Learn English – Asking About Occupations, What is your Job?

Welcome to EnglishClass101.com’s “English
in Three Minutes”. The fastest, easiest, and most fun way to learn English. Hey everyone, I’m Alisha! In this series, we’re going to learn some
easy ways to ask and answer common questions in English. It’s really useful, and it only
takes three minutes! In this lesson, you’re going to learn how
to ask what someone’s job is in natural English. Of course, you *can* just say, “What is
your job?” This is correct English, but it sounds too direct and awkward. Native English
speakers almost never say this in a social situation. Instead, they use a different question. But before we master that, we need to compare
it to a very similar question. “What are you doing?” “I’m presenting a video about English!” “What do you do?” “I’m an English teacher!” Do you see the difference? These two questions – “What are you doing?”
and “What do you do?” sound similar, but mean different things. The first one is asking what you are doing
right now, this minute. You answer it using an -ing verb. “What are you doing?” “I’m reading!” “I’m watching TV!” … While the second is actually a shortened
version of “What do you do for a living?”. This is how we ask “What is your job?”
in natural English. Let’s practice this question. “What do you do?” “What do you do?” When native speakers of English ask this question,
it can come out very fast, and sound more like “Whadd’yado?” In order to tell it apart from “what are
you doing?”, just listen for the “ing” sound on the end of the question – if it’s
not there, then you’re being asked what your job is! So how would you answer this question? Just think of it as if the other person is
asking you “What is your job?” You could answer with “I am”, plus your job. “I’m a teacher.” I’m a teacher or, “I’m an engineer.” If you want to learn more job names, go to
EnglishClass101.com and check out the Core Word Lists. These cover job vocabulary and
more, and include a picture and audio to help you perfect your pronunciation. You can also mention the place that you work
at, starting with “I work at”. I work at a hospital. I work at a hospital. I work at a law firm. I work at a law firm. If you work for a big company that is well-known,
you can say “I work for”, and then the name: “I work for Microsoft.” I work for Microsoft. I work for The New York Times. I work for The New York Times. Now it’s time for Alisha’s Advice! When you ask the question “What do you do?”
and the other person tells you their job, it’s polite to make some kind of positive
comment about his or her job – for example, “How interesting!” or “That must be
exciting” or even “Oh, really!”. Remember to sound sincere! Do you know how native English speakers ask
each other what their hobbies are? Hint: we don’t use the word “hobbies”!
Find out next time in the third English in 3 Minutes Lesson! See you next time!

Humans and AI working together: Crash Course AI #14

Striking Sound speed CC AI Take 1 Action INTRO Hey, I’m Jabril and welcome to Crash Course AI! It seems like every time I look at the news,
there’s a new article about how AI and automation is going to take everybody’s jobs! I’m starting to wonder if teaching John
Green Bot those things was even a good idea… but there is a way for AI and humans to work
together, besides competing for the same jobs, resources, and game championships. Human-AI teams can use our strengths to help
each other, and collaborate to fill in each other’s weaknesses. Together, we can make better diagnoses, brainstorm
new inventions, or imagine a future where humans and robots are working side-by-side. AIs and humans have skills that can complement
each other, AI can be good at searching through lots of possibilities and making some intelligent
guesses at which one to pick. Plus, AI systems are consistent, and won’t
make mistakes because they’re tired or hungry, like I sometimes do. On the other hand, humans can be good at insight,
creativity, and understanding the nuances of language and behavior. We’ve learned from living in the world and
interacting with each other, so we’re better than AI systems at interpreting social signals. There are many ways that AI could support
us, but a big one is that AI could amplify our decision-making activities with the right
information. For an example of this kind of Human-AI collaboration,
let’s go to the ThoughtBubble. Humans and computers can play games against
each other, but when they join forces, they basically become a superhero dynamic duo. In chess, this particular kind of Human-AI
team game is called advanced chess, cyborg chess, or centaur chess! In centaur chess, the computer does what it’s
great at: it looks several moves ahead and estimates the most promising next moves. And the human does what they’re great at:
they choose among uncertain possibilities based on experience, intuition, and even what
they know about the opponent. Usually, the computer program is in the driver’s
seat for the early game, which is relatively mindless because there aren’t too many move
choices. But humans step in to guide the strategy in
the middle game when things get more complicated. The first centaur chess tournament was held
in 2007, with the winning team led by Anson Williams. Anson’s team, Intagrand, consists of him
and the programs written by the Computer Science and Math experts Yingheng Chen and Nelson
Hernandez. And the cool thing about this team is that
it’s currently considered to be the best chess player in the world, among humans and AI! Intagrand was able to win 2-0 against chess grandmasters, even though none of the team members are grandmasters. And in 2014, multiple AIs played against multiple
centaur chess teams in competitions. Pure AI won 42 games, while centaur teams
won 53 games! It seems like Human-AI collaboration is working
out for chess, so that means it could be promising in other parts of our lives too. Thanks Thought Bubble. Games provide a great constrained environment
to demonstrate the possibilities of AI and, in this case, human-AI collaboration. Chess victories might not seem that significant,
but similar Human-AI collaboration can be applied to other problems. AI takes on the parts that require memorization,
rote response, and following rules. Humans focus on aspects that require nuance,
social understanding, and intuition. For one, AI could help humans make decisions
when we’re dealing with large amounts of complicated information. When a doctor is trying to make a diagnosis,
they try to use their medical experience and intuition to make sense of their patient’s
symptoms and all the published clinical data. AI could help wade through all that data and
highlight the most probable diagnoses, so the doctor can focus their experience and
intuition on choosing from those which is where they’ll be most helpful. Second, AI could help when humans are trying
to come up with new inventions or designs, like a new engineered structure. An AI could apply predetermined physical constraints,
like, for example, how much something should weigh or how much force it should be able
to withstand. This lets the human experts think about the
most practical designs, and could spark new creative ideas. Third, AI could also support and scale-up
interaction between people. It could save people from doing rote mental
tasks, so that they have more time and energy to help. For example, in customer support, virtual
assistants can help answer easy questions about checking on an order or starting a return…
or at least that’s the goal. If you’ve ever tried these systems, you
know that they can sometimes fail in spectacular ways, leaving you mashing the 0 button on
your phone to try and get a representative on the line. And fourth, robots that are AI-enabled but
guided by humans could give people more strength, endurance, or precision to do certain kinds
of work. Some examples of this may be an exosuit worn
by a construction worker, or a remotely-guided search and rescue robot. These devices still need some AI to apply
the right amount of force or navigate effectively, but all of the real decision-making is done
by humans. There are entire research fields, like Human-Computer
Interaction and Human-Robot Interaction, dedicated to investigating and building new AI, Machine
Learning, and Robotics systems to complement and enhance human capabilities. But it’s not just that humans can become
more effective with AI, AI also needs humans to succeed! This whole series we’ve been talking about
how we can program AI to help them exist and learn, but a lot of human-AI interaction is
more subtle. You could’ve supported an AI without even
recognizing it. First, humans can provide AI with meaning
and labels, because we have so much more experience with living in the real world. For example, if you’ve ever edited Wikipedia,
you’ve contributed to Wikipedia-based algorithms such as WikiBrain. Because Wikipedia puts articles into nesting
structures (like how an elephant is a mammal) and because articles link each other, algorithms
can use this structure to understand the meaning-based connection between topics. In fact, when we interact with digital technology,
whether it’s posting content, giving something a thumbs up, following driving directions
on a phone, or typing a text message, we’re often providing training data to help make
AI systems more effective. Without our data, there wouldn’t be recommended
YouTube videos, predictive text messages, or traffic data for the GPS to use in suggesting
a route. But sometimes providing personal data can
be a double-edged sword which we’ll get to in the Algorithmic Bias episode. Secondly, humans can also try to explain an
AI system’s predictions, outputs, and even possible mistakes to other humans, who aren’t
as familiar with AI. As we mentioned in the episode about artificial neural networks, the reasons for an AI producing particular results can be tough to understand. We can see what data go into the program and
which results fit the data well, but it can be hard to know what the hidden layers are
doing to get those results! For example, an algorithm might recommend
denying a customer’s loan request. So a loan officer needs to be able to look
at the input data and algorithm, and then communicate what factors might’ve led to
denial. Many European countries are now making it
a legal right to receive these kinds of explanations. Third, human experts can also inspect algorithms
for fairness to different kinds of people, rather than producing biased results. Bias is a very complicated topic, so we’ll
dive deeper into the nuances in an upcoming episode and lab. And finally, AI doesn’t understand things
like the potential consequences of its mistakes or the moral implications of its decisions. That’s beyond the scope of its programming. It’s a common Sci-Fi trope that an AI built
to minimize suffering might choose to eliminate all life on Earth, because if there’s no
life, there’s no suffering! That’s why humans may want to moderate and
filter AI actions in the world, so we can make sure they line up with societal values,
morals, and thoughtful intentions. The bottom line is that organic and artificial
brains may be better together, and through Crash Course AI, you could be on the way to
becoming one of those experts that works on the helpfulness and fairness of AI systems. In this episode, we didn’t focus on explaining
one specific algorithm or AI technology. Instead, it’s more about where our world
might be going from the AI revolution that’s happening now… besides just “automation
replacing jobs.” We should recognize what data humans are providing
to algorithms. What would it mean if we could claim some
credit for the ways that our data have allowed algorithms to change lives for the better? Or how do we claim more power in cases where
data are being used in potentially harmful or problematic ways? Second, we should think about if and how our
human jobs could be made easier by working with AI — although it’s bound to be complicated. For example, people had similar concerns with
the spread of personal computing and tools like spreadsheets. And yes, spreadsheets automated many bookkeeping
tasks, which put many people out of work. Even though some types of jobs were destroyed,
new accounting jobs were created that involved human-computer collaboration. Technology took over more of the rote math
calculations, and humans focused on the more nuanced and client-facing aspects of accounting
work. Even though this idea can get overblown in
the mass media, AI and automation has and will take people’s jobs. No question. And we don’t want to downplay the impact
that has on people’s lives. But by understanding how AI works, what it’s
good at, and where it struggles, we can also find opportunities to work more effectively
and to create new types of jobs that involve collaboration. Machines can help us do things that we can’t
do as well (or at all) by ourselves. Human-AI collaboration can help us narrow
down complex decision trees and make better choices. Human-Robot collaboration has the potential
to give us super strength or resilience. Different kinds of AI will impact the world
in powerful ways, but not without costs. So it’s up to us to decide which costs are
worth it, how to minimize harm, and create a future we want to live in. Thanks for watching, I’ll see you next
week. Crash Course AI is produced in association
with PBS Digital Studios. If you want to help keep Crash Course free
for everyone, forever, you can join our community on Patreon. To think more about the complicated lines
between AI and humans, check out this video from Crash Course Philosophy.

