mind success secret law of attraction get good they all turned bad well that’s all a
lot of hogwash people say those things because they
themselves have a belief system of limitations and lack they believe that a
core level that they don’t deserve success and happiness so why should anyone else most people
think that happiness comes out of being successful or having good health when in
fact the reverse is true happiness is not something that’s burned or deserved
happiness is simply a state of mind by which are thinking is positive a good
share of the time if you wait until you feel deserving of having pleasant
thoughts about your life you’ll end up convincing your subconscious that you
are undeserving of happiness and the result is you’ll be unhappy and
unsuccessful in most of your undertakings it’s not selfish or wrong to be happy
regardless of where you are in life so be happy happiness is a means to an
end success and well-being and it’s also an
end in and of itself that we all desire happiness is not something that happens
to you it’s something that you cultivate that you determine and control if you’re
waiting for happiness to happen to you you’re going to have a long wait instead
leapfrog to it right now how do you do that it’s really very
simple by being and acting happy either when
you’re not it’s what all winners do it is what you
should do and do it now here are the three components that will
allow you to create the mental habit of being happy the majority of the time and
winning in every circumstance that you Powerful mind secrets for permanent life changes encounter the first aspect of this is to
not allow any outward experiences to influence you about how you think about
yourself you do this by changing the way that you
react to circumstances instead of being a participant in the
circumstance be apart from it let’s say you’re a salesperson and you
make sales and you create conditions for powerful mind success secret law of attraction a living and you just spent the last
three months of your time and money putting together a major deal and it’s
just getting ready to close when your prospect backs out of the last
minute your commission was big box and you see it all going down the drain
before your very eyes and you say to yourself I just knew this was a lousy
business why did I ever go into this business in
the first place people are rotten now we have to start all over again the
whole wait a minute timeout stand outside of this picture for a
moment the circumstances are the deal fell through but how you react to it
will have everything to do with your happiness and success of future deals
instead of moaning and feeling helpless make a conscious habit of reacting
aggressively and positively towards threats and problems don’t let it affect you personally it’s
just another deal in a world that’s full of deals move on to the next one when
you can mentally control the circumstances and never see failures as
failures you’ll be amazed at how much easier life
will become every human being that’s alive is presented with challenges and
obstacles it’s only how we perceive them that
makes them negative or positive the second component of this concept is
the consciously practice living your life in the present not the past or the
future you can envision the future the way that you wanted to be in your
vision hearing sessions but don’t make the mistake of living in it the secret of being alive and always
happy is to experience the present back for a moment of the happiest times in
your life I’ll bet those were moments that you
were totally absorbed and focused on the present and you are happiest because you
felt so alive so in touch with the experience of living you weren’t thinking about the past or
the future because you’re too busy living in the now this is one of the
secrets of truly happy people they’re absolutely absorbed in the
feeling of being alive let me give you an example that almost
anyone can relate to making love is perhaps where the most physically and
psychologically satisfying things you can do why because your energy is so focused
and so concentrated in the moment that feeling of being alive is incredibly
intense you want to know something interesting
many Vietnam vets will admit that the time when they felt most alive was when
they were in country walking out in some rice paddy as
strange as it may seem for these soldiers that was the time that they
felt most alive by living your daily life with focus and concentration powerful mind success secret law of attraction you will not only perform at your best
but the intense pleasures you will derive from just living will
dramatically increase and there’s a simple way to go about doing this I
learned from the famous author Ray Bradbury to help him focus his daily
writing he had a sign that he put on his desk
that said don’t think don’t try just do and that’s really what
it’s all about thinking and trying give your subconscious the wrong message
just by doing your subconscious auto pilot will automatically steer you in
the right direction the third and final point I want to make
here is for you to make happiness a habit link it in with your self-image regardless of your fears anxieties and
circumstances make happiness the choice that you pick see yourself as happy
focus on the details of the moment and take the time to love and appreciate the
magnificence of the world around you by affirming life and moving forward
through life’s experiences with an attitude that says yes to all the
circumstances that you encounter will program your subconscious to deliver a
meaningful and joyful existence it’s true and it’s not that difficult if
you don’t think or try but just do you know science is just now catching on to the
immense powers of the mind powers to spontaneously healed disease powers to
overcome extreme handicaps both physical and psychological and powers to live a
life filled with joy and happiness you know we spend hours in the gym
conditioning our bodies to look and feel their best powerful mind success secret law of attraction very little time developing our most
valuable resource our minds in the more you condition your
mind for success the more you will have computer
