How does Google Search work?

MATT CUTTS: Hi, everybody. We got a really interesting and
very expansive question from RobertvH in Munich. RobertvH wants to know– Hi Matt, could you please
explain how Google’s ranking and website evaluation process
works starting with the crawling and analysis of a site,
crawling time lines, frequencies, priorities,
indexing and filtering processes within the databases,
et cetera? OK. So that’s basically
just like, tell me everything about Google. Right? That’s a really expansive
question. It covers a lot of
different ground. And in fact, I have given
orientation lectures to engineers when they come in. And I can talk for an hour
about all those different topics, and even talk for an
hour about a very small subset of those topics. So let me talk for a while and
see how much of a feel I can give you for how the Google
infrastructure works, how it all fits together, how our
crawling and indexing and serving pipeline works. Let’s dive right in. So there’s three things that you
really want to do well if you want to be the world’s
best search engine. You want to crawl the web
comprehensively and deeply. You want to index those pages. And then you want to rank or
serve those pages and return the most relevant ones first. Crawling is actually
more difficult than you might think. Whenever Google started,
whenever I joined back in 2000, we didn’t manage to crawl
the web for something like three or four months. And we had to have a war room. But a good way to think about
the mental model is we basically take page rank as
the primary determinant. And the more page rank you
have– that is, the more people who link to you and the
more reputable those people are– the more likely it is
we’re going to discover your page relatively early
in the crawl. In fact, you could imagine
crawling in strict page rank order, and you’d get the CNNs of
the world and The New York Times of the world and really
very high page rank sites. And if you think about how
things used to be, we used to crawl for 30 days. So we’d crawl for
several weeks. And then we would index
for about a week. And then we would push
that data out. And that would take
about a week. And so that was what the
Google dance was. Sometimes you’d hit one data
center that had old data. And sometimes you’d hit a data
center that had new data. Now there’s various
interesting tricks that you can do. For example, after you’ve
crawled for 30 days, you can imagine recrawling the high page
rank guys so you can see if there’s anything new or
important that’s hit on the CNN home page. But for the most part, this
is not fantastic. Right? Because if you’re trying to
crawl the web and it takes you 30 days, you’re going
to be out-of-date. So eventually, in 2003, I
believe, we switched as part of an update called Update Fritz
to crawling a fairly interesting significant chunk
of the web every day. And so if you imagine breaking
the web into a certain number of segments, you could imagine
crawling that part of the web and refreshing it every night. And so at any given point, your
main base index would only be so out of date. Because then you’d loop back
around and you’d refresh that. And that works very,
very well. Instead of waiting for
everything to finish, you’re incrementally updating
your index. And we’ve gotten even
better over time. So at this point, we can
get very, very fresh. Any time we see updates,
we can usually find them very quickly. And in the old days, you would
have not just a main or a base index, but you could have what
were called supplemental results, or the supplemental
index. And that was something that we
wouldn’t crawl and refresh quite as often. But it was a lot
more documents. And so you could almost imagine
having really fresh content, a layer of our main
index, and then more documents that are not refreshed quite
as often, but there’s a lot more of them. So that’s just a little bit
about the crawl and how to crawl comprehensively. What you do then is you
pass things around. And you basically say, OK, I
have crawled a large fraction of the web. And within that web you have,
for example, one document. And indexing is basically taking
things in word order. Well, let’s just work
through an example. Suppose you say Katy Perry. In a document, Katy Perry
appears right next to each other. But what you want in an index
is which documents does the word Katy appear in, and which
documents does the word Perry appear in? So you might say Katy appears in
documents 1, and 2, and 89, and 555, and 789. And Perry might appear in
documents number 2, and 8, and 73, and 555, and 1,000. And so the whole process of
doing the index is reversing, so that instead of having the
documents in word order, you have the words, and they have
it in document order. So it’s, OK, these are all
the documents that a word appears in. Now when someone comes to Google
and they type in Katy Perry, you want to say, OK,
what documents might match Katy Perry? Well, document one has Katy,
but it doesn’t have Perry. So it’s out. Document number two has both
Katy and Perry, so that’s a possibility. Document eight has Perry
but not Katy. 89 and 73 are out because they
don’t have the right combination of words. 555 has both Katy and Perry. And then these two
are also out. And so when someone comes to
Google and they type in Chicken Little, Britney Spears,
Matt Cutts, Katy Perry, whatever it is, we find
the documents that we believe have those words, either on
the page or maybe in back links, in anchor text pointing
to that document. Once you’ve done what’s called
document selection, you try to figure out, how should
you rank those? And that’s really tricky. We use page rank as well as over
200 other factors in our rankings to try to say, OK,
maybe this document is really authoritative. It has a lot of reputation
because it has a lot of page rank. But it only has the
word Perry once. And it just happens to have the
word Katy somewhere else on the page. Whereas here is a document that