The Try Guys’ Surprise Office Makeover

(all speaking over one another) – [Ned] I’m so excited, I’m so excited! – [Try Guys] Okay, one, two, three. Move that bus! Oh! (upbeat rock music) (upbeat eclectic music) Hello! – [Eugene] Welcome. – Happy makeover day! (Try Guys cheering) – [Eugene] Come on in. – Hi I’m Ariel, I’m an interior designer. I’m also Ned’s wife, and I’m going to makeover
the Try Guys office. I brought my tools. – [Ned] Oh thank you,
we don’t have any tools. – No, I know.
– We got four of them. – So it feels really weird
making over the guys office because it used to be Ned and my house. We left behind the
furniture we didn’t want, kind of the rejects, and
they sort of just decided that that was their
furniture now for the office. This is your office now,
how are you liking it? – It looks terrible. (laughing) – Initial impressions? Um, garbage. It’s smelly, it’s cramped. – When I come into the
office every morning I just get this feeling of, oh boy. – This apartment is like the fourth child, just only wearing hand-me-downs. – No one should have to work
from an old kitchen table, or an old ratty couch. – I think the best way to describe it is as if a company was in college. (chuckles) – These four guys are very close friends and they are doing awesome awesome stuff. The work they are
putting into this company should be reflected in
the space they work in. Okay so talk to me about
the vibe that you want. – We need space for now and room to grow. – This looks professional
but also looks like the guys. Like Keith, personal
but looks fucking great. – Yeah, I would love this
place to remind me of me. (laughs) – So what’s your plan for this space? – Well it looks completely
different now that there’s no stuff in here. It also looks like a shit hole. – Okay, your words are hurtful. – First thing we’re gonna do is we are gonna paint the whole house. This space should be fun,
it should be professional. You should walk in and
think this is awesome. – I’m very big on function over fashion. – What would make me happy is just color. I hate how bland and white this room is. – Yeah, bare walls are no fun. – I can’t be the only one
imagining bear walls now, right? Like rawr. – I thought you meant bare walls, like no clothing, just a bunch of butts. – Oh. – I can see how we’d be
difficult as clients. – We have a big colorful rug, we’re going to be adding a small
couch to that front space. One side of the office is
gonna be primarily desks. I’m gonna try and create
three different spaces; two for shooting, we’ll
have two chairs in a corner so that will be a completely
separate shooting space. We’re gonna have a viewing
space in there as well. And this is going to
be one big accent wall. (guys cheering) Ned is in charge of that accent wall. – Hey! – Art is tricky when you’re working in shooting spaces because
things are copyrighted, so we’re gonna make our own art. We’re gonna be putting a
big Try Guys text thing right here, and a neon sign. I’m gonna be giving the
guys one DIY project to do. Zach and Keith, you are in
charge of the neon sign. – Oh! – Mistake. (laughs) – I think it’s gonna look great, but it really will be
what the guys make it. – So Ned’s in charge of the accent wall? – What are you in charge of? – I wore jorts for you. – Yeah those are really good jorts. So Eugene you are in charge
of this entire accent wall. – Wow. – This wall was inspired by a turtleneck that you wear sometimes. – [Eugene] Which turtleneck? – [Ariel] It’s like blue, and purple. – [Eugene] And mint, and gray. – Wait so it takes three
of us to paint one wall, and Eugene is doing one by himself? – I got no problem with that. – I got no problem with that. – It’s how we live our life. – In the old dining room we’re gonna switch out the light
fixture and we’re gonna turn that more into a transitional space. We’re gonna create a DIY bar space. We are going to put
more desks in that space so that it can really feel like an office. – Let’s do it! – On one, two, three! Ariel’s husband! – Let’s go! – Try Guys Game Time! (upbeat music) – Okay so Ariel we are gonna
do the accent wall now. – Yes. – Ooh it’s so beautiful. What color have you chosen? – I’ve chosen turquoise. – Ooh. – Ooh it’s like aqua. – Yeah. – You are looking for something
that has a pop of color, it’s kinda fun, you guys are
gonna walk into your office and you’re gonna be like
I like working here. – Oh yeah! Oh it looks like cotton candy. The new color of The Try Guys! – You’re very good at that
look at you using your thang. – It’s not my first paint job. Wow your roller really is a
lot bigger than mine, huh? – Maybe I’m ready to
compensate for something. Ready? – And… – Woo! – Woo, Yeah! – This is like an aquarium in here. – It’s not quite any
one of our four colors. It’s a little bit of green,
a little bit of blue, a little bit of pink, and
just a hint of purple. – It’s neither of those
things, it’s actually halfway between Zach’s and Keith’s. – Okay, cool cool. Cool cool cool, but like a little splash of
pink, and a dash of purple. – Nope. – But like a little
simmering of pink on top, and some purple mist. – You’re really reachin’ for it right now. – Yeah it’s all four
of us, yeah I love it. Great. You’re so smart. Okay, so it’s gonna be our logo and then a little triceratops sculpture. – Yeah. – So we’re just gonna
hope that Zach and Keith don’t mess up the focal
point of the entire room? – Yeah, yeah, basically. – Hmm hmm. – What’s up nerds? – Hey! – So today you guys are gonna be on your very own DIY project. I know. We’re gonna make a DIY neon sign. – Yeah we’re doing glass blowing? – Yeah, actually I have it all. (blowing) (laughs) No, we’re using electroluminescent wire. This is what all the DIY
bloggers are talking about. – Oh yeah. – Holy shit it’s beeping and flashing! – Yo, we’re ready for a rave. – This is actually a pretty simple… I hesitated to say simple because you guys are gonna take hours. – It takes hours, or
we’re gonna take hours? – You are gonna take hours. – Love the vote of confidence. – This is the amount of space you have. It should be about three meters. And we need to draw out
what we want to make. But the one rule is you
cannot pick up your pen because you only have one wire. So it has to be a line drawing. – So it’s just gonna be a single trace. Like an out. Okay. We draw the shape, then
we make the shape in this, glue this to the EL
wire, boom, triceratops. Done. Easy. – Easy peasy. – Exactly. – Easy peasy lemon squeezy! – Give me a challenge, bro! – Okay so this project
is the one I’m actually the most excited about. – Yeah! – We’re doing a color block wall. I chose gray, dark blue,
teal, and millennial pink. – Millennial pink? – Millennial pink. You know what millennial pink is, right? – Believes in themselves, supported by his parents through college. – Yeah, 100%. – Millennial pink. – So what we have to do
is we have to sketch out the color block pattern
that we want to do. – [Eugene] Yes. – Now we could go stripes, but my thought, and let me know if you
agree, is triangles. – Yes! Triangles. – I think maybe slashing
through the doorway could be really fun. – Why don’t we slash through it twice? – Let’s do it! – Yeah. – I trust you, you’re
gonna nail it, alright – Cool. – Good luck. – Thanks Ariel. I have the most important wall. Because if I fuck this up
the room will look like shit. Okay. – I really, at this
point I have no advice. It’s looking really, really good. – How’s it look? Does it look okay? – Okay uh we have a lot of work to do, we’re gonna go with pretty good. – You think it’s a little
bit too far that way? – Nope. Honey, really. – Okay, okay. – Seriously. – If I get shocked and start
thriving on the ground, please turn off the cameras and revive me. Ayy! Edison bulb. Guys, we work in a startup now. It’s not actually on. That one’s not on. What did I do wrong? – I’m not good at drawing. – What does a triceratops look like? It’s got a butt. – We’re not startin’ off good. – Not the worst first draft. – Think we need a… (laughs) You know some
paintings in a museum look like a child did it, but actually
that’s what makes it art, because a child didn’t do it. – I drew Keith! – Bear in mind, all triceratops
are artist representations of what they think they
probably look like. Nobody has a photograph. – Well someone has a photograph. – No one has a photograph. – I mean, someone has a photograph. – Photography is like– – It’s not a digital photo – A little over a century old. – Right. – So, no. – I feel like you’re making
yourself look stupid right now. – Well at least Eugene’s
wall will look good. Right? – So I painted the wall in
different ways on my computer to see what color combination looks best. – Love it. You’re a genius. – Dark navy should be the focal point with this wall since the rest
of the room is so bright. Ooh. I love the dark blue. It’s like my soul. – Now they’re both on
and now this one goes off and that one stays on? What have I done? That’s for the living room. Let’s turn on the switch. Ready? Damn it. Could the black be orange? Reset the circuit breaker. Here we go. Let’s figure this out. What the heck am I doing wrong? I’m so confused. Nice! Feels good! Feels good, we’re doin’ it! It looks great honey. We’re gonna turn that, into that. I’ve never been focused on anything more in my life. – [Keith] You have a kid. (laughter) – So, we drew a bunch of
different versions of this single line cursive. This is the one we’ve settled on, however unfortunately it does not
translate to wire at all. – [Keith] It looks like a shadow puppet. – Yeah. Life uh, finds a way of
making things harder. – Paint it blue and call it a day. – [Zach] Right. – Okay so Ariel I’m gonna
do the rest of these letters and then we’re
basically done right? We’re ready for the final reveal? – Did you realize we don’t
have any furniture in here? Half has gone to the garden. It’s still covered in plastic. – Ariel that sounds like a lot of work. Looks like you’re gonna
need some montage magic. Montage magic. (fast upbeat music) Let’s go! (upbeat music) – [Distorted Voice] Montage magic. – [Ned] Oh my god, oh my
god, oh my god, oh my god. Hello! – [All] Hi! – [Ariel] Hi! Come on in! – [Ned] Okay. (excited murmuring) – [All] One, two, three. Move that bus! (exclaiming and yelling) – [Ned] Look at all this color. – [Zach] The work I did was really only 2% (laughs) Look at our new office, oh my god this is so exciting! – [Ned] And we have the
photos from our shoot. – [Keith] Oh I love this. – Now it feels like it’s
finally The Try Guys office. – [Ariel] You’ve got two
shooting spaces here, so you’ve got your couch shooting space with non-copyrighted
art, and you have your chair shooting space
with non-copyrighted art. – [Zach] Is it weird that the first thing I reacted to was these
baskets on the wall? – It’s our four colors
with the blue in the couch. – Keith is the couch. – I’m the couch! – Wow, my wife is awesome. – [Zach] Can we keep going? (excitedly talking at the same time) – Beautiful Keith! (screaming) – We did it! We did it! There’s pictures of us
everywhere, which means there’s pictures of me everywhere. It’s a great design choice,
I recommend it for your home. – It’s bright, it’s colorful,
it makes a statement, and it’s comfortable! – Can I stand against the walls? – Yes, go go go! It’s so good! – This is the first time
a wall has been based off of my choice in turtlenecks,
but I’m impressed. – [Ned] Man our office
was so shitty before. – [Zach] I was ready to quit before this, but you got me, I’m in. – Really truly, a transformed space. You did it in such a
short amount of time too. – What was the total cost? – Under $3,500. – Really? Wow.
– What? – I think it turned out great. – I only cared about functionality, I got so much more than that! It’s also really cool. – It’s gotta be said, the color? – When you walk into the space now, you feel like there’s
a business being run. – We’ve hit so many milestones, from starting a channel,
to starting a Patreon, and now I feel like we
have an actual office. It’s awesome. Thank you so much. – You’re welcome. You know, I want this
to have a happy ending, but I think that neon sign
is just a little dinky. – I give it six months
before we replace that. (laughs) (upbeat music) I’m ready for my torah portion. – Mozel tov! – Thank you. (drops hammer) – Mazel tov. Mazel tov. – [Keith] He better not be painting me. – Mazel tov.

