Brain Tricks – This Is How Your Brain Works

You may not realize it but your brain actually processes information in two very distinct ways. Like when you look at this photo, you instantly know she has blond hair, is visibly angry, and likely has some choice words to yell. Without any effort you experience fast thinking, but if you look at the following problem something different happens. Sure, you immediately know it’s a multiplication problem, and you knew you could solve it if you had the energy but didn’t. If you do try, your muscles will tense and your pupils will dilate and you heart rate will increase. Now, you’ve experienced slow thinking. These two systems of fast and slow thinking, dictate much of our perception and reaction in life. Take these lines for example, it’s clear that they’re different lengths, but if you measure them, they’re actually the exact same length. Even now that you know, system 1 or your fast thinking, can’t stop seeing the illusion because it acts automatically. Similar effect to seeing here, which figure’s the largest? Again, they’re all the same size, but the suggestion of perspective in depth causes your system 1 to interpret the picture as three-dimensional, even though it’s on a flat two-dimensional surface. It’s making quick work of the available information, and so your conscious system 2 or slow thinking must compensate after the fact and choose not believe your intuition or instinct. Wanna see your system 2 in action? We’ll show you a string of four digits, you read them out loud then add one to each of the original digits. If the card reads 3795, the correct response would be 4806. We’ll then go to the next card and you’ll do the same, followed by the next card. Ready? Go! Few people can cope with more than four digits, but even harder is add 3. The interesting bit is that though your pupils would have dilated you often become effectively blind when you fully engage system 2. Did you notice the color of the text change? Or how about the fact that the numbers completely changed when I put them off to the side? Listen to the following puzzle. A bat and a ball cost $1.10. The bat costs $1 more than the ball. How much does the ball cost? Chances are, your system 1 intuition was yelling 10 cents But this appealing system 1 answer, we know, is wrong In fact, the correct answer is 5 cents Even if you worked out the correct answer, you likely thought of 10 cents along the way System 1 is trying to work out an answer as quickly and seamlessly as possible Which is extremely beneficial in everyday life If every activity required full mental effort it would be exhausting. But, knowing this allows us to understand that not all of our first impressions are correct. How many animals of each kind did Moses take into the ark? So few people detect what is wrong with this question that it’s been dubbed the Moses illusion. In fact, Moses took no animals, Noah did. Again, our brain invests as little resources as necessary so that things run quickly and smoothly. Because Moses is not abnormal in the biblical context, System 1 unconsciously detects an association between Moses and ark and quickly accepts the question. In a similar way, System 1 generates context without you knowing. Reading each of the following may seem fairly simple ABC, Ann approached the bank, and 12 13 14 But your brain actually interpreted these ambiguous statements without you ever knowing You could have read it as A 13 C or 12 B 14 But your brain created the context unconsciously Also, you likely imagined a woman with money on her mind walking towards a building with tellers But if the sentence before this was: they were floating gently down the river. The entire scene would’ve changed because ‘Bank’ would no longer be associated with money. Without an explicit context, System 1 quickly generates one based off similar experiences In this case, you’ve likely visited more banks than rivers and so the context is resolved accordingly This ties into a context called “Priming” For example, if I said “Wash” How would you complete this word fragment? Most would see soap, but had I just shown you the word “Eat” you’d be more likely to see “Soup” In this way, both “Eat” and “wash” prime your thoughts Though system 2 likes to think that it’s in charge and knows what’s going on The truth is that priming effects even been shown to affect and modify behavior These arrive in system one and you have no conscious access to them If you’d like to learn more about the thinking system in your brain, Check out the book “Thinking Fast and Slow” by Daniel Kahneman Which covers it in great detail I’ll put the link in the description which you can check out Go a burning question you want answered? Ask it in the comments or on facebook and twitter. and subscribe for more weekly science videos.