has the word Katy and Perry right next to each other,
so there’s proximity. And it’s got a lot
of reputation. It’s got a lot of links
pointing to it. So we try to balance that off. You want to find reputable
documents that are also about what the user typed in. And that’s kind of the secret
sauce, trying to figure out a way to combine those 200
different ranking signals in order to find the most
relevant document. So at any given time, hundreds
of millions of times a day, someone comes to Google. We try to find the closest
data center to them. They type in something
like Katy Perry. We send that query out to
hundreds of different machines all at once, which look through
their little tiny fraction of the web that
we’ve indexed. And we find, OK, these are
the documents that we think best match. All those machines return
their matches. And we say, OK, what’s the
creme de la creme? What’s the needle
in the haystack? What’s the best page that
matches this query across our entire index? And then we take that page and
we try to show it with a useful snippet. So you show the key words in the
context of the document. And you get it all back in
under half a second. So that’s probably about as long
as we can go on without straining YouTube. But that just gives you a little
bit of a feel about how the crawling system works, how
we index documents, how things get returned in under half a
second through that massive parallelization. I hope that helps. And if you want to know more,
there’s a whole bunch of articles and academic papers
about Google, and page rank, and how Google works. But you can also apply to– there’s [email protected], I
think, or, if you’re interested in learning
a lot more about how search engines work. OK. Thanks very much.

How To Create A Content Strategy For Your Content Marketing

Hi. Today we’re going to be talking about
creating a content marketing strategy. Now, before we start, a few quick questions: Are
you creating content? Do you have a strategy? Is it working? If the answer to those questions
is no, keeping watching, because today we’re going to give you a top level overview of
the things that you need to include in your own content marketing strategy. Let’s kick off with target audience. There
are many ways in which you can target your own audience. First and foremost I recommend
creating buyer personas. Now you can create a number of personas based on various stages
of the buying cycle as well as various needs of your buyers. Don’t look to create too many
personas. I would stick to a standard number of between five and ten because you don’t
want to overcomplicate things at this stage. Another way in which you want to create or
find out information about your target audience is to pull off data in Google Analytics, and
you can pull off an audience report in there. This gives you key demographic data based
on things such as location, age, gender, and personal interests. Once you have painted up a really good picture
of who you’re targeting, you can then create your own goals and objectives for your content
marketing campaign. Now every business will have their own business plan, and then drilled
down from that they will have their own marketing plan and marketing goals, and then drilled
down from that you will have your content marketing plan and content marketing goals. It’s key to remember that each piece of content
that you create has to have its own goal and objective. Now a goal could be something like
driving referral traffic, organic traffic, social shares, engagement, conversions, leads,
sales, and so on and so forth. However, it’s all well and good saying, “I
want to create a piece of content that’s going to deliver lots of traffic.” The way in which
you can achieve this is by setting objectives. Now your objectives could be something like
to entertain, to provide information, to educate, to persuade, to create controversy. Now a good example will be, let’s say you
want to create a piece of content that sustains traffic over a long period of time. That’s
your goal. Well, your objective will be to create something that educates, that provides
insight, something that you know is going to draw visitors back to your site, and a
good example of that will be a white paper, a user guide, a how-to guide. So that just
shows you a good example of, when it comes to your goals and objectives, the types of
things that you need to be thinking about. They all need to aligned to your marketing
plan and then your overall business plan. Now before you create a single piece of content,
first and foremost you want to be getting involved on social media. So set up profiles
on the big hitters like Google+, Facebook, Twitter and LinkedIn. Populate them, engage
with visitors, with users, answer comments, answer questions, and so on and so forth. One of the things I would also recommend is
to find industry specific sites, niches, such as Q&A sites [where you could] drill down
in those Q&A sites to specific areas that are of interest to your own business. And
again, populate that, engage with visitors, engage with users. One of the key things that you want to be
getting out of this process is to build up your own community of followers, but also
to start engaging with key influencers in those communities, and this will help massively
when it comes to the promotional aspects of the overall strategy. So, you know who you’re targeting. You’ve
got your goals and objectives. You are active on social. Now it’s time to start establishing
those content ideas. First and foremost what you want to be doing
is performing a content audit, so you go on to your own site and measure and map out everything
that you’ve ever done in terms of content. So look at blog posts, look at infographics,
look at videos, look at everything you’ve done. In a spreadsheet, you want to have various
columns, have content type, have content title, the number of page views, the number of social
shares, the number of comments, again and it all ties back into your goals and objectives.