Defense Against the Dark Arts of Influence: Crash Course Business Soft Skills #2

How do con artists manage to scam millions? Why do people choose to follow great leaders,
or horrible ones? How do CEOs get better deals in the boardroom? Influence. It goes by a lot of names. Emotional intelligence. Manipulation. Social skills. Influence is an important tool that drives
business decisions and social interactions. But, like all those Spider-Man reboots have
taught us, with great power comes great responsibility. …Uncle Ben… Influence has a dark side too, and can be
used to pressure people into making some pretty bad decisions. So this is basically our defense against the
dark arts episode. Except instead of Avada Kedavra, we’re going
to fend off some “Influencias Malus” and teach you how to use influence for good. I’m Evelyn from the Internets. And this is Crash Course Business: Soft Skills. [Intro Music Plays] Last time, we talked about the rational reasons
for trusting other people. But you also trust people because of emotional
reasons, like your gut instinct when you first meet them. Sometimes, emotional cues can match up with
cognitive trust. Maybe someone’s giving you really bad vibes,
and when you scroll down their Twitter feed, your suspicions are confirmed! I’m not about to get dragged on Black Twitter with you! Or your gut might be trying to get you out
of a situation that feels dangerous. In the words of My Favorite Murder, if you’re
freaked: Pepper spray first. Apologize later. Then, there’s the flip side. You might feel good about someone who turns
out not to be trustworthy. That smooth-talking ex, for example. Or a quirky professor who was actually hiding
Voldemort on the back of his head the whole time. Influence relies heavily on charisma. If someone’s more likeable, they tend to
be trusted more easily and can influence others. As we’ve seen from the #MeToo movement,
or really anytime a popular person does a horrible thing, having charisma does not
mean someone has good character or is good at their job. Charisma isn’t always nefarious, though. It can be used as a force of good — to help
you make a great first impression or give a persuasive public speech. And it’s not some magical gift that’s
bestowed upon you. Charisma is a skill you can build over time
with the personality traits you’ve got. Tons of factors play a role. But to keep it simple, here are three things
that leading organizational psychologists say can make you more likeable: confidence,
praise, and optimism. [That’s it. Three things. You got this.] Plus, they can also help you think about why
you’re trusting a charismatic person, and whether or not you should. Confidence is the number one way to build
charisma and emotional influence. It makes you seem more relaxed and capable
in high-pressure situations. Capable people aren’t always as confident
as they could be. Maybe you’re shy, or have impostor syndrome
and you’re afraid you don’t belong at your job. Well, we’ve got your back! You deserve to be recognized for your achievements,
and there are ways to make yourself shine. Black Girl Magic. For example, you can avoid uncertain language,
like ‘maybe,’ ‘in my opinion,’ ‘I think’ or ‘I could be wrong.’ Sure, if you’re a journalist trying to separate
your opinion and a citation, these phrases can be helpful. But in business writing, they can make it
seem like you doubt yourself. And if you know it, show it! Simple things like using good posture, projecting
your voice, and making direct eye contact can signal confidence. Some people use power posing. And hey, if striking a pose in the bathroom
mirror pumps you up, keep at it. But there’s no solid proof that this actually
builds confidence. In general, faking it ‘till you make it
is pretty solid advice. But if you aren’t sure what you’re talking
about, you can leave things to experts instead of risking your credibility. All of these tips can also help you analyze
why someone else might seem confident, so you don’t misplace your trust. Leslie Knope was confident. But she also really knew her stuff and had
the policy proposals, experience, and binders to prove it. On the other hand, Bobby Newport had a ton
of rich, white man confidence, but he was full of air. So, avoid being influenced just because someone
acts like they know what they’re doing. Look for cognitive cues like competence, intent,
and integrity too. But charisma isn’t just about confidence. It’s also about how you interact with
other people, which involves way more than just being polite. Praise is a powerful motivator. It’s why seeing a gold star on a report
card feels so good. Sometimes people underestimate the importance
of intrinsic motivators like recognition. And they overestimate extrinsic motivators,
like money or time off. Don’t get me wrong. Equitable pay is a real thing that needs to
happen. None of this “working for exposure or Instagram followers” stuff. You need to put food on the table, and bonus
checks are valuable. But on top of having the time and money to
live comfortably, positive feedback can make sure people feel that their work is valued
throughout the year. Too much praise can make you come across as
fake, though. And watch out for people who only say nice
things when they want a favor — they might seem trustworthy at first glance, but it’s
manipulative. Positive feedback makes others feel good. Optimism can make you feel good, which shows. While no one can be Chris Traeger, trying
to adopt a positive attitude will literally make you more charismatic. This can work wonders for your vibe, your
motivation, and your career. Malcolm Forbes, you know, the guy that published
the fancy business magazine in waiting rooms everywhere, once said “The key to success
is not through achievement, but through enthusiasm.” There are things beyond our control that can
drastically affect optimism, from tough events like the death of a loved one, to mental health
conditions that may require professional treatment. Generally, though, you can become more optimistic
by learning from mistakes in the past, finding things to appreciate in the present, and looking
forward to future opportunities. You know those inspirational posters from
the 90’s? “Yesterday is history. Tomorrow is a mystery. Today is a gift. That’s why it is called the present.” Really, optimism involves having a balanced
outlook. And sometimes, it’s better to look before
you leap. If someone’s blindly optimistic about a
situation, but you’re not 100%, don’t be afraid to do your own research. Now, charisma is a powerful form of influence
that works even when people don’t know each other very well. But the best way to genuinely build emotional
influence is to form strong relationships based on mutual honesty and respect. So treat your coworkers like humans! Try using people’s names, and pronounce
them correctly. It’s an easy thing to do, and makes a big
impact. And find some common ground with them. Maybe you’re in the same department, in
the same screenwriting class, or share the same fandom. Beyhive, anyone? Mutual pettiness can bring people together,
too. Remember when people were all about Twilight
and whether Bella should end up with Jacob or Edward? There were t-shirts. It was a whole thing. But as we all know from Thanksgiving dinner,
some topics can be touchy, like religion or politics. So be thoughtful about what conversations
you bring into the workplace. So you know how we keep bringing up the light
and dark sides of influence? Well, another huge part of that is how humans
frequently judge things based on looks. Like, you’d probably trust a car from a
fancy dealership more than a vacant lot with a cardboard sign saying “carz 4 sale heer.” So appearances matter. It might seem superficial, but your look contributes
to professionalism, which impacts promotions, job interviews, and acceptance in the workplace. The good news is that you can control big
pieces of your appearance. Do your hair. Brush your teeth. Don’t show up to work in pajamas with pizza
stains from your Stranger Things binge last night. It shows you take your job seriously if you
wear clothing that fits your office and profession. Some businesses have dress codes, uniforms,
or frown upon people wearing something drastically different. So find ways to express yourself that fit
your workplace, like wearing that vintage dress you love, or trying to pull off a polka
dot bow tie. But remember that not all aspects of appearance
are within your control — we have messy biases based on gender, race, or even arbitrary things
like attractiveness. And yeah… a lot of the time, it sucks. You can’t help it if you look eerily similar
to someone’s manipulative ex, or if your resting face is… angry. And sometimes what’s deemed professional
isn’t necessarily fair, like dress code policies on natural hair. So it’s important to recognize what drives
your reasoning for trust. Like, have you put too much trust in the
demure old lady in pink, when really she has a horrible track record and may be entirely
unhinged? To see how all these elements tie together,
let’s go to the Thought Bubble. Bernie Madoff was an incredibly charismatic
and well-liked businessman. He treated his employees like family. He appeared to value loyalty and honesty. Now, he’s known as the ‘Wizard of Lies’. Madoff swindled customers and employees out
of almost 65 billion dollars through one of the most costly and destructive Ponzi schemes
of all time. Ponzi schemes are large-scale investment frauds,
where initial investors contribute money into a fake business. They get quick returns, which lures more investors,
who are all paid out of the same pot. It works for a while, until the pot runs out
and everything crumbles. Madoff’s entire persona was crafted to inspire
confidence. He had a well-manicured look, tailored suits,
and high-end watches. And he seemed likeable, competent, and dependable. So some very knowledgeable investors trusted
Madoff, despite seemingly impossible returns. Which just goes to show that anyone can
be susceptible to emotional influence. That’s why it’s so important in business
— and everywhere else — to think about why you’re trusting someone. Just because someone has the latest ferrari
and a custom suit, it doesn’t mean they’re not a snake oil salesman. Pause for a second when a confident and optimistic
person seems like they’re selling you something that’s way too good be true. If it feels like they’re glossing over key
parts of their business model, trust your gut and ask questions. And if they start using flattery to distract
you while you’re questioning them, maybe reconsider who you’re dealing with. Remember cognitive trust? Check their qualifications. See if they have good intent and a history
of delivering on their promises. That way, you can put the puzzle pieces together
to make a more complete picture of their character, and protect yourself from influential but
shady people. Thanks, Thought Bubble! Together, your actions, attitude, and appearance
can affect how others see you and the influence you have in the workplace and beyond. So take time to think about the way you’re
being perceived by others, and always use your influence wisely. Don’t make anyone do something they’ll
regret later. Of everything we talked about, remember these
key takeaways: Influence should be used responsibly, and
you can use cognitive trust and emotional cues to protect yourself from people who abuse
it. You can up your charisma by acting confident,
praising others, and being optimistic. Finding common ground is the foundation of
relationships and can increase your trustworthiness. Appearances do matter. Now that we’ve covered the foundations of
building trust and influence, we can tackle the power of communication. Next time, we’ll look at written work and
making sure you’re sending the right message. Crash Course Business is sponsored by Google,
and it’s made with the help of all these nice people and Thought Cafe is our amazing
animation team. Crash Course is a Complexly production. If you wanna keep imagining the world complexly
with us, you can check out some of our other channels like Nature League, with host Brit
Garner as she explores life on Earth and asks questions that inspire us to marvel at all
things wild. Also, if you’d like to keep Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can support the series at Patreon; a crowdfunding platform
that allows you to support the content you love. Thank you to all of our patrons for making
Crash Course possible with their continued support.

