CAREERS IN BA – MA,P.Hd,Researcher,Teacher,Lecturer,Job Opportunities,Salary Package


Hello all this is Raisa George from freshersworld.com Welcome to our video channel on jobs and careers Today I will be talking about the career opportunities in BA Besides commerce and science, arts is another
major stream of subjects that is offered since high school. Arts is a comprehensive stream
in itself that offers innumerable future career options to students. Subjects such as foreign
languages, English literature, history, sociology, economics, and psychology are the core subjects
of this stream. Securing a bachelor’s degree in this stream is highly lucrative as one
learns to deal with music, literatures, histories, social sciences and cultures of numerous societal
aspects. Studying arts can be valuable as it equips
students for all aspects of life. A degree in arts can help individuals to discover their
interests, abilities, and talents, and develop to the best potential levels. As an arts student,
you can not only secure prestigious jobs in India, but can also look for lucrative career
options in foreign countries. This is because BA offers you to choose specialization in
almost 25 major subjects. In India students can select their core subject after passing
their 10 + 2. If you select arts in your high school, then you even become eligible to prestigious
government exams such as IAS, IPS, and other kinds of government and civil services. Major subjects that one can choose in order to secure a Bachelors of Arts degree are sociology,
anthropology, archaeology, Asian studies, language, political science, English literature,
hindi literature, economics, law, psychology, and biological sciences. The number of courses
offered under arts subject, clearly portrays that this is a versatile stream that can help
students to gain prestigious career gains in future. In order to become eligible to
this degree course, it is essential for students to obtain a 10 + 2 pass degree. Also, it is
required to have first division in main subjects in order to get admitted to a reputed university. A Bachelor’s of Arts degree can be a ‘pass’ degree or ‘honors’ degree. The pass degree
is a full time degree that does not offer any kind of specialization to the students.
An honors degree on the other hand, is a degree tend to impart subject specialization. It
is essential for students to score more than 80% in order to get admission to the Bachelors
of Art, Honors program of a reputed institute. In case students are not able to get through
a full time degree course, they can then go for the distance learning program offered
by few well known institutes. The BA (general) course consists of 24 credits,
each credit having an aggregate value of 100 marks. It includes not only theoretical training,
but also imparts practical training to the students. In case individuals intend to secure
a BA degree from foreign nation then the admission and eligibility criteria may vary for different
countries. Countries such as Canada, Japan, Scotland, Russia, United States, New Zealand,
Norway, Australia, and Singapore can be looked up to in order to get qualified as a bachelors
as well as masters of Arts. In India, there are numerous universities
that are known globally for offering BA degree. Calcutta University, Mumbai University, Loyola
University, Chennai; Indira Gandhi National College, Delhi University, St. Joseph College,
Bangalore; and Christ University, Bangalore are the names in the list. Besides these,
there are other universities as well that offer both BA pass and BA honors degree to
students. Obtaining a BA degree opens up a comprehensive range of prospects for the students
in advertising, journalism, marketing, politics, management, police force, administration,
psychology, teaching, and more. Once they are able to gain a degree in BA,
individuals can then look for lucrative employment areas like:
• Broadcasting • Advertising
• Civil Services • Policing
• Law • Business Process Outsourcing Units
• Community service • Film Direction and Editing
• Printing and Graphics Industry • International Relations
• Professional Writing • Library and Information Science
• Public planning • Public Administration
• Professional writing • Religious studies
• Social work • Teaching
Securing a job in some fields is easy, but for others it is mandatory to clear the yearly
held competitive exams. The remuneration earned by arts students is very good, but may vary
depending on the employment area selected by them. In order to clear the entrance test
for civil services, it is essential for students to prepare in advance. There are numerous
kinds of competitive exams held for students with a BA degree. In order to know everything
about them, individuals can log
to www.freshersworld.com we will be back with such more videos so stay connected with us do not forget to hit the subscribe button below

CAREERS IN MA – BA,P.Hd,Researcher,Teachers,Lecturers,Job Opportunities,Salary Package