Any idea that you come up with, always map it against your content audit and have a look
at what’s worked and what hasn’t worked. Secondly, after your content audit, you’re
going to be doing a competitor analysis. So in a similar way you’re going to be looking
at about five to ten of your strongest competitors. Look at the content that they’ve created.
It could be you look at on-page stuff, like blog posts, infographics or videos. It could
be that you look at off-page stuff, so guests posts, newsletters, surveys, that type of
thing. This gives you a good idea, a rich source of ideas of what your competitors are
doing, and you can measure that against what you’re currently doing. If you’re not doing
that, let’s say, for example, that you find you perform a backlink analysis of your competitors
and you find a variety of sites that they’re writing for and they’re writing on, again
that provides you with some insight. You might be able to approach those sites, offer a follow-up
opinion or a different angle. Just an idea for you to consider. Google Analytics is also something I would
utilise when it comes to creating your own content ideas. In Google Analytics, first
and foremost you can perform what is known as a site search, and you can look at the
data that you have received from that. This is basically where people land on your site
and they perform a site search internally. This provides you with a rich source of insights,
because they could be asking questions, queries, and so on and so forth. Now, Google Analytics also provides you with
information on key performing pages. So it could be a particular product or service that
you then want to create content around. It could be that you find that a particular product
or service isn’t performing as well as you would like, and you actually find out that
people are dropping out of the buying cycle. Well, in this instance, again you can look
at the content that you can possibly create to help feed those people back into the funnel
and, hopefully, potentially get a sale or conversion. I would also look at, again it goes back again
to the content audit, but look at the top performing pieces of content and see what’s
worked and understand why. It could be a piece that’s very, very targeted towards products
or services that’s actually worked well. Or likewise it could be something that’s industry
specific, but not specific so much to your brand. It’s a good idea to have a blend of
those different types of content. You also want to make sure that your content
is keyword optimised. So you need to perform keyword research. That pretty much goes without
saying. The keywords that you establish within your keyword research should obviously feature
in the content you create. This itself gives you a good idea of content ideas, but also
utilise something like Google Trends, where you’re able to look at your trending topics,
not just those core keywords. This is really useful when it comes to creating more long
tail content. Finally, you want to be looking at your own internal events, your own calendar,
your own internal news and utilise that and leverage that when it comes to creating your
own content So you’ve got all of your ideas and you now
want to map that on an editorial calendar. You want to be looking at mapping this over
a 3 month, 6 month, or 12 month period, and you really want to be factoring in those key
dates, those key events. You also want be looking at more standard national holidays,
things like Mother’s Day, Father’s Day, Valentine’s Day, Halloween, Christmas, Easter, and really
think about your overall campaigns and how you can tie that in with those holidays. Your editorial calendar should really also
feature promotional aspects. So it stands to reason that any piece that you create needs
to have a promotional phase. Whether that promotional phase is on social or whether
you have a whole outreach program that you want to organise, it’s really up to you. But
your promotional calendar, your editorial calendar must feature who is going to promote
it. The other good thing about an editorial calendar is it holds people accountable. Not
only will you have the live date or the publish date or the upload date and the promotion
date, but you can account and assign each individual who does those activities. When it comes to promoting your content, as
I’ve mentioned, really lay the foundations when you’re populating and engaging on your
social media profiles. But in addition to that, you can look at other things, like an
outreach program, and this is basically where you want to gather a list of industry relevant
people who will benefit from that content. It could be that you’ve actually featured
people within a piece of content or you’ve featured a resource in a top ten list or something
like that. Anywhere you think someone will benefit from having that content, seeing that