Navigating the maze: Education to Employment | Hugo Driver | TEDxBaDinh

Translator: Gia Bảo Nguyễn Hữu
Reviewer: Nguyen Trang You could show me your hand
if you have ever been in a maze. Wow! So most people,
maybe seventy percent of you have been in a maze. Well, look at the green dot at the corner. Imagine you’re there. And you’re in some kind
of education program or system. You may be at your university. Maybe your training. Maybe you’ve got an internship. But your vision, really,
is to get to the red dot. What is that red dot? Well that red dot
is a career of your choice in a sector that you enjoy
and you’re interested in. And I think above all,
a job that is meaningful or a business that you start
that is meaningful to you. I think if we think about
some of the really successful people who’ve gone from university
or education over to employment actually not many of them
started thinking, “I just want to be rich” Some of them did but it was usually those people
that didn’t make it. Usually the people with the real passion like Microsoft and Google,
starting in garages. Yeah? Think about that.
And I want you just to think about your journey from education
through to employment. Now there’s one thing
that we definitely know about employment in the 21st century. It’s unstable. It moves. Companies go to different countries
to outsource their goods and services. And that means that you have to be
very dynamic. And you have to really think
about your journey through that maze. Can you remember
being maybe 4 or 5 years old and your teacher or your mom and dad said, “So, what do you want to be?” Now put your hand up again
if you ever said “I want to be an astronaut.” Oh! Wow! We’ve got at least 15 astronauts
in the room. My next question is
are any of you astronauts? (Laughter) No. I’m sorry. Well, that’s kind of a dream
that we have as a child. Wonderful song from a UK singer. And there’s a line in it, and it goes, “While we’re living, the dreams we have as children fade away.” Now I know we all experience that
to some extent. Things don’t always work out
the way we want them to. But I think a way to view this
is we’re trying to go from education into employment, we have to realize our own limitations. I just want to tell you about my brother. Well, he’s 2 meters
and 10 centimeters tall. And he’s my younger brother. Which is a bit embarrassing for me, because I’m not as tall as him. Because he’s so tall,
he’s found it very difficult to do something that’s very simple
in my country, and that’s learn to drive. Beause all the cars are too small for him. And he’s having to learn
to drive in a truck. Now he can’t change his height,
he can’t cut his legs off or become shorter,
so he has to accept that limitation. But there are advantages to that, too. He gets a huge amount of respect,
especially in Vietnam for being so tall. Think about yourself
in your education setting. There are some things
you are simply not very good at, and you have to work really hard
to do, to be better at. There are actually very few
that you can’t make better, and I think that’s proven by people who do remarkable things
with remarkable constraints. How many of you remember the guy that visited Vietnam last year? Nick Vujicic, I hope I say his name right. And, this man has no arms and legs, yet has achieved incredible things. But even he, I’m sure, would say that there are some things
that he couldn’t do, or that he’s not good at. But he can do remarkable things
despite his limitations. So I’m asking you, if you are over there, you’re in education at the moment, and you want to be in the circle,
which is where employment is and jobs are maybe jobs you create,
maybe jobs you do for other people. Don’t lose your dream, but maybe accept that you might not
become an astronaut. It seems to me – somebody here still wants to be. (Laughter) Keep going. It might happen. So I’m trying to suggest,
mold your dreams, and let them be flexible, and work to your strengths,
give yourself room to grow. Because what’s happening now is Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City
in Vietnam [are] part of a global market. Just in the last few months
I’ve met people from companies from Denmark,
Spain, Sweden, Norway, Brazil. All over the country, all over the world, people are actually coming here. And they’re coming here
because of the diversity, the good standard level of education
and the talent. Because it exists here in Ha Noi, and those companies are coming in, and also Vietnamese companies
are innovating. The small private companies
are innovating. So the journey from education through that maze
we saw at the beginning, is quite interesting and quite difficult. Let’s look at the handshake. How many of you have shaken a hand today? Give me your hand up if you have shaken
somebody’s hand this morning. Now that’s interesting. Well, I’m English, and we don’t really feel very comfortable, unless we know somebody,
having a hug. Unless we really want to hug them,
in case we might like it. So, fortunately, we like to shake hands. And that’s a formal way of introducing. But in Vietnam,
with my Vietnamese friends, I’ve noticed that there isn’t
so much of formality with the introduction. I was speaking to one
of the other speakers earlier, and I was saying, “How do we actually
greet each other in Vietnam?” And I worked out
that often that we nod. “Chào anh.” “Chào.”
“Xin chào.” “Chào” And we sort of keep a distance. So I understand that reserve,
because the British are like that, and so are the Vietnamese,
it’s a shared habit. Americans, on the other hand,
any Americans here? Lovely people. “Hey, how are you? Good to meet you!” They find meeting people so easy,
don’t they? Well, a skill to be so naturally friendly. Well, put yourself in one situation now. I’m going to imagine
that you are all people who want to make that journey
from university or training into a job. Now, imagine you’re in that situation. And you’re at home, on your iPad
or on your laptop, typing away. And you spot an opportunity. You’re a marketing student,
and you think, right, I’ve got to get a job in marketing. I’ve got to do it, my parents
are breathing down my neck. They spent all this money on my education, I’ve been studying English for years,
I’ve just got to do it. You’re not really sure how to get there. Well I’m going to give you 3
very simple tips that I think can help. And I think they can help in context
of Hà Nội, and context of Vietnam. There you are, on your computer. You find a conference. It’s on, for example, Giảng Võ Street. You know, the conference center. And it’s a marketing trade fair,
all marketers are going to be there. All the big companies
are going to be there trying to get business
from other people, from each other. And you sat in your pajamas,
drinking tea or coffee, on your laptop. And you think, “Yeah, I want to work
for one of those companies.” Well I think the first thing
that perhaps needs to happen is for you to move
into your area of discomfort. Haven’t we just heard about that? Getting uncomfortable. Now one of the hardest things to do,
and this is step 1, is to go to an event where we don’t know anybody, where we know we’ve got less experience than everyone else there, and where we’re not really sure
what would happen. Well my recommendation,
and this has worked for me, and it’s worked for people I know,
and I think it’s helpful. Go to that event on Giảng Võ Street. Turn up and do two things. Talk to strangers. Meet them, and find out why they’re there. Don’t go and ask for a job. Don’t go and say,
“I’m looking for a job in this area” Go and speak to people. Go and ask them, “Is the trade conference useful for you? Did you find any new marketing partners? Was it helpful meeting people?” Because what we see at the moment
is new companies coming in as I’ve mentioned, to Vietnam,
and new opportunities for talented young people like yourselves. But you have to make them aware of you without just simply asking for work
or sending a CV. So go and speak and talk
and ask questions. Maybe you want a business card,
and you see someone, you think, “Oh, I recognize that person.” They’re over there,
they look very important. You know, VIPs have a VIP look,
don’t they? And you think, oh,
how am I going to approach them? And you know you need
to get their information. But you don’t want to go over like this. You know… You want to go over
and you want to get something from them. So try this: don’t go and ask
for their business card. Maybe you can ask them,
“Oh, it was really interesting, the event today. How can I find out
more about your project? Is there any way I can have a tour
or find out more about your company and see if we work out
more about what you do?” Go in from a different angle,
go in from an educational perspective. Because the relationship between
the employer and the employee is also changing. You are not just staff, as many as
my Vietnamese friends “my staffs”. You’re not just staff, you are part and can be part
of these new companies, and innovative Vietnamese companies
that are changing the way they work. Because I think Vietnam has definitely
got the potential to rival and to – what we see is happening in
Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. There’s the passion here, definitely. Now you’ve got the business card. And you’re feeling
really really pleased with yourself, because you’ve managed to speak
to the VIP. Well, what a lot of people
do in this situation is after the event, they go and have some coffee
with their friends and they say, “Oh, it was great. I learned so much.
I met all these important people.” And then they go back to school
or their internship or their work and they don’t follow it up. There’s your opportunity to make
a connection with somebody in your sector. And that’s something you can do so that you can move
from the education area. You can move from being
an inexperienced trainee or intern while making connections with people that you previously felt
were inaccessible. It is a maze, it is definitely a maze. I probably speak to, maybe 50 or 60 people between
the age of 16 and 35 each week, sometimes more sometimes less. And in my capacity, as somebody, who has to try and give them something
to take away that’s useful. The first thing I ask them is,
“So what are you studying?” “Finance”, first answer.
The next student comes in. “So what are you studying Minh?”
“Oh teacher, I’m studying Economics” Oh, finance, economics. Next student comes in.
“Chao anh. Hello, nice to meet you”. “Hello. What are you studying now?”
“Oh, Economics.” Oh, I heard that one before. Next day a few more come in. “Oh, it’s Phuong Anh. Hello, Phuong Anh.
Nice to meet you Phuong Anh. What are you studying now Phuong Anh?” “Finance.” Oh, what a surprise. Well, it is a surprise to me
and something I was so shocked by. After being here, about 3 years, I realized that probably 80%
of the young people I meet are studying 3 subjects. Right now let’s try it. Put your hand up
if you studied Finance, or Economics. And put your hand up proudly. I would say, “Ối giời ơi” at this moment. (Laughter) I think I’ve proved my point somewhat. Remember that with all these
new companies coming into Vietnam, and with all these interesting projects
going on – NGOs, private companies,
global mutinationals, small start-ups, tech start-ups – you are in an opportunity
to connect with all kinds of sectors. OK. And when you’re thinking about
your journey from education through to employment, even if you are stuck
with an Economics degree. I wish I was stuck
with an Economics degree. I’m not. Even if you’re stuck with it,
you can always change direction. So remember these things
about your market. Remember it’s unstable,
it’s changing and the work will change. Perhaps just have in mind
previous generation’s working habit. My father’s generation,
and I think it’s the same for a lot of people in Vietnam. Did your parents work for one company
most of their lives? Yeah? Did they perhaps have mainly
only 3 different jobs during that time? A junior job, a middling job. And then maybe when they retired,
the top job. Yeah. That’s changing.
And that’s changing globally. And you’re now part of a mobile,
talented, intelligent workforce that spans the whole world. And don’t be shy to use
a handshake like that with a stranger. I wish you a lot of luck and good fortune navigating the maze and try to network in a way that takes you
to new opportunities that you previously didn’t think existed. Thank you for listening. (Applause)