programmers have a term that use called garbage in and garbage out a badly
program computer is doomed to spit out bad information and that’s the same with
your mind yeah make a point of using this program on a
regular and consistent basis and do the vision hearing exercises on the little
things as well as the big things that you want you’ll be amazed of how effortless it
will make your life and finally want to just for the heck of
it create a habit of being happy all the time make a conscious decision to take
aggressive action in the circumstances of your life and resolve to become the
best that you can be these simple things will have a dramatic
effect on your reality follow this program and one year from
now I guarantee you’ll be totally amazed at the transformation in the positive
direction that your life takes thank you for listening and until next
time this is dane spots yeah yeah yeah yeah Powerful mind success secret law of attraction

How Rwanda is Becoming the Singapore of Africa

This video was made possible by Curiosity
Stream. Watch over 2,000 documentaries for free for
30 days by signing up at the link in the description. Africa is often viewed quite poorly on the
world stage. The continent holds plenty of violent, corrupt,
and unstable nations and the majority of world’s least developed countries, but Africa is big. There are 54 countries there and not all fall
into the generalizations of the continent as a whole. Perhaps most notably, Rwanda. One of the easiest ways to compare countries
is through their indicators and Rwanda’s are impressive. For every 100,000 residents, Rwanda has, on
average, only 2.5 murders per year. As a point of comparison, that’s lower than
India’s 3.2 or the United States’ 5.4. It’s even more impressive when looking at
the kind of neighborhood Rwanda is in. Uganda has 11.5, Tanzania has 7, Burundi has
6, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo has 13.6 murders per 100,000. In addition, Rwanda is ranked as the 48th
least corrupt country in the world. That’s not perfect, but on the continent,
only Botswana, a far richer country, ranks higher. The country also has a 67 year life expectancy,
tied for forth best in Africa, and only slightly below the world average. That 67 year number is believable, but what’s
truly unbelievable is that 25 years ago, the average Rwandan had a life expectancy of 28
years. 25 years ago, Rwanda was in the midst of one
of the most horrific genocides in history. In only 100 days, 800,000 Rwandans were murdered
in the midst of this ethnic conflict. The group primarily targeted, the Tutsi, saw
the loss of about 75% of its population. With time, though, the country emerged from
the other end, peace prevailed, and its indicators began their steady climb upwards to where
they are today. It is now the 15th fastest growing economy
in the world as its government has set out a clearly defined mission—they want to become
the Singapore of Africa. To understand what this means, though, you
have to understand what Singapore is. It’s easy to forget that east Asia was not
the highly developed, economically powerful place it is today 100 years ago. Many refer to the 1800’s as Britain’s
century, the 1900’s as America’s century, and the 2000’s as Asia’s century. It’s thought that we are currently in the
century where Asia will prevail and one of the countries driving that is Singapore. Singapore sits at the top of all the indicators—not
just for Asia, but the world. It’s the eighth safest, third richest, third
least corrupt, third longest living country in the world. 60 years ago, in 1960’s, Singapore’s economy
had a size of about $700 million. Today that number is $320 billion. In the last ten years alone its GDP has doubled. It went from a definitively third-world country
to a definitively first-world country in less than a lifetime. The country is intensely focused on being
the business hub for Asia. Of the world’s 20 largest companies, 15
have operations in Singapore. It’s tough to look at the results of Singapore’s
economic development without being impressed. They have done the nearly impossible. Some of the ways Singapore has achieved this
growth, though, has met some criticism. The way Singapore is run politically has been
described as, “paternalistic.” It’s not quite authoritarian, but some freedoms
are lacking. One of the few indicators that Singapore does
rank at the top of is the Democracy Index. It scores a 6.4 out of 10 which ranks it at
66th in the world and categorizes it as a, “flawed democracy.” The elements of this paternalism range from
small things like the country’s ban on chewing gum for cleanliness purposes to big things
like the limitations on freedom of speech, assembly, and the press. To this, proponents would say, “look at
the results.” The country has succeeded economically based
off the trade that seemingly more and more countries are embracing, “liberty for prosperity.” Rwanda has been paying attention. Paul Kagame, its president, declared that
mission to turn the country into, “the Singapore of Africa,” and in many ways, it’s already
well on its way. Arguing that Rwanda is authoritarian is easy. On the same democracy indicator where Singapore
is categorized as a, “flawed democracy,” Rwanda earns a score of 3.4 out of 10 and
the categorization of, “authoritarian.” Paul Kagame was first elected in 2003, then
again in 2010, then again in 2017 with 98.8% of the vote. The US Department of State, though, described
that third election as having some, “irregularities.” That also came after a constitutional amendment
lifting term limits to let Kagame take power again. He is clearly well-liked and impressive. He began his career in the military, played
a part in toppling the oppressive governments of Uganda, Rwanda, and the DRC, and has been
described as, “perhaps the most successful general alive.” He is by all accounts a military genius and
since his fighting days he has risen Rwanda from chaos into peace and prosperity but as
a political leader, he himself is still oppressive. Just like Singapore, there are severe limitations
on the freedom of speech, assembly, and the press. There are even accusations of Kagame supporting