How does a blockchain work – Simply Explained

Blockchains are incredibly popular nowadays. But what is a blockchain? How do they work, what problems do they solve
and how can they be used? Like the name indicates, a blockchain is a
chain of blocks that contains information. This technique was originally described in
1991 by a group of researchers and was originally intended to timestamp digital documents so
that it’s not possible to backdate them or to tamper with them. Almost like a notary. However it went by mostly unused until it
was adapted by Satoshi Nakamoto in 2009 to create the digital cryptocurrency Bitcoin. A blockchain is a distributed ledger that
is completely open to anyone. They have an interesting property: once some
data has been recorded inside a blockchain, it becomes very difficult to change it. So how does that work? Well, let’s take a closer look at a block. Each block contains some data, the hash of
the block and the hash of the previous block. The data that is stored inside a block depends
on the type of blockchain. The Bitcoin blockchain for example stores
the details about a transaction in here, such as the sender, receiver and amount of coins. A block also has a hash. You can compare a hash to a fingerprint. It identifies a block and all of its contents
and it’s always unique, just as a fingerprint. Once a block is created, it’s hash is being
calculated. Changing something inside the block will cause
the hash to change. So in other words: hashes are very useful
when you want to detect changes to blocks. If the fingerprint of a block changes, it
no longer is the same block. The third element inside each block is the
hash of the previous block. This effectively creates a chain of blocks
and it’s this technique that makes a blockchain so secure. Let’s take an example. Here we have a chain of 3 blocks. As you can see, each block has a hash and
the hash of the previous block. So block number 3 points to block number 2
and number 2 points to number 1. Now the first block is a bit special, it cannot
point to previous blocks because it’s the first one. We call this the genesis block. Now let’s say that you tamper with the second
block. This causes the hash of the block to change
as well. In turn that will make block 3 and all following
blocks invalid because they no longer store a valid hash of the previous block. So changing a single block will make all following
blocks invalid. But using hashes is not enough to prevent
tampering. Computers these days are very fast and can
calculate hundreds of thousands of hashes per second. You could effectively tamper with a block
and recalculate all the hashes of other blocks to make your blockchain valid again. So to mitigate this, blockchains have something
called proof-of-work. It’s a mechanism that slows down the creation
of new blocks. In Bitcoins case: it takes about 10 minutes
to calculate the required proof-of-work and add a new block to the chain. This mechanism makes it very hard to tamper
with the blocks, because if you tamper with 1 block, you’ll need to recalculate the proof-of-work
for all the following blocks. So the security of a blockchain comes from
its creative use of hashing and the proof-of-work mechanism. But there is one more way that blockchains
secure themselves and that’s by being distributed. Instead of using a central entity to manage
the chain, blockchains use a peer-to-peer network and anyone is allowed to join. When someone joins this network, he gets the
full copy of the blockchain. The node can use this to verify that everything
is still in order. Now let’s see what happens when someone creates
a new block. That new block is send to everyone on the
network. Each node then verifies the block to make
sure that it hasn’t been tampered with. If everything checks out, each node adds this
block to their own blockchain. All the nodes in this network create consensus. They agree about what blocks are valid and
which aren’t. Blocks that are tampered with will be rejected
by other nodes in the network. So to successfully tamper with a blockchain
you’ll need to tamper with all blocks on the chain, redo the proof-of-work for each block
and take control of more than 50% of the peer-to-peer network. Only then will your tampered block become
accepted by everyone else. This is almost impossible to do! Blockchains are also constantly evolving. One of the more recent developments is the
creation of smart contracts. These contracts are simple programs that are
stored on the blockchain and can be used to automatically exchange coins based on certain
conditions. More on smart contracts in a later video. The creation of blockchain technology peaked
a lot of people’s interest. Soon, others realized that the technology
could be used for other things like storing medical records, creating a digital notary
or even collecting taxes. So now you know what a blockchain is, how
it works on basic level and what problems it solves. Want to learn how you can implement a simple
blockchain with Javascript? Then checkout this video here. And as always: thank you very much for watching.

Types of market research

Market research is all about filling the gaps
in what you know and getting answers to any questions you may have. Ultimately, you want
to be in a position to make the best decision you possibly can. So what sort of information are we talking
about? There are two main sorts of information. First,
there are numbers and statistics. This is known as quantitative research. This is all about finding out things such
as the size of the market you are operating in. What is the value of the market? How many
items are sold? Or if you are in the business to business market, how many contracts are
available to bid for? How many customers are there? How many are likely to buy your product
or service? You’ll want to know how many businesses are
already competing in this market and what market share they each have? You’ll also want to know how fast or how slow
the market is growing – after all, if it’s static or declining, you may decide it is
not the place to be. Some of this information is available from
published reports. There’s more about the various sources of this type of information
in other sections of this guide. Check it out. Sometimes the published data won’t give you
enough detailed information. In this case you may want to conduct your own research
using surveys or questionnaires. For example, if your business is designing
websites, you may want to conduct a short survey with local businesses to find out how
many of them have a website and how often they change the design. If you are going to run an agency for temporary
teaching staff, you may want to survey schools in the area to find out how many temporary
staff they need and how often they need them. The second sort of information is qualitative
research. This is based on attitudes and opinions and is used to find out what your target customers
think and feel about your idea or product or service. You can gather qualitative data through in-depth
interviews with individuals or by having focus groups with several customers taking part
in a discussion. In this case you are finding out how people
feel about different aspects of your product or service – for example, the price, or the
packaging, or the offer. You may want to find out where people would
expect to buy and also what their reasons are for choosing one product or supplier over
another. Again there’s more about how to do this sort
of research in other sections of this guide. You can find out what sort of questions to
use and how to structure your research. Both types of research – quantitative and
qualitative – provide valuable information. Ideally you’ll want to use a mix to get a
reliable picture of the market. Remember you’re gathering information to help
you make a better decision, so keep focused and be realistic.