content, or sharing it that is really crucial to your own promotional efforts. Then finally, it goes without saying that
whenever you create content, you want to measure it, and the way that you measure your content
is really relevant to the goals and objectives that you set out in the first place. But as
a basic, as a very, very standard level, you want to be setting up Google Analytics, tracking
code, and you want to be setting up goals within there. You want to be looking at key
things, like where your traffic is coming from, the user age, their location. You want
to be looking at the number of visits, where those visits are going after they’ve landed
on your content, and again this provides you with a richer insight into the effectiveness
of your own content. So there we go. That was a nice quick overview
of all the things that you need to consider when it comes to your own content marketing
strategy. If there’s anything that you think I’ve missed that you would like to add, please
do leave a comment below or get in touch with us. And that leaves me just to say thank you
very much for watching, and for more information, please visit any of the social profiles coming
up now.

Working on the Google Pay Team

Essentially we’re building a wallet on
the phone which is very fun and easy to use. As a lawyer user myself I know how
much convenience Google Pay has brought to my life. Thinking that I could bring this
experience to every user in the world I feel very proud and excited. The next five years I still see myself working to build products which can unlock the true
potential of finance and make it again less of a daunting world for our users
and a very useful resource which people can use to make their lives better.
Our team is spread out across the world we respect each other’s different
cultures and identities. We’re here to understand what our users really need
and feel for them. A small group of passionate smart people
can come together and build something which can have huge value in the lives
of millions and millions of users. We all work together to build something

The Business of Attention

Every video you watch on YouTube is
worth anywhere between point zero zero six to point zero one five dollars or
six thousand to fifteen thousand dollars per million views. Every ad you click
on Facebook is about point zero zero six dollars or six thousand dollars per
million clicks and sixty seven hundred dollars on Instagram. Where is all this
money flying from? Hello and welcome to this episode of interested. Today we will
dive deep and see the business of attention; yours, mine, and almost every
internet users. Don’t forget to subscribe to our YouTube channel and click on the
notification bell to be part of our notification squad. Last year the social media
giant Facebook reportedly made fifty five billion dollars in its yearly
revenue or around twenty five dollars from each of its two point two seven
billion users worldwide; while the owner of the biggest search engine, Google, made
four point seven billion dollars just from the news industry say the New York
Times and other sources. So the business of ads is a guaranteed stream of income
it’s not only these companies however that make a butt load of money from
running ads. The list goes on to include bloggers, Instagram models, and YouTube
creators. A you tuber with a million subscribers is known to make somewhere
around fifty seven thousand dollars annually and big influencers on
Instagram make anywhere from three million to eight million dollars. With the
highest-paid Kylie Jenner making an average of four million dollars for
every sponsored post on Instagram. All this money that most of us could only
dream of actually comes directly from us. To be exact, our attention pays their
bills. In 2012 Internet entrepreneur Steve Jelley coined the term attention
marketing that took over the then widely used internet marketing. The difference
is simple. To attract consumers, companies that use internet marketing would simply
post their ads on specific websites for everybody who visits the site to see
it. Then came the rise of social media and their ability to effectively collect our
data. When Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest came to a have enough of our data to know what
interests us and what doesn’t, they had the power of shifting the entire business
model of advertisement – thus attention marketing. Channeling the attention of
a consumer by capturing their attention instead of interrupting it. What this
means is, instead of disturbing your attention and interest in the platform
with an ad that you are unlikey to be interested in, an ad that will capture attention is
sent specifically to your feed. Facebook reported over
two point to seven billion monthly users and YouTube over 1.8 billion in 2018.