or arranging the assassination of his political opponents. Looking at the ends, though, there are clearly
more parallels with Singapore. Singapore’s success as a business hub is
can be attributed to three factors: geographic centrality, political stability, and ease
of doing business. As part of Kagame’s mission, Rwanda is working
to improve these same three factors. For the first factor, Singapore’s sits as
a central point in the world. Within an eight hour flight one can get to
the major business hubs of the middle east in the UAE and Qatar, all of India, all of
east Asia’s major business hubs, and all of Australia. Meanwhile, Rwanda sits only 600 miles or 950
kilometers from the geographic center of Africa. It is about as central as you can get on the
enormous continent. For both countries, though, geographic centrality
means nothing unless you can actually get to them. One of Singapore’s largest companies is
Singapore airlines—often considered one of the best if not the best airline in the
world. Thanks to this airline, one can get from Singapore
to five different continents in a matter of hours. It’s easy to underestimate the importance
of having a globally competitive airline to establish a city as a business hub. It’s safe to say that other business hubs,
such as Dubai and Doha, would not be as influential as they are today without their airlines. Rwanda has clearly noticed this. Their national airline, Rwandair, which is
government owned, has grown from a tiny operation with a few regional jets to a significant,
intercontinental airline operating brand new planes. They now fly all around Africa, to Dubai,
Brussels, and London and have even announced plans to start one-stop service to both Guangzhou,
China and New York. While the airline is not yet nearly at the
level of some larger players on the continent like Ethiopian Airlines and South Africa Airways,
it’s serving its job effectively of connecting Rwanda to the world. The second factor to Singapore’s economic
success is political stability. The World Bank rates countries in terms of,
“political stability and absence of violence and terrorism,” and for this, Singapore,
unsurprisingly, comes up in the 99th percentile—better than almost any country in the world. This is a big reason why a CEO might choose
to set up their Asian hub in Singapore over Hong Kong, for example, which only scores
in the 75th percentile for political stability and is trending downwards. They want to operate in a place that they
know won’t change quickly on a political level since there are inherent costs involved
with a changing external environment. Rwanda sits at the 48th percentile for this
political stability indicator, well in the middle of the pack. This isn’t phenomenal but, compared to the
sub-Saharan average of 31, it’s doing alright. It’s a contentious issue whether elements
of authoritarianism promote or impede political stability. In Rwanda’s case, with so few years under
the current form of government, it’s tough to know if the country really is stable or
not. Rwanda is now, by many accounts, a police
state. There are random checkpoints all around the
country and strict security at most buildings in Kigali, the capital. Kigali is now one of the cleanest cities in
Africa, let alone the world, partially due to a ban on single-use plastics and plastic
bags but also because all able-bodied members of the population are required to participate
in a community cleaning day on the last Saturday of each month. According to one report, there’s even widespread
unlawful detention of what are described as, “undesirables,” on the streets. The test of whether this country is truly
stable or rather in a state of temporary fear-based obedience might not have yet come. Rwanda has not experienced a transition of
power since 2000 and nobody really knows whether the country can continue on the right path
after Kagame leaves. He himself even said that if he had not groomed
a successor by 2017, “It means that I have not created capacity for a post-me Rwanda. I see this as a personal failure.” It’s now well past 2017 and Kagame is still
in power with no signs of leaving. Regardless of the reasons, though, for Rwanda’s
current political stability, it’s sure that businesses like it. It’s one of the top factors they look at
when deciding which countries to operate in. The third factor that led to Singapore’s
business success, ease of doing business, is perhaps the most important one and it’s
also the one at which Rwanda most excels. This is a broad factor but it’s one that
the World Banks tracks with a well known indicator—the Ease of Doing Business Index. This looks at ten factors—ease of starting
a business, dealing with construction permits, getting electricity, registering property,
getting credit, protecting minority investors, paying taxes, trading across borders, enforcing
contracts, and resolving insolvency. Singapore ranks as number two in the world
behind New Zealand and is followed up by Denmark, Hong Kong, and South Korea. Rwanda, meanwhile, scores as the 29th. This is an impressive score by itself but
it is incredibly impressive when considering how the rest of the continent ranks up. Rwanda is by far the highest ranked among
mainland African nations. The nearest trailing African nation is Morocco
at number sixty and plenty of highly developed countries like the Netherlands, Switzerland,
and Japan rank lower than Rwanda. To achieve this Rwanda has made plenty of
economic and legislative reforms to foster the business-friendly environment. They’ve also been focusing on building both
soft and hard infrastructure. The government, in collaboration with private
investors, built an enormous $300 million convention center along with a five star Radisson
Blu hotel to attract the convention market in addition to less flashy infrastructure
projects building roads and airports. Overall, Rwanda is on the hunt for international
investment in the country and so far, that’s paid off. In 2005, $10.5 million were invested from
abroad in Rwanda. In 2017, that number was $293 million. Clearly a lot is working in Rwanda. It’s safe, clean, and growing economically. What more could a country want? Well, there are serious questions from abroad