Proof-of-Stake (vs proof-of-work)

Hi there! My name is Xavier and you might have read
articles online saying that cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin uses enormous amounts of energy
to secure their networks. But why is that – and more importantly – what
are the alternatives? Mining new coins takes a lot of computing
power because of the proof-of-work algorithm. The idea was first introduced in 1993 to combat
spam emails and was formally called “proof-of-work” in 1997. However the technique went largely unused
until Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin in 2009. He realized that this mechanism could be used
to reach consensus between many nodes on a network and he used it as a way to secure
the Bitcoin blockchain. However, the proof-of-work algorithm works
by having all nodes solve a cryptographic puzzle. This puzzle is solved by miners and the first
one to find the solution gets the miner reward. This has led to a situation where people are
building larger and larger mining farms like this one. According to Digiconomist, Bitcoin miners
alone uses about 54 TWh of electricity, enough to power 5 million households in the US or
even power the entire country of New Zealand or Hungary. But it doesn’t stop there. Proof-of-work gives more rewards to people
with better and more equipment. The higher your hash rate is, the higher the
chance that you’ll get to create the next block and receive the mining reward. To increase chances even further, miners have
come together in what’s called “mining pools”. They combine their hashing power and distribute
the reward evenly across everyone in the pool. So to sum it up: proof-of-work is causing
miners to use massive amounts of energy and it encourages the use of mining pools which
makes the blockchain more centralized as opposed to decentralized. So to solve these issue’s we have to find
a new consensus algorithm that is as effective or better then proof-of-work. In 2011 a Bitcointalk forum user called QuantumMechanic
proposed a technique that he called “proof-of-stake”. The basic idea is that letting everyone compete
against each other with mining is wasteful. So instead proof-of-stake uses an election
process in which 1 node is randomly chosen to validate the next block. Oh yeah, small difference in terminology there. Proof-of-stake has no miners but instead has
“validators” and it doesn’t let people “mine” blocks but instead “mint” or
“forge” blocks. Validators aren’t chosen completely randomly. To become a validator, a node has to deposit
a certain amount of coins into the network as stake. You can think of this as a security deposit. The size of the stake determines the chances
of a validator to be chosen to forge the next block. It’s a linear correlation. Let’s say Bob deposits $100 dollars into
the network while Alice deposits $1000. Alice now has a 10 times higher chance of
being chosen to forge the next block. This might not seem fair because it favors
the rich, but in reality it’s more fair compared to proof-of-work. With proof-of-work rich people can enjoy the
power of economies at scale. The price they pay for mining equipment and
electricity doesn’t go up in a linear fashion. Instead the more they buy, the better prices
they can get. Economies at scale! But back to proof-of-stake. If a node is chosen to validate the next block,
he’ll check if all the transactions within it are indeed valid. If everything checks out, the node signs off
on the block and adds it to the blockchain. As a reward the node receives the fees that
are associated with each transaction. Okay but how can we trust other validators
on the network? Well that’s where the stake comes in. Validators will lose a part of their stake
if they approve fraudulent transactions. As long as the stake is higher then what the
validator gets from the transaction fees, we can trust them to correctly do their job. Because if not, they lose more money then
they gain. It’s a financial motivator and holds up
as long as the stake is higher then the sum of all the transaction fees. If a node stops being a validator, his stake
plus all the transaction fees that he got will be released after a certain period of
time. Not straight away because the network still
needs to be able to punish you, should they discover that some of your blocks where fraudulent. So the differences between Proof-of-work and
Proof-of-stake are quite significant. Proof-of-stake doesn’t let everyone mine
for new blocks and therefore uses considerably less energy. It’s also more decentralized. How is that? Well in proof-of-work we have something called
mining pools. Those are people who are teaming up to increase
their chances of mining a new block and thus collecting the reward. However these pools now control large portions
of the bitcoin blockchain. They centralize the mining process and that’s
dangerous. If the three biggest mining pools would merge
together, they would have a majority stake in the network and could start approving fraudulent
transactions. Another important advantage is that setting
up a node for a proof-of-stake based blockchain is a lot less expensive compared to a proof-of-work
based one. You don’t need expensive mining equipment
and thus proof-of-stake encourages more people to set up a node, making the network more
decentralized and also more secure. But even proof-of-stake isn’t perfect and
it also has some flaws. You might think: “hold on a minute! If I buy a majority stake in the network,
I can effectively control it and approve fake transactions” and you would be correct. This is called the 51% attack and was first
discussed as a weak point of the proof-of-work algorithm. If a single miner or group of miners can obtain
51% of the hashing power, they can effectively control the blockchain. Proof-of-stake on the other hand makes this
attack very impractical, depending on the value of a cryptocurrency. If Bitcoin would be converted to proof-of-stake,
acquiring 51% of all the coins would set you back a whopping 79 billion dollars. So the 51% attack is actually less likely
to happen with proof-of-stake. But that’s not the only risk. Proof-of-stake algorithms also have to be
careful how they select the next validators. It can’t be completely random because the
size of the stake has to be factored in. But at the same time the stake alone isn’t
enough because that will favor rich people, who will get chosen more frequently, will
collect more transaction fees, become even richer and thus increase their chances of
being chosen as validator even further. There are a number of proposals to fix this
like coin age based selection. Another potential problem is when the network
choses the next validator but he doesn’t turn up to do his job. This could easily be solved by choosing a
large number of backup validators as a fallback. In short: proof-of-stake brings additional
risks when compared to proof-of-work and a lot of research is needed to understand these
risks and to mitigate them. Alright so now that we know what proof-of-stake
is, what benefits it has and what risks are involved, let’s look at real world usage. A few examples of coins that use it right
now are Peercoin, Lisk and Nxt but more cryptocurrencies are likely to follow in the future. Ethereum for instance is working on implementing
a proof-of-stake system which they call Casper. It’s currently deployed on the Ethereum
testnet and is actively being developed. And also the Cardano project has long been
working on creating the a provable secure proof-of-stake algorithm that they call Ouroboros. More about that in this video right here. So that was it for this video. If you liked it, give it a thumbs up and consider
getting subscribed. Thank you very much for watching and I’ll
see you in the next video!