How to Become a Better Negotiator: Crash Course Business – Soft Skills #8

Okay! Y’all have been working towards this moment
for weeks. You’ve learned about emotional influence. You’ve prepared your questions, alternatives,
and remember: clear goal, full hearts, can’t lose. If you need to brush up and rewatch those
videos… now’s your chance. Because it’s go time. It’s time for you to get your head in the
game and figure out your personal negotiation style. You gotta learn how to collaborate and what
cheap shots to watch out for. You have to learn the rules by heart: how
to start, pose a counter offer, avoid pitfalls, and make sure everyone is playing fair until
the deal is done. I’m Evelyn from the Internets. This is Crash Course Business: Soft Skills. And it’s time to negotiate. [INTRO MUSIC PLAYS] Negotiations are all about resolving conflict
through collaboration. You’re not actually trying to “crush
the competition.” I mean, sometimes, you’re in a completely
distributive negotiation with limited slices of proverbial pie. And there are a few things you can avoid to
make sure you don’t get the smallest piece. Say it was 1978 and you wanted to open an
ice cream parlor in Burlington, Vermont with a friend. Maybe you’ll call it something cute like… Ben and Jerry’s. You’ve found the perfect spot: an old gas
station in the central part of town. Since it’s a funky building that fits your
style and gets heavy foot traffic nearby, you’re willing to pay $1400 a month for
rent. I’m making this up, but work with me! And you’ve prepared for negotiation. So you know your alternative: a boring, smaller
storefront down the road for $1200 a month. And your target: $1400 a month. You need to start off strong. So, first, you shouldn’t start a negotiation
with a range of prices. If you offer a range, like $1200 to $1600,
you’ll lose leverage. Your negotiation partner will just pick the
price that works in their favor. Basically, they only hear $1600 a month because
that gets them more money. Don’t open with your target either, because
you probably won’t get it. Your collaborator is looking out for their
interests too, so they’ll try and counteroffer. Especially if it’s a situation where people
expect to negotiate, like over salary. That’s also why you shouldn’t take the
first offer you’re given. It’s probably not your collaborator’s
resistance point or their target, and you could get a better deal. The first number in a negotiation matters
because our brains are weird and don’t like randomness. We latch onto ideas and make up significance. It’s kind of like why we’re so good at
seeing shapes in clouds or coming up with constellations. Astronomers looked at a bunch of stars and
were like, “I mean, I guess that could be a scorpion.” In business negotiations, people get trapped
by anchoring. Even if a first offer is completely arbitrary,
your wacky brain is going to think that number is important and use it to inform the rest
of the negotiation. So if the owner of that old gas station starts
by asking for $2000 a month, take a breath and think about whether or not the offer is
fair. Because of anchoring and your irrational brain,
you may feel like you have to go closer to $2000, even if your original offer would
have been $1200. So don’t jump right in! Take time to propose a counter offer, and
don’t bargain against yourself by backing down right away. If you start with $1200, don’t go “wait…wait! $1500” just because they have a surly look
on their face. It doesn’t mean they’ve hit their resistance
point and are walking away. They’re probably just thinking! So be patient, be confident, and you may find
they’re willing to make a deal. And if you’re suddenly talking rental dates,
rental price, and refurbishment, try to move away from bargaining and toward an integrative
negotiation. To find those creative solutions, listen more
and talk less. Negotiations are scary. You may be nervous you won’t walk away with
what you need, or maybe you just really hate silence. But filling the gaps by talking a bunch isn’t
going to give you any more control — you’re just showing your hand without getting anything
in return. Not to mention, you’re missing out on opportunities
to understand the other person’s side. Like my boy Powerline says: “If we listen
to each other’s heart / We’ll find we’re never too far apart / And maybe love is a
reason why / For the first time ever, we’re seeing it eye to eye” For a truly innovative solution, just look
at when Stevens Aviation and Southwest Airlines both used the same slogan, “Just Plane Smart.” Instead of spending thousands of dollars and
years in court, they realized they both just wanted brand recognition. So they competed in a televised arm wrestling
match for the slogan, and both got huge bumps in sales. Y’all, I’m serious. That’s what happened. Look up the “Malice in Dallas” Now, you probably won’t be solving any slogan
disputes anytime soon, but negotiation strategy matters a lot when you’re figuring out
salary. Sometimes, companies offer bonuses instead
of higher pay. And any money is great, especially if you’ve
got student loans. But having a higher annual salary will help
your bank account more than a one-time bump. So it’s better to negotiate. Let’s go to Thought Bubble. You’ve just graduated from U.C. Santa Barbara with a degree in criminology. And you got an offer from the area’s premiere
psychic detective agency. Even though it’s a relatively small firm,
you think you could get your salary raised by another $5000 per year. You’re not in the interview anymore. They want to hire you, so you’ve got some
power. Every person brings value to a company, and
you deserve to get paid what you’re worth. So now it’s time to talk about what you
bring to the table… without acting like a hostile Lassiter. And the ‘I-We’ strategy can help. It sort of flips the script. You still advocate for yourself — that’s
the “I” part. But you focus the conversation on how your
skills benefit the company and how the negotiation serves everyone’s interest — that’s the
“We” part. When the HR coordinator, Burton “TT Showbiz”
Guster, offers you a $5000 signing bonus, you bond over your shared Super Sniffer abilities. You listen carefully to all he’s offering,
but then counter with a $5000 dollar salary bump. You talk about how your honed psychic skill
set could give your boss a break from interrogating perps and give him time to sip pineapple smoothies
on the beach. Then, mention how your negotiation skills
could help the agency get into crime scenes without resorting to hopping fences. By the end of the conversation, the HR coordinator
is convinced, and offers you that pay bump. You’re a big believer in giving everything
a good night’s sleep. So the next morning, you accept the offer
of an extra $5,000 a year… and a day off for Scare Fest to boot. Thanks, Thought Bubble! Any job offer is exciting, and you may want
to take it right away. But it’s worth taking time to think, weigh
your options, and prep if you want to negotiate more. If you want to talk about an offer at home
first, it’s never okay for a company to ask who you’re talking to. You could talk to your cat for all they’re
concerned. But not everyone got the memo that you should always play nice in a negotiation. Just like with emotional influence, there
are unscrupulous characters who will try to use hardball tactics to convince you to take
a not-so-good offer. It’s tempting to act like the tough guy
if you’re afraid of losing out or aren’t used to asserting yourself, but hardball tactics
erode trust and don’t always work. We want to teach you to fend them off like
an experienced negotiator. So it’s time for a bit more defense against
the dark arts. Ultimatums — like “if you don’t buy this
remembrall now, I’m out of here” — and other bluffs are risky, because you’ll lose
credibility if you don’t follow through. They’re also just… annoying. Remember how you hated “my way or the highway”
as a kid, even though you did need to eat your veggies? If someone gives you an ultimatum, downplay
or reword it with something like, “I know you’re reluctant to pay more than 100 galleons
for this old wizarding journal, but it really is a rare item.” That way your negotiation partner saves face,
because they probably weren’t going to walk away. People may also may try to skew a negotiation
in their favor by lowballing or highballing you with a ridiculous offer. Remember anchoring? It’s really easy to fall prey to, even if
you try to avoid it. Our irrational brains, y’know? If you’re offered 50 galleons for your 600-galleon
Firebolt to “get it off your hands,” that’s lowballing. And if someone says they won’t take less
than 1500 galleons for a 600-galleon Firebolt because it has “sentimental value,” that’s
highballing. Either way, don’t get swayed by the dramatics. Use research to show you know your offer was
reasonable, like the other broom prices in Diagon Alley thrift. Or re-anchor the negotiation with the price
you were originally going to offer. And just like there are loyal Hufflepuffs
such as myself, there are also Slytherins who may be a little more… intentionally
deceptive. Your gut may tell you when something feels
off, so be on the lookout for people who avoid your questions, change the subject, answer
a question with a question, or use their charisma to flatter you. If you’re buying a home, asking about problems,
and are suddenly directed away from the elegant marble bathroom, you may want to press
harder. You may not have any Veritaserum,
but liars don’t really practice their stories. So if you ask the same questions different
ways and take notes, you may spot contradictions. But even the most noble of us can fall victim
to bad behavior. Nobody’s perfect. Negotiations are stressful, so if you panic
a little, you might start evading questions. If your brain really starts to go haywire,
you can take a quick break. To avoid misdirecting people or looking like
you’re trying to hide something, prepare answers to difficult questions ahead of time. And sometimes, there are things you just can’t
give away, like your target or resistance point. But you still want to be honest and upfront. Maybe you’ve got an NDA and are selling
12 Grimmauld Place. If someone asks who the owner is, you could
say “I… can’t answer that question, but I could talk about other ways to accommodate
your interests.” And don’t think of yourself as the bad guy,
just because you want to negotiate. It may feel a bit uncomfortable at first,
especially if you’re not used to asserting yourself. And that’s OKAY. You have every right to own your space on
this planet and ask for what you’re worth. And I’m telling you now if you haven’t
heard it recently: you’re worth a whole lot. You don’t have to be great at negotiation
to come away with a higher salary, a cheaper broom, or the perfect ice cream store. You’ve got nothing to lose, plenty to gain,
and just have to be willing to try. So if you remember nothing else: Nothing ventured, nothing gained. Be willing to negotiate. Ice Ice Baby: Stop, collaborate, and listen. Take time to counter, don’t bargain against
yourself, and avoid getting caught in anchoring. Don’t play hardball. Good cop, bad cop is for the movies, not the
negotiation table. Defend yourself against deception and other
unscrupulous dealings by paying attention and asking questions. We already know you’re working hard to get
where you want to go. So next time, we’ll help you work smarter
by setting some effective goals. Crash Course Business is sponsored by Google
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TEDxRamallah Munir Fasheh منير فاشه Occupation of knowledge الاحتلال المعرفي