on whether Rwanda’s growth is ethical, replicable, sustainable, and even real. The way Rwanda has achieved its current stability
and growth have some external observers condemning it. Appearances of Rwanda can also be deceiving. It is still one of the poorest countries in
the world with the average resident earning only $750 a year. Some question whether the country should be
spending so much on its airline, its infrastructure, and its capital when so many in the country
are so poor. Some question whether the country is growing
for its middle and upper class while leaving its rural poor behind. It’s no surprise, though, that many of the
countries neighbors, curbed by violence and poverty, have pondered whether they should
be replicating the ways of Kagame. External observers have given mixed answers
to that question. Some believe that the the current authoritarian
policies will let dissent bottle up and eventually explode. They worry that the country will erupt into
violence again. Some say that the current regime is solely
focused on making things seem like they’re improving through climbing up the indicators
without making real, rational change. There are even some accusations that Rwandan
GDP growth figures might be inflated or otherwise manipulated. It’s sure that Rwanda has been growing enormously,
but is it really this much? There is no one recipe for economic growth. The fact that the United States became the
superpower of the 20th century and China is becoming the superpower of the 21st century
proves that more than anything. Democratic states grow and autocratic states
grow—they might grow in different ways, but there are success stories on both ends
of the spectrum. What external observers have so much trouble
answering is the means to the end question. Should Rwanda’s growth be lauded given how
it is achieved? Can you tolerate some bad in exchange for
much good? In the end, Rwanda is the country of Rwandans
and they are the only ones that matter with these questions. If Rwanda is truly working for all Rwandan’s,
then Rwanda is working. There are a lot of, “ifs,” but if Rwanda’s
growth is sustainable and if Rwanda’s politics are stable and if Rwanda’s investments pay
off and if businesses pay attention to Rwanda, there is a very good chance that the country
is well on it’s way to becoming the Singapore of Africa. If you’re interesting in learning more about
Singapore, there’s a fascinating documentary on CuriosityStream about how the country is
dealing with the problem of having a huge, growing, and aging population in its tiny
borders. It’s a great watch and one of more than
2,000 documentaries that you can watch on CuriosityStream. With them, you can watch these docs on almost
every platform: Roku, Android, iOS, Chromecast, Apple TV, desktop, and plenty more. If you like Wendover Productions, you’re
almost certain to be a lover of documentaries. Unlimited access is a reasonable $2.99 per
month but what’s best is that you can get started watching on CuriosityStream for free
for thirty days by signing up at and using the code, “Wendover,” at checkout.

Ric Allott, Business Development Manager, Central Laser Facility

My name is Ric Allot. I’m working within the Business Innovations
Directorate and I’m the Business Development Manager for the Central
Laser Facility So I was always into physics, I always
wanted to know how things worked what they were doing? why they were doing it.
But the laser to me was absolutley phenomenal and all its done is continued to grow, so
you can have an application where you’re scanning a barcode in the supermarket or
you’re drilling a hole in a 14 inch piece of steel and it’s the same
technology. That to me is absolutely fascinating. So the science has always
driven me but behind all of that science with this sort of urge to do
something a little bit more commercial and actually to make something of it and
have those applications that come through and then benefit everybody. We
have five main facilities in the laser facility. They cover a really broad
spectrum of technologies and industry space. So we go from bioscience where
were able to image single molecules in living cells and we go all the way
through to the big high-power lasers where we can generate all sorts of
particles, X-rays, electrons, neutrons and you can use those for imaging
applications and non-destructive testing for automotive or aerospace, so the whole
spectrum. Companies and industry are interested in engaging with us because
we have the leading edge for searches we are we are really at the forefront of
this technology and they want to get that competitive advantage but most
importantly we have the people and the people are are absolutely key asset, and
also the ecosystem that we develop here so things like the campus development bringing on companies who have similar
ideas but being able to mix those ideas together. So to engage with industry
partners it’s all about networking and and in my opinion networking is a
contact sport, you’ve gotta get out there and you have to talk people and you’ve got a walk the boards so,
I do that through conferences and workshops, I do from my existing contacts
I do referrals from colleagues. I’m currently vice president of the Association of
Industrial Laser Users – Photonics 21 which is a European activity the photonics
leadership group so you’re getting yourself involved with people who are
making the decisions at the top of their game top of their companies and organizations
and you get yourself in there, you get these technologies known by those who do it.
Business development for me is all about maximizing impact so that could be
economic or it could be society or both hopefully so using our science and
technology developed at STFC for the benefit of society The main driver in STFC is science and excellence in science, but we always have to demonstrate impact of that science and that’s obvious and should be the
case because we are using UK taxpayers money to do that. You have to have a strategy
which allows you to go out and engage with industry but you must always have
an eye on the science and ensure that you don’t stop that pipeline really cool ideas coming
from the scientists.