HELLO all,this is Raisa George from Freshersworld.com.Welcome to our video channel on jobs and careers.Today i ll be talking about the career opportunities in MA. Masters of Arts or MA is a postgraduate degree
program in Arts stream. Not only universities of India, but even of the foreign nation offer
this course. The overall duration of this course is two years which is non-extendable
if an individual opts for a regular, full-time MA program. Besides this, students also have
the option to opt for correspondence MA program if they are not able to score too good in
their bachelor’s degree. The MA program is attainable in numerous subjects
including multiple languages such as English, Hindi, foreign language and more. The entire
two years course is taught in 2 semesters, each having certain numbers of papers. One
has to certify successful in all papers in order to acquire the Master’s Degree. Besides
these papers, there are seminars, lectures, and practical assessment also organized that
has to be cleared to gain the level in hand. Students who love studying for a longer period
and who want to gain post graduate specialization in their respective field can go for this
course. Just like a post-graduate degree in science
and commerce, even a Masters of Arts program is extremely beneficial for students. It is
because it offers them with a strong academic background that can help them to secure bright
future ahead. Achieving such degree can help them to get hired to prestigious jobs not
only in India, but even in abroad. Successfully completing the MA course also makes one eligible
for the doctoral program. Once completing the MA and Ph.D. in arts, one can then become
a researcher and can even work as a head of the department on the desired subject.
The specialization offered by Masters of Arts subject depends on the program that a student
selects for the bachelor’s program. The varieties of specialties provided in the Master’s
program are: • Master of Arts in Education
• Masters of Fine Arts • Master of Arts in Philosophy
• Master of Arts in History • Master of Arts in Economics
• Masters of Arts in English, Hindi, or any other language
• Master of Arts in Music • Master of Arts in Archeology
• Master of Arts in Public Administration • Master of Arts in Psychology, and more.
The candidate who applies for a master’s program must have completed the bachelor’s
course in the respective subject, with Honors. Some universities even organize an entrance
test to get admission to the MA program. After the exam, the universities may even hold a
personal interview and even a group discussion. Once the candidate passes all three stages,
he can then get admission to the desired school or college. Some top ranking universities
in India that offer MA degree program are Jawaharlal Nehru University, Alagappa University,
Delhi University, Assam University, Punjab University, and more. There are also universities
such as IGNOU, SCDL, and more that offer correspondence courses in this field.
Individuals possessing a Master of Arts degree can have bright future ahead. They can look
for career avenues in numerous areas after securing their degree. Economics, Archaeology,
Psychology, Political Science, Public Relation, Sociology, Journalism, Philosophy, History,
English Language, and etc. are the areas in which one can get a job after an MA degree.
From teachers to college lecturers, corporate professionals to industry leaders, bank professionals
to the public administration officer, one can look for multiple opportunities in this
field. Here are some top-notch employment areas that students can look up to after completing
their MA program: • Business Consultants
• Administrative Officers • Finance Managers
• Marketing Managers • Production managers
• Teachers • Lecturers
• Development and Research Managers • Social Worker
• Labor Management Relations Specialist • Public Administrator
• Economists • Film Making and Direction
• Music Teacher • Language Expert and more.
Individuals who successfully achieve a master’s degree in arts can get reputed jobs not only
in the private sector, but also in public and government sector. The remuneration offered
to them during their initial job duration is around 20,000 to 25,000 INR. It may also
be around 10,000 to 15,000 INR depending on the specialization chosen. But with experience,
the remuneration increases to a great extent. Students who wish to certify some prestigious
entrance exams, after completing their MA course, may need to have detailed information
about it. For this, they can log on to the best online job career portal www.freshersworld.com.We will be back with more such videos so stay connected with us and do not forget to hit the subscribe button below.

Who Pays the Tax?