You’ve heard many stories and I’m sure you are all tired and hungry but bear with me for 15 minutes to talk about something a little different. We’ve heard a lot about the internet and technology and the wonders of the current era. We should also remind ourselves of the superstitions of the current era. And there are many. One of these superstitions is that we cannot learn without school. That one cannot learn without a curriculum and exams and grades. This is not true. I want to talk about what is made invisible nowadays. I’ll start with a story When I started writing my doctorate dissertation in 1984 I put two lists as sources of my knowledge. One was books and magazines and the other was sources from life. Among the sources from life I put my mother who was totally illiterate and the Palestinian hen. Of course the Harvard bunch, who think highly of their knowledge to have their reputation linked to a chicken from Palestine as a source of knowledge a scandal! I tried to convince them that from 1971 to 1984 most of the knowledge I gained was the result of learning from life. My mother was pivotal in this. Anyone who’s heard me before knows I talk and write about my mother as a source of knowledge as an important world. So was the Palestinian hen! So let me talk about them they are sources in my life not yours I decide what the sources of my knowledge are. They refused of course and I refused. I didn’t write for a year. After a year we reached a compromise to drop the chicken and keep my mother. And that’s how it worked. My mother was in. What does my mother do? My mother is a seamstress. I taught math and studied math and wrote about math and trained teachers to teach math and all of this. I wrote math exams and all of this nonsense these superstitions. And my mother had approached math in a completely different way as a seamstress. A customer would walk in in the morning with a rectangular piece of material and my mother who couldn’t read or write she used different colored chalk to mark the length and width. By noon this piece would become 30 pieces by evening the 30 pieces would become one outfit fitting this woman. I taught geometry and studied geometry and all these things. and all what I learned and taught were in straight lines corners, triangles and squares. None of these things exists in life. No woman is made of rectangles from circles or any geometric shape. Each woman has her own geometry My mother worked for more than 45 years making women’s clothing. and each piece was different from the other. She’d sit on her machine and fix pieces and fit them to customers. This was knowledge that shook me. I was teaching in two universities: Birzeit University and Bethlehem University when I realized that my mother understood math in a way I never could. Even if i did 20 more years of university studies I wouldn’t have understood or been able to do what she knew and did. More than that, she combined the two things: she had knowledge and she had work Art. She was knowledgeable in a way different from us and had sources different from ours, from life and other sources. Sources that a university like Harvard could not accept. But like i said, I ended up convincing them of a middle ground. Don’t worry though, I brought back the chicken I re-introduced it in an article published in the Harvard Educational Review in February 1990. If you have access you can find it. I brought back the chicken and my mother. This story points to things that are made invisible. important matters. We look at people without diplomas and we think they are ignorant because the only knowledge we recognize requires diplomas. If someone does not hold a degree, he’s ignorant. This is not true. We ignore all the knowledge that springs from life that is nonexistent in books. One of the committee members asked me sarcastically ‘what did your mother write?’ ‘My mother made 15000 dresses’ ‘I will give you 15 years to make one dress.‘ The story of the Palestinian hen to finish the story I became aware of my mother’s knowledge in math in 1975. In 1978 I was teaching in Birzeit University. We heard of a new farm on the road between Birzeit and Ramallah using modern Israeli methods of production. They said it was modern not local. I went to see it. They said the eggs were excellent. As soon as we walked in I saw the chicken in rows in cages and eating continuously. They stuffed them with food so they lay eggs which are sold in turn. The first thing that came to mind was that they’ve stolen this idea from schools from education. We should sue them! We should get compensation for the idea that was taken from us because in the same way we put the children in rows, in cages and we stuff them with ideas. But they don’t lay eggs! Chicken turned out better! I thought about this a lot and wrote about it a lot. I realized I am like the Israeli chicken if there are no institutions, prepared material, exams and curricula nobody would hire me. If I went to the market and said ‘I know how to solve quadratic equations, who would like to learn it?’ If there are no exams tomorrow they wouldn’t be interested. I would be without income. Whereas my mother would say ‘I can sew’ tens of customers would be at her door the next day. Because her knowledge is useful mine isn’t. My knowledge is connected to the world of institutions it’s connected to a fabricated world. My first connection to institutions was in kindergarten. My father took me a few times until he felt I was alright then left me to come and go with my aunt. From the third day I started skipping school. I was about 5 years old. I did this because we had a garden at home. I was born in Jerusalem in 1941. We had a garden and chicken. I would follow chicken to get an egg poke a hole in it and suck out the inside. This habit stayed with me until I was 25. I ate 3 to 5 raw eggs every morning. Now people talk about how eggs give you cholesterol. That you should only have 2 or 3 a week. I was having 5 raw eggs a day. The difference is today’s eggs are not eggs. They only look like eggs. They are full of chemicals and hormones and I don’t know what. At the time chicken would live in the garden and eat grass and other natural things that were available there. So my first connection to institutions made me reject them so, I started skipping school after three days. My father came home one day and beat me the only time he ever did! and carried me back to school. He said this is the last time this will happen. So I started going. The problem was that my father himself when he was at school in Jerusalem a very good school One day when he was in fourth grade a teacher told him ‘stand up you donkey.’ My father stood up and replied ‘At your service you bull’ The teacher said ‘what did you say?’ My father replied ‘Well if I’m a donkey my teacher must be a bull.’ The teacher picked up a stick and made his way towards my father standing near the doorway. My father made a quick exit and never came back. What I want to say is that there is something called knowledge of ahaali (people-in-community) versus knowledge of institutions. We are disregarding knowledge of people-in-community. If someone doesn’t have a degree we call them ignorant we disregard their knowledge. I’ll tell you honestly, the most ignorant people are those who have Phd’s. Because we think we know but all we know is that we’ve been placed on a narrow road blinkered so we can’t look around and we keep going until they stop us and say ‘Well done, you have completed your education.’ What I want to say is that my mother’s knowledge is knowledge of people-in-community while mine is knowledge of institutions. This led me to thinking that the worst kind of occupation is that of knowledge. We never speak of it though A part of the occupation of knowledge is the replacement of one type of knowledge instead of another. I was a ‘soldier’ in the conquest of knowledge replacing my mother’s knowledge with mine. I was recognised as a man who knew math while my mother’s knowledge was ignored. in terms of what meets demand. This knowledge that is now lost and died with my mother is knowledge I cannot recreate nor could any other person. In 2006 when the Pope spoke in Germany he spoke about Islam I sent him a letter. Part of the letter said ‘No doubt you know the Christianity of institutions you are the head of the biggest Christian institution in the world. But I invite you to our home in Ramallah, a modest one. My mother has passed away but come meet my family and feel the Christianity of people-in-community’ In my opinion, Christianity of people-in-community is dying. This can be said about close to anything. Islam of people-in-community is becoming institutionalized. The first institution was the destruction of Christianity in Europe. Europe destroyed Christianity. In 1992 I wrote a small booklet where I compared my mother’s Christianity and that of Europe. I found no resemblance between the two. In my opinion Islam is now suffering the same fate. It’s becoming institutionalized to the point where its soul is being lost. When I wrote the Pope I told him I wanted to speak to him of the Christianity and Islam of people-in-community. The letter was published in several places of wich Ru’a Magazine of Ramallah. I wrote it based on my knowledge of Islam through neighborly relations, not dialogue I told the Pope you involved us in debates Europe’s debates we now debate and hate one another and cannot understand each other. Knowing the other comes through neighboring the other. Sectarian housing that exists in our country has been a disaster for all. Replacing Ahaali (people-in–community) with citizens in my opinion, has been a disaster to society. A citizen’s relation is to a state and institutions. Ahaali’s basic relations are to one another, to place to history to culture to civilization to a collective memory. A living example is Ahaali (people-in-community) of Beit Sahour they still exist they know each other and each other’s stories. Ramallah has lost its collective memory. It has lost its Ahaali It has lost its Ahaali On of the reasons there is no Ahaali in Ramallah in my opinion is education. One of the superstitions is that there is something called progress in a single sense that there is a single path for progress a universal path for progress and that we all must walk this path. Cairo destroyed this myth. Cairo, in my opinion is a beginning to regain a world we are losing. Cairo, I hope, is overcoming the occupation of knowledge not just its political and economic occupation. Ahaali is the biggest wealth we have. I hope that all that has been happening and everything you have seen and all that is happening in your life you see it through a lens asking whether the Ahaali have been replaced by citizens with a defined national number protected by a national government connected to a national bank that steals from its Ahaali. Also, a national army that protects the government protecting all these institutions. Let us throw off this situation and get out of the bottle. I believe the genie is out of the bottle in Tahrir square in Cairo I hope that this movement I call it a movement not a revolution A revolution means overthrowing a government and taking its place. But the people of Cairo were not trying to overthrow their government. They were trying to move forward. As we say in Arabic, ‘movement is a blessing’ I hope that the movements we are witnessing in the Arab world today are a blessing for us and for the rest of the world. Thank you.