Why Socratic Dialogue should become our business card | Sira Abenoza | TEDxESADE

Translator: Robert Tucker
Reviewer: Denise RQ Don’t worry, I did not go blank, it was planned, because today I want
to talk to you about dialogue. Although it’s a bit ironic to be talking
about dialogue while doing a monologue, but I still haven’t figured out
how to do a TEDx talk while dialoguing, so I’ll have to leave that one
for the next time. So, today, I’m going
to talk to you about dialogue, and that’s why I started with a silence, because dialogue
starts or grows out of silence. Dialogue starts by looking at the people
that we have in front of us and trying to understand what is it that they’re already sharing
without speaking. I started my professional journey
with deep concern. I had spent my years in college
divided into two worlds: I spent mornings surrounded
by business students at a business school where their main concern was to make as much money as possible
by the time they would turn 30 or 40. And I would spend afternoons
in the Faculty of Philosophy surrounded by classmates who would engage in endless conversations
on how to make the world a better place, how to make it more just,
how to make it more liveable. So, by the time I graduated,
I had something very clear: there was something that had to be done, or I desperately wanted
to do something about it, because those classmates that were doing
their studies in management were the ones who would have
power in the future, were the ones who would actually have
the chance to decide what the world
would look like in the future. And back then the only thing
they had in mind was to make money, whereas my classmates in philosophy, they did have great ideas
on how to make the world a better place, but I somehow knew that they would never
have the power to make that real. So then, my idea was, “OK, so what if I tried
to bring philosophy, and the concern
for society and for justice, to management schools
to raise that awareness among people who would have
power in the future?” So that’s how I started working on corporate social responsibility,
business ethics, teaching, doing research, and also consulting
with companies, with governments. I spent a few years preaching
this idea that you all know, which is that responsible management is management that incorporates the concern for all stakeholders. So responsible management
is not only answering to our shareholders, but it is trying to understand what is it that our stakeholders need,
expect, what are their interests, and that implies necessarily
engaging in real dialogue with them. So, I was preaching that for a while,
and then after a while I thought, “Well, this isn’t working. I mean, people seem
to agree with the idea, but the truth is that when they have to put it into
practice, they’re actually not doing it.” And then I suddenly had
the breakthrough, and it was like, “Yeah, of course, they’re not doing it,
because they don’t know how to dialogue.” And let’s be honest,
do you think we know how to dialogue? Politicians enter a TV set
having a certain idea, and leave the TV set
thinking exactly the same. They entered the TV set as a gladiator
that is about to win a battle against an opponent
that is there at the TV set. It’s the same for people
who are in roundtables, talk shows; all of them engage verbally not trying to understand
what the others are about to say, not trying to learn and to grow
from what the others are saying, but in order to win a battle. That’s actually the kind of message
of that we’re told all the time: we live in a competitive society, life is a zero-sum up game, you win or you lose,
and you have to go about fighting. You can bid with your business, but you also compete individually
when you engage with someone, because you have to show the world that you’re smart,
and that you can convince others. That, which is a debate mentality, is exactly the opposite
of what dialogue is. So at the end of the day, if our role models today
are the people that we see on TV, we’re not having role models
on how to dialogue. So then my idea was, “OK, if I want to make
future managers more responsible, I will have to help them
relearn how to dialogue.” Because I think that it’s not
that we never knew how to, it’s that we have forgotten,
we’ve lost the habit on how to. Then the question obviously was, “Yeah, great, you have to teach
how to dialogue, but the question is how.” Because, yeah, great,
it sounds great, but how – if no one is teaching us? Then I remembered about this guy
that I used to read a lot about, you know him, he was called
the father of philosophy – Socrates. Socrates spent all his life walking around and engaging in dialogue
with the citizens from Athens. So much so, that when he was sent to trial accused of trying to pervert
the minds of young people, and he was given the chance
to save his life if he stopped dialoguing, he said, “No, guys, I’d rather die
than stop dialoguing, than stop engaging
with others in dialogue.” So, I thought, he’s our guy. We need to reread,
relearn, or listen to his messages. One of his main messages is
that all of us know more than we know, meaning: the society has made us believe that we’re almost like empty recipients
that need to be told, that need to be fed on what we have to learn,
we have to do, etc. Socrates saw us, saw the human being, as, I would say, almost the opposite. All of us here have a great,
amazing knowledge inside of us. The thing is that we need others
to help us give birth to that knowledge, unravel those ideas
that we have inside of us. So, in that sense, if we want to dialogue, we will have to see the other as somebody
who has that potential in them. And dialogue will be about collaborating, it’ll be about teamwork, it will be about helping each other to give birth to those ideas,
to that knowledge that we have without knowing. So, first of all, talking about the how, the first thing
we have to bear in mind is: we have that knowledge inside, and we’re not going to compete
to become aware of that knowledge, we have to collaborate, and we’re going to help each other
to become more aware of that knowledge. But that there is also another thing
that is very important, and it is about changing our mindset. For example, we all have
this tendency to judge whatever is being said by others. I know you’re all judging me
– that’s fine, I know that – because we all judge
each other all the time. If we want to dialogue,
we will have to stop judging others, and we will have to start