♪ [music] ♪ – [Tyler] In the last lecture,
we showed that the legal incidence of a tax does not determine
the economic incidence. In this lecture,
we’re going to talk about how the economic incidence
of taxes actually is determined. Who bears the burden of a tax? Here is the rule for the economic
incidence of a tax. The more elastic side
of the market will pay a smaller share of the tax,
a smaller burden. Similarly, the less elastic side
of the market or rather the more inelastic side
of the market will pay a greater share of the tax. So more elastic
pays a smaller share, less elastic pays a greater share. I’m going to show you this
in a couple of diagrams and then give you the intuition
for why it’s the case. Let’s suppose
we can’t remember the rule. Is it the more elastic side
which bears the smaller share of the tax or the greater share
of the tax? Say we can’t quite remember.
Well, no problem. Let’s just draw the diagram
and read it off as it happens. For instance, let’s draw a diagram which has a pretty elastic
demand curve and relatively speaking
a pretty inelastic supply curve. Here’s the price
when there’s no tax. Now let’s look at what happens
when there is a tax and we’ll use our wedge method. Here’s the tax and the height
of the wedge gives us the amount of the tax. What do we do? We drive this wedge
into the diagram until the top of it
hits the demand curve and the bottom of it
hits the supply curve and then we just read
the answer off our diagram. Point B, this tells us the price
paid by the buyer. Point D, this tells us the price
received by the seller. Let’s compare. When there was no tax,
the price paid by the buyer was at A, and with the tax
the price to the buyer goes up a little bit to point B. The buyer isn’t paying much
of a higher price. On the other hand the seller
is receiving a lot less. In this case, when demand
is more elastic than supply, the demanders pay
a smaller share of the tax and the suppliers
pay a larger share. Therefore we can just read
off the diagram what happens when demand
is more elastic than supply. You don’t have
to remember the rule, you don’t have to memorize it
because I’m going to give you some intuition to make it easy
in just a moment. You simply have to draw the diagram
and be able to read the answer off the curves. Let’s look at another case. In this case, we’ve drawn
a supply curve which is very inelastic
and a demand curve which is less elastic
than the supply curve. Once again we’re going
to take our tax wedge, we’re going to push it
into the diagram and what happens? You can see it right here. We just have to read it
off the diagram. Now we see that compared
to when there was no tax, the price to the buyer
has gone up a lot and the price to the sellers
has gone down by just a little bit. When the supply
is more elastic than demand, buyers pay the greater share
of the tax, that is the price to the buyer
goes up more than the price
to the sellers goes down. The buyers pay more of the tax
when the supply curve is more elastic. Let’s give some intuition. You can always get the right answer
by drawing the curves. And let’s consider the intuition
for why that’s the case. So here’s the intuition
for remembering the rule. Think about elasticity
as a kind of escape. The side of the market
which is the more elastic can escape the tax more easily. Why does that makes sense?
Remember what elastic demand means. It means that demanders
have good substitutes for the taxed good
and so they can escape the tax. When the tax is high,
the demanders are going to say, “We’re just going to go buy
the substitutes. We have plenty
of good substitutes.” On the other hand,
think about what it means when the demand is inelastic. It means that there
are no good substitutes so it’s hard to escape the tax. What about the supply side,
elastic supply? Well, that means the resources
which are used to produce the taxed good,
they can easily be moved to other industries. The resources
can move around easily. If you try to tax the industry
a lot then the land, the capital, the workers in that industry
which were used to produce the good,
they’re just going to flow to other industries
and so the suppliers can relatively easily
escape the tax. On the other hand,
if supply is inelastic that means the resources used
to produce this good, they really can only be used
to produce this good. They’re fixed, they’re hard
to move around, and those factors
are not that useful for producing other goods,
so that makes it difficult for the suppliers
when the supply curve is inelastic. That means it’s difficult
for the suppliers to escape the tax. What if the demanders
and the suppliers are both pretty elastic? Well, here’s the thing. Somebody has to pay the tax,
both sides can’t escape the tax at least if the good is going
to be bought and sold, therefore the burden is determined
by the relative elasticities. It’s about which side has it easier
to escape the tax and that side will pay
less of the tax. The side which is less elastic,
they’re going to pay more of the tax
because that side finds it harder to escape the tax. So let’s do an application,
say social security taxes. Last time we showed
that the legal incidence of social security taxes
has no bearing on the economic incidence,
but we didn’t say what the economic incidence
actually is. So let’s do that now. We’re going to have the price
of labor up here, the wage, and the quantity
of labor down here. The whole question
now boils down to is the demand for labor,
more elastic than the supply of labor
or vice versa? Think about the demanders
of labor, businesses, what substitutes
for labor do they have? If the price of labor goes up,
what can those businesses do? What about the supply
of labor, the workers? If their wage goes down,
what can they do? If you think about it,
I think you’ll see that for most workers,
especially full time workers, they don’t really have a lot
of good substitutes for work. Most workers need some kind of job. Even if their wage goes down,
they’re going to continue to work because they need to pay the bills. On the other hand,
the demanders of labor if the wage were to go up, they could substitute
capital for labor, they could move their investments
to other countries. They have quite a few
good substitutes. So if that’s actually how it works, we should probably draw
the diagram like this with a fairly inelastic
supply of labor and a fairly elastic
demand for labor. Economists have done studies
of this and on average this is what they find. So now think about your FICA taxes,
that’s a tax on labor. What’s the effect of that? Well, it’s going to look
something like this. Notice that the wage
paid by buyers of labor, that’s the wage paid
by the firms — that goes up only a little bit. On the other hand,
the wage received by the suppliers of labor,
that is the wage which the workers end up with,
that goes down by a lot. And this makes perfect sense
when we have a very inelastic supply of labor. The laborers can’t escape
the tax and, therefore, they end up bearing
most of the burden of the tax. This doesn’t mean, by the way,
that we shouldn’t have social security taxes. It may in fact be a good way
of forcing people to save for their own future,
but this does mean it is not a free lunch
for the workers. The workers’ wages will drop
because of the tax. If we didn’t have
the social security tax, wages for most workers
would in fact be higher. Here’s one more application,
health insurance mandates. Suppose that the government
requires employers to provide health insurance
to their workers as is now the case
for many employers under the Affordable Care Act. Who’s going to pay for this? Who will end up paying for this? Is it primarily the employers
or primarily the workers? It’s really just the same analysis
as we had before. A health insurance mandate
is quite similar to a tax. A health insurance mandate
simply means that the employers have to pay a higher wage,
but that’s just, then, the same as a tax. What we just saw
is that if labor supply is less elastic than labor demand,
which in many cases makes sense, then in that case most
of the mandate will actually be paid for
by the workers. Real wages will fall. Again this doesn’t necessarily mean
that the mandate is a bad idea but it does mean
it’s not a free lunch for the workers. The workers end up paying
for their health care through the medium of lower wages. Taxes have a couple
of other effects including the raising of revenue
and also creating some dead weight loss. Those are what we’re going
to look at in the next lecture. – [Narrator] If you want
to test yourself, click Practice questions. Or if you’re ready to move on,
just click Next Video. ♪ [music] ♪

This Woman Pays Drug Users Not To Have Kids (HBO)