OVIVIEW -HR Business Tool-

Meet the OVIVIEW! A truly innovative
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routine! OVIVIEW offers you the chance for easy and quick initial screening of
candidates using cameras to record each interview, while avoiding the need for
simultaneous participation and making the whole interviewing process simpler,
objective and more effective. Now it’s easier than ever before! Just log into
the platform, edit the interview structure based on your demands;
such as selecting the questions or setting time limits for each response.
You can take absolute control of questions, deadlines and documents
regarding your applicants depending on your own convenience. Add the email
addresses of the candidates and send them the invitations to fulfill their
interviews. Meanwhile, you can focus on your core business while awaiting for
candidates to respond. So why OVIVIEW? Efficiency; no need to connect with each
potential job candidate individually via phone or Skype, and waste time
interviewing person by person. Mobility; Watch submitted interviews anytime and
everywhere via our web platform. Intuitive Rating System; Interview
ratings based on predetermined values, allowing quick scoring and sorting. Fair
interviewing; Compared to telephone interviews OVIVIEW gives each candidate
decimally equal amount of time both to prepare for the questions and to answer
it. OVIVIEW allows its candidates to not wait for an actual interview to show
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Multideur’s migration to Microsoft Dynamics 365 Business Central

Worldwide millions of doors open and close each day. Multideur ensures that vital organisations
like the Ministry of Defense… …and fire departments have no worries about
their accessibility by using technology. Basically I always say nobody notices a door… …until it doesn’t work anymore. Because then you will find out that the processes
inside a factory can not continue anymore. Fire departments, the Ministry of Defense
or police departments… …you can imagine what will happen if such
a service can not be delivered… …because a door is malfunctioning. Since we are focusing more and more on the service delivery… …we see a big challenge in the speed of
information throughout our processes. In the past we had a very physical process here. With lots of piles of papers and mechanics going
to clients with physical worksheets. But also we had some various systems and
various versions of Navision… …so when a client called with a breakdown or malfunctioning door, we
had to look at different places to find the right information. So the speed and accessibility of information became a big issue. And this is something we wanted to solve with a new system. We chose for the Microsoft Dynamics 365 Business Central
solution with the Field Service app. Basically it gives us the most easy way to find information. We also ensure that the information is the same at every place. And its accessible for everybody everywhere
because it is in the cloud. So for example a mechanic can now focus on
his job, which is to maintain or service the door… …and less on paperwork and all
kinds of administration instead. Our work used to be a lot of paperwork, a lot of e-mails… …no that was not a nice situation. Now we have more time with the system to
help the customer and work on the project. That makes life easier. We made a big choice to put our system into the cloud. So we do not use local servers anymore. But also no local support. We have a partner which is Prodware. They helped us with defining the system. They helped us find
the best solution for Multideur in our demands and our processes. And today they support us in having the system online
everyday. And help us improve everyday. We are now also working on implementing the business intelligence
app Power BI… …which gives us a lot of management information… …on what we are doing so we can provide
the SLA information to our customers proactively. And also steer ourselfs on our main KPI’s and
the service delivery that we have in the field. In the end we want to deliver our promise. Which is
to deliver the best service to our customers. So basically we already know when a breakdown can happen… …or when specific predictive maintainance needs
to be done before the client even notices. And this is what we are looking into. By use of IOT
which is also supported by the Field Service solution.