really paying attention to what is being said, and feeling compelled to help the other build their own ideas that are there, latent, ready to be born. So that’s going to be very important. But it’s also going to be important
to connect to that genuine curiosity that we used to have
when we were two or three, when we kept asking asking
why, why, why, all the time, and our parents were like,
“Ah, ya, stop it.” So, go back to that moment
where we had that genuine curiosity, and when we were like Alice in Wonderland, and the world was full of wonder. So, that’s how we should relate to others: by connecting to our genuine curiosity,
because we all have that. Also, another tricky thing is that we will have to stop reacting
to what others say as if it were a threat. Because remember,
if others are a collaborator, someone who can help us unravel our ideas, whatever that other is going to say,
even if that is making us wrong, or making it obvious
that what we would we just said is silly, instead of taking that as a threat, we have to see that that is a tool that will help us, let’s say,
uncover all the layers of our knowledge, and get rid of the first layers
that are usually formed by prejudices. So, in that sense, whenever someone says something
that initially makes us feel bad, let’s think about it,
that can be a tool that can help us; and also let’s be flexible, because we have this tendency
to attach to our ideas as if without them, we were nothing. Well, ideas don’t belong to anybody, and what is interesting is to improve
and make them more sophisticated. Also, it is important
what I told you at the beginning: to deal with silence without going crazy, because we have time: if we want to dialogue,
there’s no rush, we have to breathe, and we have to be
comfortable with silence. But, you know what? Actually, dialogue is about practicing. I can tell you 1,000 ideas, but what is more important
is that you start to practice. Start to practice – and that I would say is relevant,
and that needs to be set – start to practice having something
very important in mind and in your body, which is, if you want to dialogue,
you have to trust. The reason why we’re not
being able to dialogue today is because we don’t trust each other. That’s why we judge, that’s why we react,
because we’re trained to debate, we’re trained to fight,
and we see others as a threat. If we want a dialogue, the basis, what we need to do, whatsoever,
otherwise it’s not going to happen, is trust others. Of course, it takes courage, because dialoguing means opening up, means sharing your ideas
and sharing your feelings. And we don’t know
what the other is going to do with our thoughts and with our feelings. But, if we want to dialogue, we’ll have to admit
and have that leap of faith, because otherwise
it’s not going to happen. And then you might say, “Yeah, but come on,
I mean, I’m fine the way I am. Why should I need to open up and then expose myself
to the threat of others? I’m fine, I’m comfortable. I don’t need to open up,
I don’t need to dialogue.” Well, I’ll give you two reasons
why it does make sense to dialogue. The first one is social. Socrates used to say
that evil always comes out of ignorance. And I would like to qualify that idea. To me evil comes
out of ignorance of the other. If we’re trained to debate,
which means if we’re trained to fight, we’re not being able to see the other, we’re not being able to understand what is it that the other
is feeling, experiencing, because we’re about to fight. If we start to open up, and see the other as a person, complex,
with feelings, and with everything, it’ll be much harder for us
to hurt, to do evil, because we’re going to be able
to put ourselves in their shoes, and then understand or feel
the harm that we’re about to provoke. And that, at least,
is going to reduce a little bit the evil that is caused in the world. I’ve seen that in jail. I’ve been, in the last years,
practicing dialogue in jail. You cannot imagine how tough
inmates are in terms of dialoguing, because they don’t trust anybody. They admit along the way that they haven’t been able to dialogue not only because they don’t trust anybody but because they grew up in an environment where there was no trust,
where nobody trusted them, and very young, they learned
that they couldn’t trust anybody. Once they understand – while dialoguing with law students
and with other groups – that by opening up, engaging
in dialogue, and by trusting they regain hope in the world, and they understand
the harm that they created, that creates a mental and emotional shift. So, why to engage in dialogue? Because if you are, if we are,
concerned about the future of the world, and we want to reduce evil, dialogue is a powerful tool
to reduce evil. But I’m also going to give you
a personal, more individual reason. I guess you all want to be happy. Aristotle used to say
that happiness means, or is, flourishing; meaning a happy person is a person
that has been able to flourish, to develop all the potential
that they have inside of them. If our life is about
competing, about debating, we will not have the time and space to grow the potential
that we have in ourselves, and therefore, according to Aristotle,
we will never be able to be happy. Hannah Arendt, the German philosopher, had this beautiful metaphor; she said, “Every time a baby
is born in the world, there’s hope that a new world
is going to grow.” So the idea is that not only that baby
is born in a world that is new to them, but that those babies
have the potential to build a new world. Those babies are only going to have
the potential, the possibility to build that new world if we give them the chance,
if we give them the space and the time. If instead of growing, competing,
and being in a constant battle, they have the chance
to engage in dialogue with each other, and they can see others and trust others as people who are going to help them to grow that new world
that they have in them. Before I leave,
I want to share a secret with you. Every day when you wake up
in the morning, you are that newborn. You are that newborn that is born
in a world that is new to them. You are the newborn
who has the power to choose whether you want to trust, to develop, and help others develop, and therefore,
make the world something new, make the world a better place. (Applause)

Skype for Business – A Developer’s Guide. Part 1 – Introduction

Hello. My name’s Tom Morgan. I write about
Skype for Business development on my blog,
I’ve put together a short 4-part video series, designed for developers who are just getting
started in Skype for Business development, or are curious about what’s possible.