Since the 1970s, at least 45 states have prosecuted women
for using drugs while pregnant. Alabama has one of the country’s
strictest laws on the subject. It’s been used to prosecute women
even before they’ve given birth. And one woman in Alabama is on a crusade to keep drug users from
getting pregnant in the first place. — Everyone knows a drug addict, unfortunately. So if you know anybody who’s
using drugs that could get pregnant, we’ll pay them to use birth control. That’s what we do. — Barbara Harris thinks drug addicts
shouldn’t have children, and she’s using cash incentives
to make sure they don’t. — Nothing positive comes to a drug addict who gives birth to eight children
that are taken away from her. This is a win-win for everybody. — Her non-profit, Project Prevention, pays addicts and alcoholics $300 if they get sterilized or put on long-term birth control. — It says no left turn here. — But you’re turning right. — I’m going this way— Oh, I thought she wanted me to go that way. — Over the last 20 years, she’s travelled the country in her branded RV and paid 7,000 people to give up their fertility. Most of them are women. She launched Project Prevention
after she adopted four babies in four years, each born to the same drug-addicted mother. — You’ve been doing this work for nearly 20 years now. How have things changed? — When I first started, the drug of choice was crack. Now it’s switched, and now it’s meth and heroin, and a lot of prescription drugs. Nothing else has changed— drugs are still just as bad, women are still having numerous children, foster care’s still overloaded, hundreds of thousands of kids
are still in need of homes. — The birth control she offers isn’t condoms and pills, it’s IUDs, implants and sterilization. Those who choose sterilization
get a lump sum after the procedure. Those who go for less permanent options
are paid in smaller installments. Thousands of women have taken her money
in exchange for permanent sterilization, entirely legally. Project Prevention itself doesn’t sterilize addicts, just pays them— Harris leaves the procedures to doctors. She gets anything up to half a million dollars
in private donations every year. — I think if there’s anything that
everybody can agree on— the left, the right, and everybody in the middle— it’s that it’s not okay to abuse children. — You think having a child when you’re
drinking and taking drugs is child abuse? — Yes. They say don’t even drink caffeine
when you’re pregnant, so I don’t know how meth could be good for a baby. — The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services estimates 4.7 percent of women aged 15 to 44
use drugs while they’re pregnant. And more than 32 percent of
all children placed in foster care were removed from home because
of their parents’ drug or alcohol use. Harris made the nine-hour trip to Mobile when she heard about a local woman who had
been imprisoned for taking heroin while pregnant. She doesn’t want drug users sent to jail, she wants them on long-term
or permanent birth control. — How is doing what you do, without looking at the social causes
that create a situation like this, how is that any more than
a Band-Aid on a huge problem? — It’s not a Band-Aid on the problem. We’re dealing with— we’re solving the problem we’re dealing with. We’re preventing women who are strung out
on drugs and alcohol from conceiving a child. — Harris targets areas where
she thinks addicts will congregate: like cheap motels, liquor stores and methadone clinics. It’s not even 11 a.m. when she meets
33-year-old Alesia Robinson, and Robinson already seems high. She has seven children, and used during all her pregnancies. — Can you still get pregnant? — Yes I can. — So, have you thought about
getting on birth control? — Yeah. — Well then, you need to do it.
— Let’s do it right now. — We don’t do the birth control, but you need to do it, okay? Okay, because that’s gonna prevent
the next heartache, right? One less worry. — One less worry. — It doesn’t bother you that,
by virtue of what you do, you’re targeting a specific section of the population? — No, no. — It doesn’t bother you at all.
— No. — A disproportionate number of people
who use your services aren’t white. How do you respond to the claim
that you are socially engineering? — For somebody to hear about what we do and
think we’re only paying people of color is very racist, because they’re assuming that all drug addicts
are people of color and that is not true. — Is it really informed consent
when they’re in a chaotic situation? — That’s between them and the doctor. He has to decide whether he thinks
they’re able to get birth control. Nobody has a right to force feed any child drugs and then deliver a child that may die
or may have lifelong illnesses— nobody has that right. — I think it was some kinda flyer or something, and all I remember is the number was 1-888-30-CRACK. — A memorable number. — Yeah. For someone, yeah, who is an addict, yeah. You can’t forget it. — Tina Boyd is a Project Prevention client
who was sterilized eight years ago. She’s been clean since 2012, but most of her life has been spent using drugs— including when she was pregnant with her sons, Joey and Michael. — Do you think that your drug use
has affected them long-term? — I know it has, it’s affected Joey. — In what way? — He has a receptive and cognitive delay. He doesn’t understand a lot. They said that he’ll probably have to
live with someone the rest of his life. Which, hopefully, will be me. I love you, that’s my baby. — I love you too. — After Joey was born, Boyd took Harris’s cash in exchange for getting an IUD, but then Boyd decided to have another baby. After Michael was born addicted, she went back to Project Prevention
to get paid for sterilization. — Do you ever have any second thoughts? — No. — Not even when your youngest son
says he wants a little sister? — Could you have it, and then I’ll give it back to you? I can’t. I can’t, I can’t, I can’t, I can’t. — Just listening to you,
it makes me feel like you have… you… don’t believe in yourself. — I believe in my limitations. God forbid, if you guys had bought drugs with you… I can’t say that I wouldn’t have sniffed ‘em out. And I don’t want to live like that. I don’t want my children to have to live like that. — Would you like the ability to
be able to do things differently? — Oh God, yes. Are you kidding? Yes, everything. Everything. Everything. — Barbara Harris’s greatest impact is in perpetuating really destructive and cruel myths about
pregnant women and their children. — Lynn Paltrow heads up the
National Advocates for Pregnant Women. She’s been a critic of Barbara Harris’s
work for over 20 years: — You’re assuming every woman that’s
a drug addict is looking for treatment, they’re not! — Paltrow works with Mary Barr, a social justice advocate, former addict, and mother who used drugs when
she was pregnant with both her kids. — I have two children who are incredibly healthy, were born healthy. They are 26 and 25, and they’re
very, amazingly, successful. — If you had met Barbara during
the height of your addiction, what would you thought of that offer? — I would have taken it, because $300, you know, and all at once— that meant, for me, three nights of sleeping indoors. — Paltrow says it’s the world
the children of addicts are born into that leaves them so disadvantaged, not the substances they were exposed to. — When you talk to the medical researchers, the great news is that none of the criminalized drugs cause unique, permanent, terrible damage. Three percent of all women give birth to babies
that have what are called serious birth defects. None of that has anything to do
with the criminalized drugs. — Do you think Barbara Harris has quite
a static view of addicts and addiction, that once you’re an addict you’re always an addict? — Yes, and she’s not the only one. When somebody was telling me
I couldn’t be a productive mother, and that my children would be born,
you know, disabled or something, I mean, wow. I believed that. — The biggest threats to our children have nothing to do with what any
individual woman did or didn’t do. It has to do with poverty,
the lack of access to health care. It has to do with the stress created by racism. — Do you not think that addicts might
deserve a second chance and that, by promoting sterilization,
you’re denying them a second chance? — Well, we don’t promote sterilization. That’s their choice. They got strung out, they decided they wanted $300 to sterilize themselves. And if it’s a decision they regret, it was a decision they made— just like prostituting and ending up with AIDS. Because I watched how my children suffered and
had to withdraw from drugs when they were born. So no, I wasn’t thinking about
the women—“these poor women.” I was thinking, “My poor children.” — This is all very straightforward for you, isn’t it? It’s very simple. — To me, it is. Nobody who disagrees with what we’re doing has yet to give me a logical, rational reason why a drug addict or an alcoholic should get pregnant. And I always say to them, if you believe that strongly that these
women should keep conceiving children, then you should step up and adopt the next one born. But most of the people who have a
problem with what we’re doing, they would never consider
adopting one of these children. So if you’re not part of the solution, you’re part of the problem.