Meaning a company can reach a targeted number of customers from over a billion
people. This is where your attention comes into play –
what takes your attention most, sells you most and whichever social media showed you
the ad gets a bite of the cake. This whole system is tailored to be a win-win
for both product seller and the platform. The seller gets an audience
that is highly likely to buy and the platform gets your interrupted attention
to show you more of what you love; making your attention and mine the most valuable
asset on the internet. With attention marketing, social media companies have
destroyed barriers between content, distribution, and marketing. But the war
for your attention between technology companies has come so far to make you
a screen addict. A study by global tech protection and
support company, Asurion, showed the average person checks his or her phone
every 12 minutes. On another study done on same topic, 11 percent of the
respondents admitted to checking their phone in a funeral and 7 percent during
sex; while 80 percent admitted to double screening. How often do you check
your phone? write your answers in the comment section below. As we said earlier
social media is addictive. Like all adictions it is known to have effects of destroying
relationships, costing you money, and, most of all, your precious time. For teenagers
who are self conscious in many ways the drama of like, unlike, comments, and
being unfriended has so much effects to the point it traumatizes them and makes
them fall under Depression. And in genera,l people that spend more time on
Facebook are more likely to be depressed than those who spend less or no time on
Facebook. According to and other sources, smartphone users are
estimated to reach as whopping 2.5 billion by 2019 and total social media
users, three point four eight billion. Even if we forget all these problems, the
idea of one person or even a hundred controlling the way billions of people
see, think, and feel is extremely dangerous. Here are interested we try to stay
neutral about debatable issues. We are simply interested on the issue that we
research so hard to make you this video but when tech icons like Bill Gates, Mark
Cuban, and Steve Jobs raise the kids somewhat tech free or speak against unlimited tech time, anybody would think something’s fishy.
So here are some simple solutions that can be applied to address the problem
that is the stealing of our attention and being unwillingly driven by tech
companies. One is setting limit to your screen time by Apple’s new screen time
activity dashboard or Google’s wind down. You can also gray-scale your screen so
that your attention is not stolen by colorful apps, and also set
notifications off for social media apps. more can be found on time well-spent
website, a movement for better and humane designs of technology products.
Co-founded by Tristan Harris who also co-founded Center for humane technology. Thank you for watching this video and don’t forget to give this video a thumbs
up if you like it. Also don’t forget to share this video and subscribe to our
Channel. See you next week in another interesting
topic, and as always stay interesting!

Working on the CorpEng Team at Google

(soft music) – It’s very different to work at Google than outside of Google. There’s definitely a lot
more collaboration here than any other place where I’ve worked in. I’m Cintia D’avila Rodriguez,
and I’m a software engineer, here at Corp Eng at Google. Corp Eng is short for
corporate engineering, and it’s where teams use
cutting edge technology to help other Googlers stay productive. I’m originally from Mexico,
migrated to Chicago. After doing a little bit of programming myself as a teenager, I knew that software engineering was what I wanted to do,
and the passion that I had, but also the challenge that
I had been looking for. I then went on to pursue a
degree in computer engineering from the University of
Illinois at Chicago. And I’m proud to say that I completed the first two years at
a community college. Shortly after, I was working in the field as a software engineer, and that’s when Google reached out to me with an opportunity that has
really changed my life around. I think when they reached out to me, that was the eye opening experience of, okay, maybe I am Google material. Maybe I have that drive
that it takes to be there. I think it’s all about who you are and what you have to give, and not where you went to
school or where you grew up. I’m currently working on
a project for revamping how we handle accounts for customers and partners for Google
Cloud, which is pretty central to a lot of the cloud processes. There was a time at the beginning of the current project that
it was such a struggle to be able to know exactly
what we needed to do, but once I had the design, you’re just eager to
come into work and say, Look, I was able to figure all this out. I think what it takes to be successful as a software engineer is
just have that internal drive or inspiration within yourself, or through others to just
continuously keep learning about the different tools,
or different technology. It’s a fastly evolving career, so it’s not that it’s
hard to keep up with it, but you do need to have that
drive or that inspiration to just want to learn about
that new tool that came out.