Business international – Le saviez-vous ? – 6/10 – Le Rendez-Vous Ellisphere

Good morning, everyone. Having qualified data on companies in many countries is not easy. It is often necessary to rely on reliable information networks to access all this data. To talk about this today, Stephen Lord, whom I no longer present, and I will be accompanied by Burt Riské, director of Trends Business Information, a division of the Roularta group, a Belgian company in the information sector. Good morning, gentlemen. First question for you, Stephen. How does an information provider collect information on companies in all countries? As we know, countries all have their own specificities. The best way is always to be on present locally to collect all this information. This is why it is necessary to have a quality information network. Ellisphere has therefore surrounded itself with the most efficient service providers in their respective countries in order to provide quality, standardized and clear information. and who are these partners? To ensure a very high level of information, it is necessary to collaborate with the best in each country. The BIGnet network reflects this level of requirement. This network, of which Ellisphere is a founding member …And of which you are President Stephen… has 18 members across Europe and North America and covers 32 countries. Beyond these 32 countries, we have other partners to cover the rest of the world. Burt, Ellisphere is not the only founding member of the BIGnet network. so is Roularta… Absolutely, Belgium being at the heart of Europe, it was obviously designated to be part of this BIGnet network adventure. Due to the size of our country, Belgian companies are historically exporters and have long developed trade with European companies. And what is the advantage for companies to use an information network such as BIGnet? Companies must have reliable and easy-to-use tools at their disposal to make quick decisions. Our challenge is to provide relevant, responsive and complete information in a simple format and at competitive conditions. This challenge is not easy to meet, but thanks to the BIGnet network in general and our close collaboration in particular, Roularta and Ellisphere customers now have an integrated service that includes monitoring, a harmonised score, comprehensive reports and additional information services. Thanks to both of you for sharing your thoughts. We have seen the importance for companies to have fresh, qualified and monitored information on their business partners, and all this thanks to a solid global information network. We will devote the next episode of the Ellisphere Rendez-Vous to the prevention management of customer and supplier risks on an international scale.

Three Things: Finding Happiness at Work

What can you do to increase
the good in the world so that both you and the
people around you are happier? First, be generous with others,
whether it means giving money to charity, treating a
stranger in a coffee line, or buying a gift for a friend. Such altruistic behaviors
will benefit the recipient and will also make you happier. For example, research
showed that when employees were asked to spend their
bonuses by giving gifts to one another, they gave items
such as a box of chocolates or a bottle of wine. One even bought a pinata which
the giver and the recipient bashed together. Most importantly, when
these bonuses were shared, employees were
happier at their jobs, and they performed better. So remember, how you spend your
money is as important as how much you spend. Second, share your social
and professional resources. Play matchmaker. Whether the match you make
is romantic or platonic, matchmaking has many upsides,
including bringing communities together. So if you have two friends
who don’t yet know each other, perhaps it’s time to
make an introduction. Matchmaking also spreads
resources, assets, and access. You probably know two
people in your workplace that are unacquainted. Even if they don’t become
instant business partners, they might collaborate
on a future project. Plus, matchmaking
also benefits you. Research shows that creating
successful and thoughtful matches for others
makes us happier, similar to other
acts of kindness. And finally, be
generous with yourself. When people are willing to
share sensitive information about themselves,
those revelations increase their
connections with others. In the workplace, simply sharing
a piece of personal information can increase creativity,
performance, and teamwork, and improve interactions
with others. So be generous with
your financial, social, and professional resources,
as well as with yourself. The more generous you are,
the happier everyone will be. As Churchill said, we make
a living by what we get, but we make a life
by what we give. Give fearlessly.

Decoding Business Casual – Ep. 5

Hey, this is Kelsey from the GoalGetter blog. Thanks for watching this video. So let’s talk about the moving target that is business casual. Depending on what company you work for, business casual could mean a variety of different things. I know that there are some companies out there that say that jeans are okay to wear when you’re dressing business casual. There are also some companies that say that jeans are not permitted, but you have slacks or professional pants or something like that. And don’t get me started on open toed shoes. I’ve heard that too many times to even count. If you want to stop getting those passive aggressive memos from your HR department, take a look at some of these tips that I’ve got. Maybe I’ll be able to help you nail on the head exactly what business casual means for your company. The first tip I have is find somebody that you admire, and see how they dress. Look at what pieces they tend to use more often. Do they tend to be more formal, or do they tend to be more casual? It helps to find somebody that you admire that actually works for the same company as you, but even if they’re not in the same company, but they’re in the same industry, sometimes that helps, too. Company culture is really important when you’re determining what business casual means. For example, I had a friend who wore a certain outfit to a job interview at a company, and the outfit was completely acceptable. At least I think it was, ‘cuz she moved on to the next round of interviews but she wore that same outfit to work later, at a different company, and it was not considered acceptable. So the company that she interviewed at was a lot more casual. You know, they were fine with wearing jeans and sneakers. So her interview outfit was completely acceptable. But this other company, even though they also described their dress code as business casual, they tended to be a bit more formal. The next tip: Dress for the job you want, not the job you’ve got. I highly recommend looking at your dream job position, what people in that position, and see out they dress, then you can start building up your wardrobe and dressing that exact same way. That way, you’re dressing a step or two above what’s expected of you, and you’ve also built up your wardrobe so that when you do get in that position, you don’t have to go shopping right away. You already built up those pieces, so you already fit the role. Whenever you’re dressing for the job you want and not the job you’ve got, you will also see that there’s two good results from that. The first one is that others will perceive you as more competent. So let me tell you a story: I was once in an office where everybody was really comfortable wearing jeans. They were comfortable wearing sneakers and T-shirts to work. They were business casual, emphasis on the casual! But there was a manager and you could tell whenever she walked in the room, because she wore black slacks, she wore high heels, and a nice professional blouse. Even though she also had the option to dress super casual, she chose to step it up a little bit, and dress in a way that kind of commanded more respect. And as a result, people gave her a lot of respect. So, whenever you dress for the job you want and you decide to dress a step or two above, people will see you as more competent and more respectable. Whenever you’re dressing for the job you want, not the job you’ve got, another great thing that will happen is you will feel more competent. When I was in school, I was a firm believer in the phrase “dress well, test well.” Whenever I knew that I looked nice, I just felt more confident and I felt like I could take on more and do well. Whenever you dress in a way where you feel more worthy and more competent, you’re going to feel like you can command more respect from other people. The next tip I have for you for nailing business casual on the head for your company is asking your HR department. See if you can get a copy of your company’s dress code policy. These are usually pretty specific, so that way you can see exactly what is allowed, what is not, and what’s encouraged. The last tip that I have for nailing business casual on the head, is always for a bit more formal. It’s always better to be overdressed than under dressed. That’s one of the best pieces of advice I ever got in my life. So always aim for a little bit more formal. It’s a lot easier to pull off a dress when everybody else is wearing jeans, than it is to pull of sweatpants when everyone else is wearing jeans. If you just wear sweatpants and you’re dressing a level below, you just look unprepared. So just to be careful, always aim for a little bit more on the formal side. You can just make it look like you planned it that way. That you decided to look a little nicer on purpose. Like I said, business casual is a moving target. So I hope these tips help you whenever you’re determining what to wear to work. If you like this video, be sure to subscribe and thumbs up. Also feel free to share any tips that you’ve got about dressing business casual at your work, or any funny stories about dress code at your work. I’d love to hear them, so write them in the comments down below. be sure to check out my website. It’s Thanks for watching!