Teacher pay: Sketching a win-win solution | IN 60 SECONDS


Amid this spring’s teacher walkouts, the
outlines of a sensible deal on teacher pay seem pretty clear. First, there’s a need for additional taxpayer
support. Terrific teachers are woefully underpaid and, in many states, average pay should be substantially higher. Second, an across the board increase isn’t
the whole answer. Some lousy teachers are currently overpaid,
even as exceptional teachers are wildly underpaid. Current pay scales simply
don’t create room to use or appropriately compensate teachers who are doing great work. New taxpayer investment should help change
that reality. Third, retirement benefits for educators
cost twice as much as those for other workers. Teachers need to do their part, and agree to overhaul outmoded and expensive pension systems. Doing so will help free up substantial dollars for teacher take-home pay. Such a deal on taxes, pay systems, and pensions
involves short-term sacrifices. But such a bargain has the potential to yield
big benefits for students, teachers, and taxpayers. Do you think we should raise teacher pay? Let us know in your comments. Also, let us know what other topics you’d like our scholars to cover in 60 seconds, and be sure to like and subscribe for more research and videos from AEI.

Office Hours: Elasticity of Demand


♪ [music] ♪ – [Mary Clare] Today,
we’ll be applying elasticity of demand
in the real world. We’ll do so with two examples. First, suppose in your college town, real estate developers are building thousands of new
student-friendly apartments close to campus. If you want to pay
the lowest rent possible, should you hope
that demand for apartments is elastic or inelastic? As always, try to answer
the question by yourself. Check out our video
on Elasticity of Demand, attempt the problem,
and then come back, and we can work
through it together. An easy way
to approach this problem is to test it out
with extreme examples. What happens when demand
is very elastic, and what happens when demand
is very inelastic? First, let’s imagine
an apartment is, say, $600, and that demand is very elastic. These are our most
price-sensitive consumers. Now, if real estate developers
build more houses, the supply curve will shift out. Note that the demand curve
does not change, so we move along the demand curve. Clearly, demand will increase. But here’s the thing —
if demand is very elastic, the price won’t change
all that much. Housing cost decreased by a bit, but you might not
even notice the change. Let’s see if there’s a better price with very inelastic demand. So start with
the initial conditions again — an average apartment is $600. By the way,
a trick for distinguishing between inelastic and elastic is that a perfectly inelastic line looks like an “I,” for inelastic. So housing increases in the area
and supply shifts out. Now, what happens to demand? It barely budges! Perhaps more surprisingly, the price falls by quite a bit. Now this is great news
for college kids and any renters out there. If we compare this to the price drop
from our elastic demand curve, it’s much lower. So if you’re a student hoping
to pay the lowest rent possible, you’d hope
for an inelastic demand curve in this case. Let’s try one more example
to ensure you’ve got the hang of it. Now let’s say
the local government announces that thousands of apartments
close to campus are uninhabitable and must be torn down
next semester. If you want to pay
the lowest rent possible in this case, should you hope
that demand for apartments is elastic or inelastic? We’ll use the same approach
we used last time. First, suppose demand
is very elastic. If apartments
are suddenly condemned, then in the short run
this causes a rapid drop in the supply
of available apartments, and the supply curve shifts back. Our new equilibrium price
is slightly higher and the quantity is much lower. Once again, elastic demand means consumers are very responsive
to changes in price. But, if the demand curve
were inelastic, closer to looking like an “I,” even a small decrease in quantity would trigger
a large increase in price. In comparison
to our elastic demand, the price is much higher. So if you’re hoping to pay
the lowest rent possible, you’d hope
for an elastic demand curve in the case of apartment shortages, such that a large drop in supply would result in only
a small increase in rental price. Let’s sum up. In both examples, elastic demand
was very price-sensitive. Small changes in price,
up or down, led to large changes in demand. Inelastic demand,
on the other hand, was less responsive
to changes in price. The price had to drop
by quite a bit to get the same change
in quantity demanded. So, inelastic demand
works in our favor when supply increases
and shifts out, but works against us
when supply shrinks and shifts back. As always,
let us know what you think. And if you’d like more practice, check out our additional
brain teasers at the end of this video. ♪ [music] ♪

Leadership: Does it pay to be nice? | IN 60 SECONDS


All right. Anything in my teeth? As a former professor who taught entrepreneurship, I often get asked: “What are the secrets to good leadership?” Here’s one piece of advice: Be nice! Now,
niceness might seem like a naive strategy, especially in this climate. It
feels like our society today has become a battle of competing pessimisms.
Wouldn’t an actively nice leader seem out of place? But that’s exactly the
point! These days, warm heartedness is radical and unexpected… and it turns out,
also very effective. In one 2013 study, researchers found that a positive kind
leader is judged to be 132 percent more effective than an unpleasant leader. Now,
niceness does not mean we need fewer disagreements – or less debate. Business
and policy require a healthy competition of ideas. But our intellectual contest
should be fierce and friendly at the same time. So leaders: Get nice! It will
help you build a sustainable success and a better world! To learn more about the
competitive advantage of being nice, click the links in the description below.
Also, let us know what other topics you want AEI scholars to cover in 60 seconds.