Working at Google Zurich

>>Google Zurich is a very big engineering
office. We actually call it the European Engineering Center.
>>We do things like the Web crawl [PH].>>We work on Maps.
>>Search quality projects.>>We also work on transit.
>>Core infrastructure initiatives.>>We do a lot of innovative and cool things
right here in Zurich.>>Our office is a very international office.
>>I think we counted ones in the map but we have pretty much all nationalities.
>>Which is great because when you shape products, it helps give you a different cultural perspective
on everything.>>So this is not really like, you know, the
Swiss office or the German-speaking office, not at all; it’s a very diverse, multicultural
office.>>Many people move to Zurich just to work
for Google, which means there are a lot of social activities. We have gone white water
rafting. We go swimming in the lake during the summer. We go sailing. There’s just a
million types of activities and somebody at the office is always planning something.
>>The biggest surprise for me at Google was the energy of people. People are extremely
motivated. Everyone has tons of ideas and, the next day, they’re built.
>>It’s a special feeling to work at Google in that most everyone on the company is smarter
than you.>>We have a very open environment and you
can just butt into any conversation at any time and exchange ideas and information.
>>We really try to make sure that bureaucracy and red tape is minimized as much as possible
at schools so that the creativity of our engineers is not in any way restricted.
>>If you start working at Google, it doesn’t matter if you are fresh out of university
or if you have 20 years of experience. It’s your ideas that count and the work that you
do.>>It’s very entrepreneurial, and you have
a lot of autonomy over your product and its direction.
>>If you find a problem or something that can be improved, you look around for the best
way to fix it and, often, it’s by doing it yourself.
>>There is like a million open questions, a million things to do and people are happy
if you just grab one of them and do one of them well.
>>It is a company that really, really cares for its employees, that really, really cares
about being engineering-driven.>>You really work on stuff that matters.
You work on projects that become products that Google does that millions of millions
of people around the world are using. It’s a very rewarding experience.

Sexual Misconduct at Work, Again | Retro Report on PBS

-Today’s Me Too Movement
has not only put a spotlight on hostile work environments
for women but it’s also raised questions
about why it took so long for their stories
to become public. -It turns out there are answers
to be found in an earlier wave
of sexual harassment in the workplace on Wall Street
in the 1980s and ’90s. Women had entered
the traditionally male-dominated world of finance
in large numbers. The ensuing harassment scandals
had repercussions that are still affecting
the workplace today. It became easier for companies
to cover up the problem and harder for victims
to get their cases heard. ♪♪ -I wanted to go to Wall Street because I was basically
lower-middle class at the time, and I wanted a taste
of the good life. -Marlene Jupiter started
working on Wall Street in the early 1980s. -You knew that you were going
into a man’s world, but I loved Wall Street. It had that excitement
of being part of the future. -In just over a decade, she became one of the top
performers at her firm, earning close to
$1 million a year. -I became a senior VP, and then I landed
very huge hedge-fund accounts, and that was when, really,
the lions came on. -According to Jupiter,
some of the male brokers began making
anti-Semitic comments and spreading false
sexual rumors about her that got worse
the more that she earned. -They would call me the chick
with the [bleep] They would deliver cakes
with dildos on it, and that was, like, you know,
supposed to be funny. And then,
when I was on vacation, I get phone calls that they’re
trying to sabotage my customers. Basically, they’re telling you that you’re not
really welcome at the party. You’re a woman. You’re not one of us. -Wall Street was a hotbed
of sex harassment, of gender discrimination. The environment was as bawdy
and as sexualized as any in this country. -The name of the game
was to make the women feel like
they didn’t belong there, and that played out
in a lot of ways. Women would come back
from maternity leave and lose their jobs. Women would try to get
a promotion from sales assistant to broker, and they weren’t allowed
to do it, but the guys could. And then, at the other extreme, you had sexual assault