There are 4 videos in the series. In this first video I want to introduce you to Skype
for Business development by covering some of the history which led us to this point,
and then quickly show you some screenshots of what Skype for Business looks like today.
This won’t be a detailed tutorial of how to use Skype for Business but if you’ve not seen
it before it should show you what’s possible. After that, I’ll explain the different tools
which Microsoft have for Skype for Business developers and when you might use them.
In the remaining three videos I’m going to select 3 of those tools, and in each video
show you an example of where you might use it to solve a specific problem. I’ll be showing
you actual code in Visual Studio so that you can get a feel for what the different APIs
and SDKs can do. All the code in those videos will be available on GitHub as well, so you
can study them later at your leisure. Right, let’s get started. So, some of you
will be familiar with Skype for Business, some of you will have only heard the name,
and some of you may recognize the name of its predecessor, Microsoft Lync.
Everyone has heard of Skype, right? We used to describe Lync as “it’s like Skype, but
for businesses”. It’s a good mind-set to start from but there is lots in Lync that’s not
in Skype. Then last year, Microsoft announced that the next version of Lync was going to
be called Skype for Business. This signaled the start of a much closer integration between
the two. To really understand why I find Skype for
Business exciting as a developer, we need to go back a few years and see decisions which
have led to today. In 2001, I was 19. The iPod and Wikipedia
were launched. The first Harry Potter movie was released, and we all started using Windows
XP. I know, it’s doesn’t feel like 14 years ago does it?! The Telephone API (TAPI) and
CTI (computer telephone integration) had been around for a few years, and Microsoft were
starting to thinking about how to get into the telephony world.
There was a team at Microsoft assigned to this task, and the specific problem they were
looking at is this: People would be sitting at their computers working, then the phone
would ring, and they would swivel away from their computers to answer their phone. How
could Microsoft bring those worlds together? The team had semi-regular reviews with Bill
Gates, and at one of these meetings it was clear that he didn’t like any of the proposals
Microsoft were discussing internally, which were all based around copying existing PBX
solutions. He kept asking: “What is our strategy?” Nobody
had an answer, so he kept asking, getting more and more animated. “What is our strategy?”
Eventually, he answered own question: “Our strategy is software”
Apparently, someone then asked him what the strategy was in 5 years times, and his answer
was “more software”! The key point is this: Voice over IP by itself
is not enough. The goal is to make real time communications a feature that can be consumed
in any type of software. Now, that was when Windows had a 90% share
of the desktop market and things are very different now, but the key goal remains: Microsoft
wants to make every application a communications endpoint.
And that is why this area is so exciting: because in order for it to success it requires
that developers are able to add communications into their software, and that drives them
to produce a good range of APIs and SDKs for their communication solutions. All this is
possible because they have a software-only solution, which can run on standard Windows
servers without requiring special hardware. That decision in 2001 led to Live Communications
Server in 2003, Office Communications Server in 2007, Lync in 2010 and 2013, and now Skype
for Business in 2015. Here are some screenshots of what the Skype
for Business client looks like. This isn’t a tutorial on how to use Skype for Business,
but if you’ve not seen it before this should bring you up to speed with what the product
does so that you can understand the tools better.
The main Lync window is shown on left. Contacts are based around Active Directory, and each
contact has a presence icon associated with it, such as Available or Busy. This is similar
to Skype, but it’s much more useful, and I think this is a key part of what makes Skype
for Business useful for developers. Users presence is updated automatically: if I lock
my computer my status will change to inactive, if I take a phone call it will change to busy,
if I have a meeting (it can look at my Exchange profile) then it will change my status to
reflect this. Honestly, I rarely need to change my presence, it keeps itself up to date. That’s
important, because as a developer it means that you can rely on the presence information
and write software that uses it. Communications is achieved in a variety of
different ways, which are called modalities. Examples are Instant Messaging, Voice, Video,
Desktop Sharing, File transfer. These happen within a container, known as a conversation.