CAREERS IN IT MANAGEMENT- BBM,MBA,Executive Recruiter,Business,Job Opportunities,Salary Package


Hello All..This is ELSA from Freshersworld.com Welcome to our video channel on jobs and careers Today I will be talking about the career opportunities you can have in MBA IT Management IT management, also popularly known as Information
Technology Management is basically understood as a method and technique through which the
technology resources of a particular company are administered depending upon the importance
and essentials. This includes both hardware as well as software for maintaining and handling
the systems. IT management is related to other important tasks such as planning and designing
different networks. It helps you to create a certain value for every organization. This
will be done by creating a new network of relationships between both external and internal
environment. There are several advantages that come with
entering this field. First and foremost, you will learn how to protect and protect information,
handle remote work, to create more job opportunities, encourage globalization, cost effectiveness
etc. However there are a couple of disadvantages that come with this too. Some of them are
unemployment, to monitor constantly, handing security cracks and taking care of operation
expenses. There are several categories that fall under
the field of IT management. Some of them include IT governance, IT financial management, IT
service management, IT configuration management etc. Some of jobs you can definitely do after
studying IT management include Information Technology Communications Manager, Vice President
of Information Technology, Senior Technology, Executive Recruiter, and Director of Information
Technology. An MBA in IT management includes business
courses where you will learn about business, economics, leadership development, international
business, analytical decision making, leadership development, telecommunications, information
security, managing software development, controlling technological changes, creating and managing
IT departments. Some of the top universities in India where
you can pursue this include Indian Institute of Management, Institute of Management, Nirma
University, and IITM Business School in Navi Mumbai, Jaipuria Institute Of Management,
Xavier Institute of Social Service, Master School of Management, Hindustan University,
Great Lakes Institute of Management, Chennai,and Amity International Business School The study of IT management is best conducted in countries abroad. India does have employment
opportunities but in terms of colleges and universities, it is limited. So if you are
looking for MBA opportunities abroad, the options will be much more.
So if you are keen on studying abroad, here are some of the top colleges you could send
an application to: • Stanford University
• Harvard Business School • INSEAD
• London Business School • The Warton School, University of Pennyslvania
• Columbia Business School • Melbourne Business School
• Indian Institute of Management • Ross School of Business
Most of them are in America. Nonetheless, all these universities are recognized and
have been designed to train and empower students in this field. Studying in one of these institutions
will definitely help you find success. If the information hasn’t satisfied you
enough, feel free to log on www.freshersworld.com. Here you will find answers to all questions
and learn great study tips and advice to make a career out of information technology management.
Freshersworld is best known for handling careers among youngsters. Not just you but many young
professionals have found help through this website we will be back with more such videos do stay connected with us do not forget to hit the subscribe button