and sexual harassment. It was almost like a weapon
to show them, you know, you shouldn’t be here,
and if you’re gonna be here, we’re gonna make you
really, really uncomfortable. -Being bullied
destroys your confidence. It destroys everything
about you, and I would go
to human resources, and it would go away
for a few months, and then it would come back. At one point,
I was getting physically sick. That’s when I decided to leave. I couldn’t function anymore. -She quit, and she wasn’t
planning on doing anything. She wasn’t gonna sue them, but then she had
a great job lined up. The employer called her old
trading desk to ask about her, and they trashed her,
and she didn’t get the job, and that’s when she said,
“I’ve had enough.” -But for brokers like Jupiter, taking an employer to court
wasn’t an option because of a small clause
in their licensing paperwork. -In the ’90s, everyone in
the securities industry was required to register
with the SEC. In theory, it was to make sure
that they were hiring people without crimes
in their background, but one of the boxes
you had to check said that you agree to arbitrate any claim you had
against your employer, so you had no choice. You could not work
in the industry without waiving your right to
bring a claim in a public court. -Arbitration was designed
to avoid the courthouse by swiftly resolving conflicts
before a private panel. -The securities industry had set up
its own arbitration system, which was run by them,
and the purpose of the system was to protect it
from liability. It was all industry insiders, many of whom were not
even lawyers. -The vast majority of
the industry’s arbitrators were white, male, and over 60, reinforcing what many felt were deeply rooted
institutional biases. -I thought I was gonna win. I had witnesses that came
through the arbitration, but I lost. If I had gone to court,
I am sure I would’ve won. -Jupiter wasn’t alone. At the time,
the majority of women who brought harassment cases
to arbitration on Wall Street lost, and it happened
behind closed doors. -When you go to arbitration, there are no
public documents filed. There are no reporters
or members of the public allowed in the room to watch, and it allows their rainmakers
to be repeat offenders because nobody ever finds out. -Susan Antilla was one of
the first journalists to report on the pervasive
sexual harassment and discrimination
on Wall Street. -It’s all about silence. It’s all about
keeping these cases quiet. -But in 1996,
that silence was broken. -Tonight, the lawsuit
that everyone on Wall Street is watching — outrageous claims
about men behaving badly at Smith Barney. -Women were referred to
as bitches and whores. -A group of Wall Street women joined together
in a class-action lawsuit, allowing them
to circumvent arbitration and bring their cases
into court. -The potential class-action
suit is extremely important because it aims at much more
than collecting damages. The 23 women are trying to bring
down the arbitration system, the pillar of employee relations
on Wall Street. -It was brilliant. They got the cases filed
in court, and all of a sudden, they started hearing from other
women all around the country. The coverage of that case
changed everything because the brokerage firms
couldn’t hide anymore. It got broadcast coverage.
It got print coverage. Everybody was watching,
and that’s the difference. You never saw that
about an arbitration case. -They would never treat men
the way they have treated us. -He said that he wanted
to pull my stockings down and sit me on his lap. -I was up, like,
against this wall. I was trying to get free
from him, and I just… He was my friend. -Lisa Mays was among
the first women to join the class-action suit
against Smith Barney. The assault at her workplace
still haunts her today. -He lifted up my skirt
and started to put his hands, like, underneath my tights
to pull down my tights, and then, luckily,
something happened, and the front door clicked, and he walked away from me
like nothing happened, like nothing had just occurred. -Mays reported the incident
to human resources, but she says her complaint
was ignored, and her attacker
stayed on the job. Then when I found out
about the lawsuit and that the company was
calling it an isolated incident, I was like, “It’s not.
I have to get involved. I have to call these lawyers,” and they couldn’t believe
what had happened to me. -Nearly 2,000 women joined
the lawsuit, and other suits soon followed. -The cloud hangs over
America’s financial community. Almost every major firm faces or has faced
a sexual-discrimination charge. -It really was
a Me Too Movement. “Oh, yeah.