The beauty of data visualization | David McCandless

It feels like we’re all suffering from information overload or data glut. And the good news is there might be an easy solution to that, and that’s using our eyes more. So, visualizing information, so that we can see the patterns and connections that matter and then designing that information so it makes more sense, or it tells a story, or allows us to focus only on the information that’s important. Failing that, visualized information can just look really cool. So, let’s see. This is the $Billion Dollar o-Gram, and this image arose out of frustration I had with the reporting of billion-dollar amounts in the press. That is, they’re meaningless without context: 500 billion for this pipeline, 20 billion for this war. It doesn’t make any sense, so the only way to understand it is visually and relatively. So I scraped a load of reported figures from various news outlets and then scaled the boxes according to those amounts. And the colors here represent the motivation behind the money. So purple is “fighting,” and red is “giving money away,” and green is “profiteering.” And what you can see straight away is you start to have a different relationship to the numbers. You can literally see them. But more importantly, you start to see patterns and connections between numbers that would otherwise be scattered across multiple news reports. Let me point out some that I really like. This is OPEC’s revenue, this green box here — 780 billion a year. And this little pixel in the corner — three billion — that’s their climate change fund. Americans, incredibly generous people — over 300 billion a year, donated to charity every year, compared with the amount of foreign aid given by the top 17 industrialized nations at 120 billion. Then of course, the Iraq War, predicted to cost just 60 billion back in 2003. And it mushroomed slightly. Afghanistan and Iraq mushroomed now to 3,000 billion. So now it’s great because now we have this texture, and we can add numbers to it as well. So we could say, well, a new figure comes out … let’s see African debt. How much of this diagram do you think might be taken up by the debt that Africa owes to the West? Let’s take a look. So there it is: 227 billion is what Africa owes. And the recent financial crisis, how much of this diagram might that figure take up? What has that cost the world? Let’s take a look at that. Dooosh — Which I think is the appropriate sound effect for that much money: 11,900 billion. So, by visualizing this information, we turned it into a landscape that you can explore with your eyes, a kind of map really, a sort of information map. And when you’re lost in information, an information map is kind of useful. So I want to show you another landscape now. We need to imagine what a landscape of the world’s fears might look like. Let’s take a look. This is Mountains Out of Molehills, a timeline of global media panic. (Laughter) So, I’ll label this for you in a second. But the height here, I want to point out, is the intensity of certain fears as reported in the media. Let me point them out. So this, swine flu — pink. Bird flu. SARS — brownish here. Remember that one? The millennium bug, terrible disaster. These little green peaks are asteroid collisions. (Laughter) And in summer, here, killer wasps. (Laughter) So these are what our fears look like over time in our media. But what I love — and I’m a journalist — and what I love is finding hidden patterns; I love being a data detective. And there’s a very interesting and odd pattern hidden in this data that you can only see when you visualize it. Let me highlight it for you. See this line, this is a landscape for violent video games. As you can see, there’s a kind of odd, regular pattern in the data, twin peaks every year. If we look closer, we see those peaks occur at the same month every year. Why? Well, November, Christmas video games come out, and there may well be an upsurge in the concern about their content. But April isn’t a particularly massive month for video games. Why April? Well, in April 1999 was the Columbine shooting, and since then, that fear has been remembered by the media and echoes through the group mind gradually through the year. You have retrospectives, anniversaries, court cases, even copy-cat shootings, all pushing that fear into the agenda. And there’s another pattern here as well. Can you spot it? See that gap there? There’s a gap, and it affects all the other stories. Why is there a gap there? You see where it starts? September 2001, when we had something very real to be scared about. So, I’ve been working as a data journalist for about a year, and I keep hearing a phrase all the time, which is this: “Data is the new oil.” Data is the kind of ubiquitous resource that we can shape to provide new innovations and new insights, and it’s all around us, and it can be mined very easily. It’s not a particularly great metaphor in these times, especially if you live around the Gulf of Mexico, but I would, perhaps, adapt this metaphor slightly, and I would say that data is the new soil. Because for me, it feels like a fertile, creative medium. Over the years, online, we’ve laid down a huge amount of information and data, and we irrigate it with networks and connectivity, and it’s been worked and tilled by unpaid workers and governments. And, all right, I’m kind of milking the metaphor a little bit. But it’s a really fertile medium, and it feels like visualizations, infographics, data visualizations, they feel like flowers blooming from this medium. But if you look at it