How to Survive the Bear Market? Veteran Trader Explains


I am a Bitcoin guy, I believe in the Bitcoin
narrative. I think 98 to 99 percent of the coins out
there today are going to eventually be worthless. There is a chance that we are going to bottom
in the low 3s and that’s why I want to have an ownership position here. This is a marathon. Trading is a marathon, it’s not a sprint. Peter Brandt is a veteran trader and technical
analyst with over 40-year experience in trading commodities. He is the author of several books on trading
including the best selling “Diary of a Professional Commodity Trader”. We reached out to Peter and asked him how
traders should behave in this seemingly never-ending crypto bear market. Oftentimes in trading, keeping your money
intact is the best thing you can do. And we’ve seen a tremendous amount of wealth
deteriorate in this bear market, in the coins and crypto markets and those who went on the
sidelines back in December-January, February and decided they’re going to sit on their
cash are far better off than the person that’s become an active trader and trying to be defensive
and jump from coin to coin. I don’t advise that. So capital preservation sometimes is really
the goal of a trader. It’s almost as if fiat is a dirty word, it’s
a disease within the crypto community. Sometimes fiat is the best place you can be
and we’ve seen that now in the last eleven months. Those holding fiat have been far better off
than those stubbornly deciding that Bitcoins are going to go to one hundred thousand dollars
so therefore I’ll sit or anything the market gives me. I’m a trader. I think it’s ludicrous to sit through 90 percent
declines in the market, especially when you have a market that’s so clearly advertised
its tops starting in December with Bitcoin. I think those who have become active in trading
will miss the big moonshot when it comes, because they’re gonna be so accustomed to
having to be in and out, looking at short-term indicators, to be an indicator driven trader,
to be looking at 1 hour chart, 6 hour charts, 3 hour charts that if and when Bitcoin really
then reemerges and goes back into a parabolic move, they’re going to be on the sidelines. I’m starting to become interested in being
a long-term buyer and holder of Bitcoin, but of Bitcoin. I have no time in my life for the other macro
caps and the old coins. I am a Bitcoin guy, I believe in the Bitcoin
narrative. I think 98 to 99 percent of the coins out
there today are going to eventually be worthless. And it seems like all the experts know that
their pet coin is not going to be one of them. Well, good luck with that one. I’m a technician, I look at charts. The interesting thing is the social media
world, it is filled with people who say ‘technical analysis doesn’t work in the crypto markets’. Au contraire. There are the absolute best-charting markets
that we have today. They are wonderfully compliant with classical
charting principles. And so I’m going to look at charts to give
me that indication. I’ve been calling for twenty nine hundred
Bitcoin for a very long period of time. And do we have a chance to bottom before that? Quite frankly I think that one of two scenarios
is likely, we won’t get to twenty nine hundred because it’s become a popular number. Three thousand has become a talked about number
and oftentimes when you have a market that everybody is saying ‘I can’t wait to buy
that three thousand’ you don’t get there. But I think if we can break down hard through
twenty nine hundred, I think Bitcoin can go back to twelve hundred. It’s been a classic decline, the decline has
been almost a perfect fractal so far to that decline that we saw. I’m looking at a chart here from 2014 into
early 2015, the big drop that we had back then from just under 12 hundred all the way
back toward the two hundred level. If you analyze that and you take that decline
apart, the Bitcoin market is almost an identical fractal to that bear market. And based on that fractal work we should be
in the final leg down the capitulation. The only concern I have is when I look on
social media. People have not become discouraged. People are just still committed to the long
side. And my experience is Bitcoin really is very
similar to any other market that I’ve dealt with that have had major bear trends. What happens is, as long as you have hope
and encouragement, you can’t bottom. Either we don’t get as low as people are willing
to buy it, either we stay above three thousand and have some sort of bottoming pattern here
and really put together the final part of the fractal or we will blow through these
buy orders and eventually blow these people out and really make the market discouraged
and basically give up on it. It’s impossible to catch the top price. Impossible to catch the bottom price. If I can have my average price somewhere within
15 percent of what becomes the bottom – I’m happy. I have no compulsion to catch the bottom but
I think that I’ve started buying and based on my plan I’ll continue to buy as low as
it goes. But what I’m really looking for are just some
real simple technical indicators. Your 14-week moving average, 15-week moving
average. It’s impossible for a market to have a major
advance without being confirmed by a simple moving average. Now, it could be an exponential moving average,
it could be all kinds of fancy types of moving averages. But I think simple moving average system is
going to be a very smart way to trade Bitcoin going forward because it is absolutely impossible
for Bitcoin to incur and experience a major advance in price without confirmation from
simple moving averages. I think to the bottom we could be within six
months, maybe even I would say within six months of the bottom there is a chance that
we are going to bottom in the low 3s and that’s why I want to have an ownership position here. It won’t bother me if it goes lower, I’ll
only increase my ownership position and so I have set aside my money in three blocks. I have three nest eggs of money that I’m using
to commit to the Bitcoin market. The third block of money is buying Bitcoin
on a scale down. I own it some already. Like I said, 8 percent of the total capital. I’ll buy more Bitcoin close to three thousand,
I’ll buy more Bitcoin at twenty-four hundred, I’ll buy more Bitcoin at twelve hundred if
it gets there. So that’s a third of the money. A third of the money I’m going to be moving
in and out of Bitcoin based on a simple moving average crossover system. So basic simple tactical approach to market
and a third of the money I’m going to employ based on what I would define as classical
charting principles, it’s the basic principles of reading a chart. The charts have been very reliable in seeing
that we are in a big bear market. And they were screaming short at the top. They were screaming short here a month or
so ago when the big decline started. But it’s too late to be a new trader and start
playing around with the short side. I don’t advise it. With 85% decline I’m advising people to make
a game plan, commit a sum of money that you can lose and start being willing to commit
to. Don’t be trading the altcoins, trade the
real deal, the legacy coin is Bitcoin. Don’t become conned into all of these other
little nonsense coins. This is a marathon. Trading is a marathon, it’s not a sprint. And so you don’t keep placing your bet jumping
from horse to horse based on who’s leading the race in any given furlough.

Why can’t we just print money to pay off debt?