How to Handle Conflict: Crash Course Business – Soft Skills #13

Reality shows make a living off of conflict. Sometime we love to get cozy on a couch, grab
some snacks, and watch groups of people with ridiculous hair extensions throw drinks in each others’ faces. But we can’t live our lives by picking a
fight every single time we get irritated. Especially at work. Handling conflict takes finesse and thought. And most confrontation comes down to having
a calm yet difficult conversation. So today, we’re going to talk about some
tactics to manage conflict, help you give effective feedback, and show you how to apologize
in a way that counts. I’m Evelyn from the Internets. And this is Crash Course Business: Soft Skills [Intro Music Plays] Whether you’re in a group of 12 twenty-somethings
locked in a house together, or just officemates working on a team project, you’re bound
to have conflict. Or at least one person you don’t like working
with. It’s just human nature. People have different working styles, communication
styles, and generally like different things. And conflict can pop up over anything, like
miscommunications, different leadership styles, or unfairness. But guess what? We’re adults. And this isn’t Jerry Springer. So we need to find ways to get along, or it’s
going to affect our professional reputations. The only person we ever fully understand
is ourself. We’re all influenced by social perception. People see things differently, and we make
assumptions based on our own experiences. So to really understand someone else’s perspective
and get to the heart of an issue, we have to sit down and listen to what they have to
say. There are 5 general strategies to approach
conflict. Many people favor 1 or 2, but like they say
in finance, you need to “diversify your portfolio.” Conflicts are complicated and some resolution
styles work best in different situations. Each strategy has a different level of assertiveness,
which is directly asking for what we want, and cooperativeness, which is our willingness
to work with others. Sometimes you can solve conflicts by simply
dividing something up, like a distributive negotiation or splitting a check. In that case, compromising may be the best
bet, which is bargaining for a solution that satisfies everyone. Although you might end up satisfying nobody
instead. Compromise is an easy default, especially
since no one walks away feeling cheated. But if the conflict is more complicated than
that, like solving a dispute between departments, think back to negotiations. It may be worth trying collaboration, which
is searching for a creative solution that meets everyone’s needs. Collaboration can be tricky. To do it, you need to build up a baseline
level of trust, so you can assert yourself but people know you’re looking out for them
too. It always takes time and effort to find creative
solutions. But sometimes, things need to be done, like, now. If you’re dealing with getting a product
printed before deadline, it may be worth giving an authoritative command, or using your authority
to force someone into giving you what you need. There are downsides to a lot of assertiveness
without much cooperation, though. Maybe you’ve worked retail and dealt with
someone who demands to speak to your manager because you can’t fill their unreasonable
request. No, I cannot check in the back for you, Karen. So using a conflict management style with
a bit more finesse will protect your reputation in the long term. In some cases, you may want to accommodate,
which is basically agreeing to a solution to make others happy — like meeting over
your lunch break when you wanted personal time. Accommodation can help smooth over tricky
situations, but too much could mean you miss out on opportunities. Or it could give you a reputation as a doormat. And you deserve to embrace your worth and
assert what you want! But if a conflict really isn’t your problem,
it may be best to avoid getting involved and choose avoidance. Avoidance isn’t super realistic in the long-term,
though. You can’t sashay away from every workplace
conflict just because you’re afraid or uncomfortable. Now, harassment is a separate, very complicated
issue that could have its own video series. If you’re dealing with an abusive situation
or inappropriate behavior like catcalling — or worse — then we recommend going to
a trusted third party. That could be your boss, a therapist, or a
human resources rep you trust. Systems for dealing with harassment are far
from perfect, and some companies have arbitrators that are more concerned with policy than people. So everyone’s story is different, and unfortunately,
there isn’t usually an easy answer. Even in smaller-scale situations, though,
you could bring in a third party to help resolve conflict. Like, there’s the HR department, a mediator,
or an ombudsperson, which is an investigator who specializes in mistreatment and conflict
resolution. Let’s go to the Thought Bubble. You’ve been working at a consulting firm
for a couple of months. It’s basically your dream job. The pay is fantastic, the companies are interesting,
and you’re on a great team… mostly. There’s creative tension between you and
one of your teammates — you never really clicked. You can deal with the cold shoulder and some
disagreement on project execution. It’s been manageable because your back-and-forth
usually creates new ideas. But recently, they’ve been rude towards
you during client presentations, which is unprofessional. It’s not a drastic issue that affects
the whole team, so you decide to talk to them after work. And together, you collaborate to come up with
a plan to communicate more directly with each other. Especially before big presentations. So that situation is back on track, but there’s
another problem. Your office is dog-friendly. And your cubicle-mate’s dog is mostly fine…
except he regularly pees on the corner of your desk. You’ve brought it up with your coworker,
who has promised to take him out more frequently, but it hasn’t really happened. And you’re sick of smelling dog pee. So you decide to go the office HR rep and
talk with them. By the end of the week, a memo is emailed
out issuing a “dog code of conduct” for the office, along with a formal complaint
system. Because of this third-party intervention,
your coworker starts to train their dog more and take him out for a long walk on lunch
breaks. And soon, you’ve got your space back. Thanks, Thought Bubble! Third parties can help give negative feedback
in an objective way, especially if the conflict could get heated. But negative feedback is common in the office
for simple things too, like presentation skills or communication. We all have skills we need to practice and
habits we need to change. And like good judges on talent competitions,
when we’re delivering negative feedback, there’s a basic structure we can use to
make sure it hits home. First, point out the specific behavior that
could be improved by providing examples. Next, discuss its impact. For feedback to be valuable, we need to explain
why there’s a problem and why this thing matters. Just saying we dislike something could be
a personal preference, and isn’t helpful. Then, we need to be explicit about what needs
to change. We can’t expect people to read our minds
or just know how to fix something. So, for example, someone on your team might
be missing deadlines. You could point out a couple times that happened,
explain that the late work is throwing off the team, and tell them to prepare their work
at least a day before it’s due. When you’re sharing negative feedback, recognize
that not everyone gives and receives it in the same way. Just look at Gordon Ramsay compared to the
judges on Great British Bake Off. Feedback styles even vary by culture. In America, we tend to give negative feedback
with the Oreo method — sandwiching it between two things that the person is doing well. So, you might say, “Your project ideas were
very creative, but your presentation style was too casual and didn’t match the professionalism
of your deliverables. Your enthusiasm was good though, and you should
use that energy with future clients too!” But not everyone wants a sugar-filled Oreo. Some cultures tend to give blunter negative
feedback, like, “Your presentation style was too casual. Please work on your tone during delivery.” And other cultures are more indirect, like
an office-wide announcement that “professionalism is important when presenting to clients.” The goal of negative feedback should always
be to help someone improve, not tear them down. So be aware of who you’re speaking to, and
how they perceive conflict. To soften the blow, you can frame negative
feedback as an opportunity for improvement. And if you’re on the receiving end, try
not to take negative feedback personally. Rejection stings and no one likes to hear
what they’re doing wrong. But it’s a way to learn from our mistakes. No one would be able to improve their smize