directly, it’s just a lot of numbers and disconnected facts. But if you start working with it and playing with it in a certain way, interesting things can appear and different patterns can be revealed. Let me show you this. Can you guess what this data set is? What rises twice a year, once in Easter and then two weeks before Christmas, has a mini peak every Monday, and then flattens out over the summer? I’ll take answers. (Audience: Chocolate.) David McCandless: Chocolate. You might want to get some chocolate in. Any other guesses? (Audience: Shopping.) DM: Shopping. Yeah, retail therapy might help. (Audience: Sick leave.) DM: Sick leave. Yeah, you’ll definitely want to take some time off. Shall we see? (Laughter) (Applause) So, the information guru Lee Byron and myself, we scraped 10,000 status Facebook updates for the phrase “break-up” and “broken-up” and this is the pattern we found — people clearing out for Spring Break, (Laughter) coming out of very bad weekends on a Monday, being single over the summer, and then the lowest day of the year, of course: Christmas Day. Who would do that? So there’s a titanic amount of data out there now, unprecedented. But if you ask the right kind of question, or you work it in the right kind of way, interesting things can emerge. So information is beautiful. Data is beautiful. I wonder if I could make my life beautiful. And here’s my visual C.V. I’m not quite sure I’ve succeeded. Pretty blocky, the colors aren’t that great. But I wanted to convey something to you. I started as a programmer, and then I worked as a writer for many years, about 20 years, in print, online and then in advertising, and only recently have I started designing. And I’ve never been to design school. I’ve never studied art or anything. I just kind of learned through doing. And when I started designing, I discovered an odd thing about myself. I already knew how to design, but it wasn’t like I was amazingly brilliant at it, but more like I was sensitive to the ideas of grids and space and alignment and typography. It’s almost like being exposed to all this media over the years had instilled a kind of dormant design literacy in me. And I don’t feel like I’m unique. I feel that everyday, all of us now are being blasted by information design. It’s being poured into our eyes through the Web, and we’re all visualizers now; we’re all demanding a visual aspect to our information. There’s something almost quite magical about visual information. It’s effortless, it literally pours in. And if you’re navigating a dense information jungle, coming across a beautiful graphic or a lovely data visualization, it’s a relief, it’s like coming across a clearing in the jungle. I was curious about this, so it led me to the work of a Danish physicist called Tor Norretranders, and he converted the bandwidth of the senses into computer terms. So here we go. This is your senses, pouring into your senses every second. Your sense of sight is the fastest. It has the same bandwidth as a computer network. Then you have touch, which is about the speed of a USB key. And then you have hearing and smell, which has the throughput of a hard disk. And then you have poor old taste, which is like barely the throughput of a pocket calculator. And that little square in the corner, a naught .7 percent, that’s the amount we’re actually aware of. So a lot of your vision — the bulk of it is visual, and it’s pouring in. It’s unconscious. The eye is exquisitely sensitive to patterns in variations in color, shape and pattern. It loves them, and it calls them beautiful. It’s the language of the eye. If you combine the language of the eye with the language of the mind, which is about words and numbers and concepts, you start speaking two languages simultaneously, each enhancing the other. So, you have the eye, and then you drop in the concepts. And that whole thing — it’s two languages both working at the same time. So we can use this new kind of language, if you like, to alter our perspective or change our views. Let me ask you a simple question with a really simple answer: Who has the biggest military budget? It’s got to be America, right? Massive. 609 billion in 2008 — 607, rather. So massive, in fact, that it can contain all the other military budgets in the world inside itself. Gobble, gobble, gobble, gobble, gobble. Now, you can see Africa’s total debt there and the U.K. budget deficit for reference. So that might well chime with your view that America is a sort of warmongering military machine, out to overpower the world with its huge industrial-military complex. But is it true that America has the biggest military budget? Because America is an incredibly rich country. In fact, it’s so massively rich that it can contain the four other top industrialized nations’ economies inside itself, it’s so vastly rich. So its military budget is bound to be enormous. So, to be fair and to alter our perspective, we have to bring in another data set, and that data set is GDP, or the country’s earnings. Who has the biggest budget as a proportion of GDP? Let’s have a look. That changes the picture considerably. Other countries pop into view that you, perhaps, weren’t considering, and American drops into eighth. Now you can also do this with soldiers. Who has the most soldiers? It’s got to be China. Of course, 2.1 million. Again, chiming with your view that China has a militarized regime ready to, you know, mobilize its enormous forces. But of course, China has an enormous population. So if we do the same, we see a radically different picture. China drops to 124th. It actually has