Have you ever wondered why countries can’t
just print more money to off their debts… or to feed the homeless or fix unemployment,
or any other issue for that matter. Now, this may seem like a rather silly question,
but I think it may be one of those questions people might be a bit too embarrassed to ask,
but there’s shortage of people wondering. The short answer can be summed up in just
one word… inflation. Inflation is defined as “a persistent, substantial rise in the
general level of prices related to an increase in the volume of money and resulting in the
loss of value of currency”. But I’ll get to that… first though, we need
to establish exactly what money… is. Now this may seem obvious, but something that’s
important to know, is that money, has absolutely no… intrinsic value. What that means is
that money in itself has no actual value, it’s only considered valuable because it can
buy things, but if you were stranded on a desert island, money would be totally useless.
Money only has value because we believe it has value. This is called the Tinkerbell Effect,
something I learned about from Vsauce. The Tinkerbell Effect is used to describe
something that only exists because we believe it exists.
And this is the case with money. Hypothetically speaking, if people suddenly started to believe
that money had no value… it wouldn’t have any value.
Of course it wasn’t always this way, money has been around for millennia, and when it
was first used it was in the form of commodity money. Things were traded that had actual
value and uses, like salt, spices, horses or weapons. As well as this precious metals
such as gold as silver, which technically don’t have any intrinsic value either, but
due to their rarely are almost universally as currency.
Then we have representative money. Since carrying around everything you own can be difficult,
representative money makes more sense. Basically you give your gold to a bank and they keep
it safe for you, and in return they give you a piece of paper acknowledging that you own
that gold. These pieces of paper can therefore used as money as anyone can go and redeem
the gold at any time. But today, almost every country in the world
uses fiat money. Fiat money requires faith and trust in the government that their money
will have value. If we use a relatively young country as an
example, the United States has gone through all three monetary systems within 200 years.
In 1792, when the US stopped using European money. The Coinage Act of 1792 brought the
inception of the US dollar. The US dollar was originally in the form of commodity money
in the form of gold, silver and copper coins. The coins were actually made from real gold,
silver and copper, and the value of the metal that made the coins, were exactly equal to
their face value. The country then moved onto a mixture of commodity
and representative money with the 1900 Gold Standard Act. The government issued dollar
bills which could be exchanged for gold at any time.
Gold Standard is a type of representative money that money countries used at the time.
This was an effective way to accurately calculate the exchange rate between countries.
For example, if one gram of gold costs £1 in Britain and $1.50 in America, then you
can easily deduce that £1 equals $1.50. Gold coins were discontinued and the silver
was removed from the other coins, effectively ending commodity money.
In 1971, Richard Nixon officially abandoned the Gold Standard, and the US moved onto fiat
money. So money today isn’t back by gold or anything
else of value for that matter. So back to the question at hand; basic economics
tells us that an increase in supply, results in a fall in demand and therefore a fall in
price. So the more money in the economy, the lower the value of each dollar. Meaning other
countries can purchase more dollars in exchange for their currency.
A second supply and demand graph shows why this leads to a rise in prices. More money
in the economy causes a shift in the demand curve for goods and services, but since this
isn’t matched by in increase in economic output, prices must rise.
Look at it this way, if the government printed a million dollars and posted it to everyone
in the country, causing everyone to go out to buy a sports cars… but there’s only a
finite number of sports in the country. If we use an analogy to demonstrate this…
imagine there’s 4 people on a desert island, they each have 10 pieces of fruit each. All
fruits are considered equal in value. Now imagine they discover a whole forest of
apple trees. The nominal value of apples has increased because there’s more of them, but
the actual value of an apple has gone down due to an increase in supply.
Therefore it now costs 10 apples for 1 banana since demand for apples is low, but high for
bananas. Just to clarify, in this analogy, the people
represent different countries, the fruits their respective currency, and the apples
tree is the printed money. But it’s not only because of economic theory
that we know printing too much money is bad idea, there’s several examples throughout
recent history. The most recently example is Zimbabwe. Who,
in 2008, suffered extremely high inflation due to printing money.
This was the result of some awful decisions by the president Robert Mugabe.
When the economy took a turn for the worse, Mugabe printed more money to pay government
expenditure. This caused inflation to skyrocket, and, in
mid-November 2008, Zimbabwe’s inflation peaked at… actually wait hold on a second, first
I need to provide some context. Inflation in the United States is around 2%,
economists generally agree that inflation level around 1-3% are optimum. First-world
countries’ inflation rates today range from 0-5%. A country is said to have enter hyperinflation
when their inflation levels exceed 50%. So… with that in mind, Zimbabwe’s inflation,
at its peak, reached… 6.5… sextillion %. Or to put it another way… that number
has 22 digits. It got so bad that prices doubled every 24
hours. The government tried to solve the problem by printed more and more money with higher
and higher denominations. They also kept knocking zeroes off the end
by re-valuing the Zimbabwean dollar 3 times, going through 4 different types of currency
with 4 different ISO codes. Before the final re-denomination, they were
printing 100 trillion dollar bills. People were literally using wheelbarrows full
of cash to buy a loaf of bread. The government even made inflation illegal
at one point and people were actually arrested for raising prices.
In 2009, the Zimbabwean dollar was abandoned and to this day they still have no national
currency, their people use currencies such as the US dollar, the Pound Sterling, and
the Euro. Before the hyperinflation, the first Zimbabwean dollar was worth about 1.25 US
dollars. If that 100 trillion dollar bill was worth that exchange rate, that single
bill would be worth more money than there is in the entire world… twice.
But as ridiculous as this was, this is only considered to be the second worst inflation
in history, after Hungary in 1946. Although Zimbabwe’s inflation peaked in Mid-November
of 2008, their overall highest monthly inflation was 79.6 billion %, whereas Hungary’s highest
monthly inflation which took place in July 1946 was 41.9 quadrillion %. With prices doubling
every 15 hours. To put that into perspective, a country with
a healthy inflation level of around 3%, prices double every 23 years.
Their currency was called the pengo, and as inflation rose, the bil-pengo: short for billion
pengo. Which is actually one trillion pengo on the short-scale.
As well as the record for the highest monthly inflation, Hungary also holds the record for
the highest denomination banknote ever issued – the 100 million bil-pengo note. (ie – 100
million billion, or 100 quintillion). Which is 100 quintillion pengo on the short-scale.
1 milliard bil-pengo were printed but never issued.
In 1941, the exchange rate was about 5 pengo to 1 US dollar. In 1946, when the currency
was discontinued, things had gotten so out of hand, that if you took every single banknote
in the entire county, they would have a total value… of one tenth… of a US penny.
Hungary then switched the the forint, where 1 forint equalled 400 octillion pengos. That
number has 29 zeroes. So that’s why government can’t just print
money to pay off their debts, it does not end well.
It’s also important to understand exactly what national debt is. National debt is much
more complicated than personal debt. It isn’t simply a case of ‘you owe people money’. Take
the country with the highest National Debt – the United States, that currently has around
17 trillion dollars of debt, and you’re probably aware the country holds most US debt is…
China. Although that is true, it’s somewhat misleading. Of the total debt, China only
has about 8%. Most of the debt is actually owned by the United States government itself,
but organisations such as Social Security or the Federal Reserve.
On top of this, a further 30% is owned by US citizens.And even though 8% of 17 trillion
is still a lot, China can’t just knock on the door of the White House and demand 1.2
trillion dollars. It doesn’t work like that. Basically, the US Department of the Treasury
issue treasury bonds. You can buy these bonds and the government will pay you interest on
that bond every year, then, once the bonds have matured, they’ll buy the treasury bonds
back from you. Now, if a country gets into financial trouble,
it may have to default on its debt, which basically means you won’t get your money back.
But the US is generally considered an extremely risk-free investment because the US dollar
is the most widely used and most trust-worthy currency in the world. It’s even written into
the Constitution that the United States cannot default on its debt.
I’ll leave you with this final thought and what I think is possibly the best way to sum
up why governments can’t just print off unlimited amounts of money…
“If money grew on trees, it would be as valuable as leaves”
Thanks for watching!