So, a conversation (which can be between 2 or more people) will contain one or more modalities
at any one time. Skype for Business is designed to replace
your existing phone system with a fully Voice over IP integrated solution. At work, I have
a “normal” phone number, but it routes through to Lync. I can make normal outgoing calls
with it; somewhere in a data center there’s a server which connects to the PSTN network
to make that possible. What it means is that wherever my laptop is, that’s where my phone
number is to. This is a mixed blessing! Of course, it’s not just 2-way calls which
are supported, but conferences as well. You can invite people who don’t have Skype for
Business and they can join via a website. It’s also possible to link together Skype
for Business users across different companies in a process known as federation to enable
cross-company collaboration. The conference functionality lets you share
your desktop with many people, and present and collaborate on documents. This part of
Skype for Business is similar to WebEx or other equivalents.
Skype for Business is supported on many different devices, including all the major mobile platforms.
Some people prefer to continue using desk-phones, and there are certified Skype for Business
devices for those people. There is also a range of different conferencing hardware,
from small speakerphones for impromptu meetings, to dedicated permanent conference room installations.
So, now you have an idea of what Skype for Business can do “out of the box”. Let’s look
at what tools are available for developers. The 3 headings in blue are the ones which
we’re going to cover in the next 3 sessions. I’ve chosen those three because I think they’re
the most interesting and offer you the greatest potential for creating awesome software.
For existing Silverlight and WPF applications Microsoft have made available a set of Skype
for Business controls. These are the simplest way of integrating with Skype for Business:
simply drop in controls anywhere you reference a user to show presence information, click
to call or send a message. All of the main parts of the Skype for Business client has
been provided as a control so you can add functionality such as contact search to your
application easily. Conversation Window Extensions are a way to
extend the basic Skype for Business client. Within a conversation you can open an embedded
webpage to display content. This allows you to offer contextual information to users based
on the conversation they’re having. For instance, if you were discussing a particular product
then it would be useful to be able to open an extension window to display information
about that product, recent sales figures and forecasts and so on. This gives more context
to your conversation and makes it more useful. Another example of a Conversation Window Extension
is the Information Dashboard. I use this when talking to remote colleagues because it quickly
shows me their local time zone, weather and news meaning I always know how to break the
ice in a new conversation. Like the Silverlight and WPF controls, these Extensions require
the Lync client be installed and running on the user’s machine to work.
The Client SDK is designed to allow you to automate functions of the Skype for Business
client. Anything the client can do, you can automate with this SDK. This allows you to
write client-side software that can use communication information. A popular use case is reacting
to incoming calls by looking up the caller number against a database and displaying useful
information about the caller, their account, purchase history etc. Again, the client needs
to be installed and running to use this SDK. UI Suppression Mode is a special way of running
the Client SDK. The Skype for Business client will keep running, but it will be invisible
and all user interaction must occur through your application. This is designed for full-screen
applications for kiosks and allows you to limit access to specific functions, such as
only calling a specific number of people, for instance.
The Server SDK is a back-end messaging SDK. Under the hood, Skype for Business uses the
Session Initiation Protocol (or SIP) to send messages. The Server SDK lets you suck from
the firehose of messages, and then selectively block or redirect them. This is good for company-wide
applications such as ethical walls where you want to impose restrictions on communication
between individuals. UCWA is the Web API for Skype for Business;
the Unified Communications Web API. It allows you to communicate with Skype for Business
using just HTTP request and response messages. Although this gives you unparalleled freedom
to implement this on just about any platform you can think of, in practice it’s quite complicated
to interface with Skype for Business in this way. For that reason, UCWA also comes with
a set of JavaScript helper libraries so that you can add UCWA code to webpages. UCWA is
limited to Instant Message and Presence information only, there is no way to use UCWA to make
or receive voice or video calls. That brings up to UCMA, which I think is the
most exciting opportunity for developers. UCMA is the Unified Communications Managed
API and is a .NET library for writing code which interacts with Skype for Business. Using
UCMA you can write applications which can have their own contact endpoints in user’s
contact lists, or can impersonate other users and perform actions on their behalf. It’s
a very powerful API for writing Skype for Business enabled applications.
At the bottom of this list is the Skype Web SDK. This isn’t released yet but is expected
to come with the release of Skype for Business. It’s a RESTful wrapper API around UCWA. This
will make UCWA much easier to use, which should increase its adoption. Crucially however,
this new API will have support for voice and video, meaning that you will be able to write
webpages which support video calling to Skype for Business clients.
That’s a brief summary of all that’s available to developers who want to work with Skype
for Business. In the next video I’m going to concentrate on the Client SDK and show
you a sample project, complete with code. Don’t forget that my blog has lots of information
for Skype for Web developers. You can access it at Or you can follow
me on Twitter at @tomorgan. Thanks for watching!