a tiny army when you take other data into consideration. So, absolute figures, like the military budget, in a connected world, don’t give you the whole picture. They’re not as true as they could be. We need relative figures that are connected to other data so that we can see a fuller picture, and then that can lead to us changing our perspective. As Hans Rosling, the master, my master, said, “Let the dataset change your mindset.” And if it can do that, maybe it can also change your behavior. Take a look at this one. I’m a bit of a health nut. I love taking supplements and being fit, but I can never understand what’s going on in terms of evidence. There’s always conflicting evidence. Should I take vitamin C? Should I be taking wheatgrass? This is a visualization of all the evidence for nutritional supplements. This kind of diagram is called a balloon race. So the higher up the image, the more evidence there is for each supplement. And the bubbles correspond to popularity as regards to Google hits. So you can immediately apprehend the relationship between efficacy and popularity, but you can also, if you grade the evidence, do a “worth it” line. So supplements above this line are worth investigating, but only for the conditions listed below, and then the supplements below the line are perhaps not worth investigating. Now this image constitutes a huge amount of work. We scraped like 1,000 studies from PubMed, the biomedical database, and we compiled them and graded them all. And it was incredibly frustrating for me because I had a book of 250 visualizations to do for my book, and I spent a month doing this, and I only filled two pages. But what it points to is that visualizing information like this is a form of knowledge compression. It’s a way of squeezing an enormous amount of information and understanding into a small space. And once you’ve curated that data, and once you’ve cleaned that data, and once it’s there, you can do cool stuff like this. So I converted this into an interactive app, so I can now generate this application online — this is the visualization online — and I can say, “Yeah, brilliant.” So it spawns itself. And then I can say, “Well, just show me the stuff that affects heart health.” So let’s filter that out. So heart is filtered out, so I can see if I’m curious about that. I think, “No, no. I don’t want to take any synthetics, I just want to see plants and — just show me herbs and plants. I’ve got all the natural ingredients.” Now this app is spawning itself from the data. The data is all stored in a Google Doc, and it’s literally generating itself from that data. So the data is now alive; this is a living image, and I can update it in a second. New evidence comes out. I just change a row on a spreadsheet. Doosh! Again, the image recreates itself. So it’s cool. It’s kind of living. But it can go beyond data, and it can go beyond numbers. I like to apply information visualization to ideas and concepts. This is a visualization of the political spectrum, an attempt for me to try and understand how it works and how the ideas percolate down from government into society and culture, into families, into individuals, into their beliefs and back around again in a cycle. What I love about this image is it’s made up of concepts, it explores our worldviews and it helps us — it helps me anyway — to see what others think, to see where they’re coming from. And it feels just incredibly cool to do that. What was most exciting for me designing this was that, when I was designing this image, I desperately wanted this side, the left side, to be better than the right side — being a journalist, a Left-leaning person — but I couldn’t, because I would have created a lopsided, biased diagram. So, in order to really create a full image, I had to honor the perspectives on the right-hand side and at the same time, uncomfortably recognize how many of those qualities were actually in me, which was very, very annoying and uncomfortable. (Laughter) But not too uncomfortable, because there’s something unthreatening about seeing a political perspective, versus being told or forced to listen to one. You’re capable of holding conflicting viewpoints joyously when you can see them. It’s even fun to engage with them because it’s visual. So that’s what’s exciting to me, seeing how data can change my perspective and change my mind midstream — beautiful, lovely data. So, just to wrap up, I wanted to say that it feels to me that design is about solving problems and providing elegant solutions, and information design is about solving information problems. It feels like we have a lot of information problems in our society at the moment, from the overload and the saturation to the breakdown of trust and reliability and runaway skepticism and lack of transparency, or even just interestingness. I mean, I find information just too interesting. It has a magnetic quality that draws me in. So, visualizing information can give us a very quick solution to those kinds of problems. Even when the information is terrible, the visual can be quite beautiful. Often we can get clarity or the answer to a simple question very quickly, like this one, the recent Icelandic volcano. Which was emitting the most CO2? Was it the planes or the volcano, the grounded planes or the volcano? So we can have a look. We look at the data and we see: Yep, the volcano emitted 150,000 tons; the grounded planes would have emitted 345,000 if they were in the sky. So essentially, we had our first carbon-neutral volcano. (Laughter) (Applause) And that is beautiful. Thank you. (Applause)