That happened to me, as well.” And it was contagious. -In the wake of the publicity,
firms implemented programs to address sexual-harassment
and discrimination concerns. -Under the agreement,
Smith Barney will establish
a $15 million fund to train and recruit more women
and minorities. -There was a moment in time
after those Wall Street cases were brought when
there was such optimism, and people really thought
that change was gonna happen
across the board — with pay, with promotion,
with everything. -The Securities and Exchange
Commission even eliminated the requirement to arbitrate
over discrimination claims, but many firms
inserted the requirement into employee handbooks
and contracts, creating a road map
that other industries followed. -Wall Street was the model that
management lawyers pointed to to convince their clients
that it was time to start compelling arbitration
of discrimination claims. They literally would
produce papers that said, “Look at what
the securities industry has been able to do with
their sex-harassment claims,” and they would list sex-harassment claim —
claim dismissed; sex-harassment claim —
claim dismissed; discrimination claim —
claim dismissed. And that was a marketing device
and very effective because it’s all true. -Back when the women
on Wall Street were suing, in the mid-1990s, 7% of US companies then
had mandatory arbitration, and today it’s more than half. -That trend has become
a flash point in the latest fight against
harassment and discrimination. -The Me Too Movement
is taking down big names for sexual assault
and sexual harassment. -Hundreds of people on Sunday
brought their fight against sexual violence
to the heart of Hollywood. -Rise up for the women
of the world… -From secret settlements
to confidentiality clauses, there’s been a public reckoning on how victims’ stories have
been kept quiet for so long. -Former “Fox News” anchor
Gretchen Carlson is suing her former boss,
Roger Ailes, claiming she was let go for
refusing his sexual advances. -I did not even realize
how pervasive this epidemic
of sexual harassment and forced arbitration
was in our society until after I brought
my case forward, and then hundreds
and then thousands of women started reaching out to me, and their stories
had never been told, a lot of them
because of arbitration. -Carlson herself was bound
by arbitration, but her lawyers filed
a court suit, anyway. In the end, she settled her case and signed
a non-disclosure agreement. Today, she’s been helping to
gather support for legislation that would prohibit
mandatory arbitration in cases involving
sexual harassment. -Arbitration completely
perpetuates harassment in the workplace. There are no appeals. You don’t get the same amount
of witnesses. It’s secret. You normally get a much paltry
settlement than you would if you were
in an open court system. If the majority of these cases
are not going into an open-jury process, then how do we make progress
as a nation on building upon
case after case after case? That’s how
our legal system works. -The courts are overwhelmed
with litigation. There are many courts
in the country that just can’t make a dent
in getting through their docket. -Attorney Alan Kaplinsky
is a leading advocate for the use of arbitration in consumer
and employment disputes. He says the process has
an important role to play. -Arbitration — it’s a lot less
costly than going to court. It’s a lot faster. It’s extremely efficient, and it’s a process
that is time-tested. There are always gonna be
anecdotes, one-off stories that people
are gonna be able to tell, but I haven’t seen actual data showing any connection
between arbitration and the increase of wrongdoing
by employers. There’s just no connection. -Today, a new generation
of workers is demanding an end
to mandatory arbitration. -Tonight, a massive walkout across the country
and around the world — Google employees revolting
over the treatment of women, including the handling
of workplace sexual harassment. -The employees have a list
of demands, including an end
to forced arbitration and a commitment to end pay
and opportunity disparity. -We demand structural change… -The Google walkout wasn’t
just about sexual harassment. It was about this large,
structural imbalance of power that has caused inequity
in a number of areas. We wanted anyone who was
discriminated against for race, or wrongfully terminated,
to also be protected. -And some of these demands
are starting to be met. -Google has released
a new policy ending forced arbitration in cases of sexual harassment
and assault. It’s in response
to recent protests. -Other tech companies
are taking notice, like Facebook, which said
they would do the same, and on Monday, Airbnb said
it was ending forced arbitration not just for sexual harassment but all cases
involving discrimination. -All of this is about
fighting for equity. It’s about true equality to know that whether it’s about
being free from harassment, being free from stereotypes,
from inadequate pay, all of that has to change
in order to be able to say, “Yes, you and I are truly equal
in the eyes of the law.” -Change is happening,
albeit slowly. -If you look
at Wall Street today, you do see less harassment. You certainly see less
blatant stuff happening, but you still
see pay disparities. You still see women
being pushed out. -Two decades after the sexual-
harassment cases of the ’90s, only an estimated 17%
of brokers are women. -My big concern about Me Too
is that we’ll see a backslide when you don’t see coverage
of this as much anymore, so there’s a real lesson to be
learned from those early cases. ♪♪