without feedback from Tyra. So we should thank the people who give us
feedback for their time, explain how we’re going to follow-up, and then actually change
our behavior. Actions speak louder than words. And if we’re receiving negative feedback
because we messed up, we may want to apologize too. Maybe you accidentally ate your coworkers
yogurt from the fridge, you were late to an important meeting, or you let someone down. We were all rooting for you, Tiffany! Apologies can go a long way. They may not change the outcome, but they
can make people feel better — as long as they’re sincere. We’ve all gotten a superficial “So sorry!”
at some point. It’s frustrating, right? In general, it helps to really listen to others
and avoid getting defensive if we’re approached about a possible mistake. Messing up can be embarrassing, and knowing
what situations warrant apologies is not always straightforward. And it’s not easy to offer up a sincere
apology. But there are three simple steps that can
make your apology count. First, admit that you were wrong and say that
you’re sorry. No one likes to be wrong, but it’s not a
sign of weakness. It happens to all of us. And apologies are a way to diffuse drama and
show someone you’re sincere about working with them. Big grudges are just exhausting in real
life. Keep it simple with something like, “I’m
sorry I did that.” Or, “I know what I did was wrong.” And avoid the non-apology. “I’m sorry you feel that way” doesn’t
cut it, because you’re not owning up to your actions. It sounds like you don’t agree that you
did something wrong. I’m also sorry I feel this way. But what are you going to do about it, Brad? Next, show them you understand that what you
said or did hurt them. Don’t keep justifying yourself with, “I
didn’t mean to…”, “I had a good reason to…” or “I was just trying to…” Not everything is about you. Then, tell them what you’re going to do
differently so it doesn’t happen again. And make an effort to actually do better. Apologies can change depending on who you’re
apologizing to. If you hit a stranger’s car, you’d want
to focus on restoring the balance by paying for damages. If you let down your boss, though, you’d
focus more on your working relationship and next steps. And just to be clear, you don’t need to
apologize for everything. Think critically about it. Did you speak up inappropriately, or are you
just apologizing for speaking up at all? Are you apologizing for apologizing too much? It takes time and effort to master apologies,
feedback, and conflict. So, if you’re still figuring things out,
don’t worry. We all are. Just remember to: 1. Use conflict resolution styles for different
situations. 2. Think about who you’re giving negative feedback
to and how to deliver it, because communication styles vary. 3. Apologize sincerely, and don’t make it about
you. We’ve talked about teamwork. But what happens when you’re in charge? Next time, we’ll get into what leadership
is beyond the buzzwords, and how to master it. Thanks for watching Crash Course Business. If you want to help keep all Crash Course
free for everybody, forever, you can join our community on Patreon. And if you want to learn more about difficult
subjects, check out this Crash Course Philosophy video about discrimination:

Does the Keto Diet Actually Work?

There’s always some new diet touted as the
one that will give you a celeb body in two weeks, and Keto Diet is currently making the
rounds. But what is Ketogenesis? Did someone say Sega Genesis? Ketogenesis has a super scientific name, and
a lot of science behind it… which is probably why people use the shorter name for the diet: Keto. Keto is a cutesy term for ketosis, a process
where living things break down fats to sustain life — it usually happens during starvation
or out of control diabetes. But artificially putting your body into a
ketogenic state is growing in popularity. The Keto Diet is basically, a temporary food
restriction program that is high in saturated fat and almost entirely cuts out carbohydrates. Suggestions include having bacon with everyday,
meat at every opportunity, and SIDES of veggies … but like three leaves of lettuce or AH
tomato. And meal suggestions often include using both
butter and olive oil. I mean, I like a tasty meal but that’s just
making my arteries hurt thinking about it… And some follow this diet for months or years
at a time! But let’s back up and explain some simple
biology. Your brain and body run on glucose, a simple
sugar. Glucose is made from lots of things, but a
big source is carbohydrates. Once carbs are converted to glucose it enters
the bloodstream and can either be used immediately or stored. Stored, if you’re eating more calories than
you’re burning, can mean as fat. People see the Keto diet as a way to cut out
carbs, and thus sugar storage, removing a source of fat from the body… Except that doesn’t actually happen. Even without carbs coming in, the body needs
glucose, so once glucose drops to less than 100 grams, the body enters a ketogenic state
— none of this is news to Keto Practitioners, but really for everyone else… The brain needs glucose, glucose is The Precious
and we wants it! “Ketogenic” comes from ketone bodies. They’re another source of cellular fuel,
not the body’s preferred fuel, mind you, but an alternative supply for vital organs. This is like an emergency backup system for
your body. The ketogenesis kicks in when your body is
starved of glucose, starting a lipolytic process. Basically, it breaks down fat. Glossy Keto Instagrammers rejoice! Except, the keyword in there is starved. Creating ketone bodies to replace missing
glucose is what your body does as a response to starvation! And people are still willing to try the diet! Which can be dangerous. Carbs typically account for about 50 percent
of a balanced diet. If you tell someone to replace those calories
with proteins and fats, people can end up eating too much protein and fats from processed
foods. That paired with few fruits and vegetables
is a recipe for ill health. Plus, Lots of red meat and fatty, processed
foods have been linked to heart disease, kidney problems, and even osteoporosis. Some people experience nausea, vomiting, and
constipation on the diet. But they also do lose weight! The problem is, like with all fad diets, the
weight loss doesn’t last. As a former personal trainer, I suspect it’s
the initial cutting out bread that kickstarts weight loss. Cutting out this common source of simple sugar
is every trainer’s first comment. But fat has an evolutionary purpose, it is
the buffer from those ancient days when we couldn’t just walk over to the store to
pick up food. So once you stop Keto, you’re likely going
to gain weight again as your body tries to protect itself from starvation. There is some research that says a longer-term
stint on the Keto diet can help with weight loss and cholesterol management. But that’s in a study with supervision. It’s a hard diet to manage alone. Interestingly, there are significant health
benefits from following the Keto diet. It’s been used since its development in
the 1920s to effectively treat children with drug-resistant epilepsy. And in some cases, children with certain genetic
mutations can’t get enough glucose to the brain. This hypoglycemic state causes seizures in
infancy and, if untreated, can lead to serious complications like microcephaly and ataxia. The keto diet takes away the glucose from
the bloodstream, forcing the brain to use the alternate energy source of ketone bodies
for fuel, allowing for proper neural development. But unlike body builders looking to get super
lean, this diet is done all-in for 1-2 weeks with management over months or years, depending
on the case. All under close supervision of a physician,
a registered nurse, and a registered dietitian. The diet is slowly dialed back to include
more and more foods that produce gluten, allowing the child to adjust. Again, it’s supervised. Because there shouldn’t be guesswork when
putting a child — or yourself! — into a starvation state. Scientists are now looking into other applications
the Keto diet might have for other metabolic, oncologic, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric
disorders. A fad diet is a temporary way of eating that
is targeted at those of us who don’t like exercise but want to lose weight quickly. This kinda sounds like that, but with some
science words. The best kind of diet is one that you work
out with a nutritionist that suits your body, and that you adopt for yourself and for the
rest of your life. If you want more Seeker, definitely hit that
subscribe button. Diets are so much more than just food; I can
tell you more about the healthiest diets right here. Amazingly, use of the Keto diet can be traced
all the way back to the 5th century BCE by Hippocrates who realized seizures are biological,
not spiritual.