Three tips to ensure a customer focus in manufacturing marketing | Need-to-know

Nowadays, in order to stay competitive, manufacturers must embrace digital marketing. Digital marketing can seem like a huge and daunting task, but one key piece of advice is to put your customers at the heart of everything you do. Knowing who your customer is and what they want is at the core of any successful digital marketing campaign. This video will look at three ways you can ensure that all-important customer focus in manufacturing marketing. Firstly, conduct detailed persona research. This will tell you who exactly your customers are. Don’t assume you already know this. It’s possible that your typical buyer is changing, or perhaps their attitude is changing, or their characteristics might change from country to country, and therefore having this open mindset is very important. Research what your target persona’s motivations and pain paints are, so that you can target them with a highly specific solution message. This will allow you to create more tailored content that is more likely to catch their attention. Secondly, find out which social networks your customers are on. In most countries, the leading B2B platform is LinkedIn, followed by Twitter and Facebook. However, this isn’t the case worldwide, so if you’re targeting international markets, make sure to research if there are any local platforms where your customers might be present. If you’re targeting clients in Russia, you should know that LinkedIn is currently banned in the country. In China, however, LinkedIn is quite popular, but there’s also another popular platform called Maimai which has about 50 million users. Knowing which social networks your customers are on is useful because it’ll tell you where you need to share your content. And finally, focus on how your products make your customers’ lives easier. When you’re promoting your products, you should emphasise the benefits of your products in your messaging, not just their features. The distinction between features and benefits might sound straightforward, but they’re often confused. For example, a feature of an MP3 player could be that it has 1GB of storage, but not many people fully understand what that means. However, if you instead put forward the message that the MP3 player will put 1,000 songs in your pocket – which is a benefit – that is a message that many consumers will immediately understand and take on board. Can you think of any other tips on how to ensure a customer focus in manufacturing marketing? Let us know in the comments below! And remember, we have a more detailed guide on this topic on our training platform. Check it out using the link in the description.

CAREERS IN BA ECONOMICS – MA,P.hD,Teacher,Economist,Job Opportunities,Salary Package

Hello All..This is Aparajita from Welcome to our video channel on jobs and careers Today I will be talking about the career opportunities in B.A Economics Economics is a field which will never dwindle.
There might be an increase in technology in the last century or so, but there has been
no difference whatsoever for the need of economists in the world. In India, there has been a serious
growth in the jobs available for individuals with degrees in economics. There are many
reasons that are quoted for this significant growth. Privatization of banks, globalization,
open markets are some of the few reasons as to why job options for people with degrees
in economics have increased in India recently. There are many choices available in both public
and private sectors for people with degrees in economics. The public sector jobs offer
you financial stability and also offer you a definitive level of prestige in the community.
The foremost of the government jobs available to you are in the Indian Economics Service
(IES). These are some highly sought after jobs, and it helps to be a great student while
applying for these jobs. Then, there are jobs in the reserve bank of India, PSU’s and
other public sector banks. There are quite a few job openings in the
private sector as well. You can apply for a job in many multinational companies, BPO’s
in the management domains. You can also consider the option of applying for the many private
sector banks and other such institutions. A career as a journalist is also viable with
your degree in economics. You can pursue your goal of becoming a journalist by becoming
an economics journalist at a newspaper or a magazine. If you want to further your education, then a master’s degree in economics is the most
logical option. If you are considering a private job, the an MBA degree could be quite helpful.
You can also consider the option of becoming a lawyer by studying LLB too. There is a good
range to further your studies in, and there is absolutely no lack of good colleges in
the country for this. These are some of the jobs you can choose
with your degree in economics: • Accounting
• Auditor • Banking and Finance
• Insurance Investment • Marketing
• Stock Broker • Media Analyst
• Management • Manufacturing
• Advertising • Communication
• Actuarial • Education and Research
• Retailing • System Analysis The pay packet is quite lucrative too. As a fresher, you can expect anywhere between
4 and 8 lakhs per annum, in the field of economics. There is a huge potential for growth. And,
for some of the more brilliant students among you, the pay packet can be further improved.
A Masters degree will further help your cause. You can get many better paying jobs with a
master’s degree in economics, or with a MBA degree.
There are obviously a lot of career choices available for you. But, the truth is for you
to proceed further you need to put in more effort and time into your education. You can
get great advice to take your career further ahead at
will also allow you to choose the job you like from both the private and public sectors we will be back with more such videos so stay connected with us do not forget to hit the subscribe button below

CAREERS IN PRODUCTION ENGINEERING – B.Tech,Institutions,Manufacturing Jobs,Recruiters,Salary Package

Hello All..This is Manju from Welcome to our video channel on jobs and careers Today I will be talking about the career opportunities in B.Tech Production Engineering Just like the name suggests, production engineering
is mostly about the study of products and the various processes of its manufacture.
Most production engineers are assigned with the task of seeing how products and commodities
are exactly fabricated, the machines which are going to be used to create the product
and what is the safest and most efficient procedure to get it done. The products could
be almost anything, from something as simple and basic as a newspaper to plastic bottles,
cans and IPods. Sometimes production engineers are also made to increase the transfer of
hydrocarbons from oil into the process of production. Whenever there is some kind of
reproduction or creation of a product involved, there is a higher possibility of finding a
production engineer close by. So if you are planning to become a production
engineer; you must be wondering where your location of work will be. The answer is quite
simple; it could be almost anywhere. This depends upon the kind of production you are
involved in. If it is oil or gas that you are keen on working with, then you’ll be
in some big energy company trying to help the process and boosting cost efficiency.
If consumer goods is what interests you the best, then you could be working for one of
the biggest supermarkets or malls of the city. All of this does sound fun but there is a
lot of effort that needs to be put in before you become a successful production engineer.
You have to have proper understanding of scientific applications and must be good at math too.
Not just that, you have to be up to date when it comes to new technological developments.
Apart from that, you must know how to design, to come up with proper and quality techniques
for the system, select the right kind of knowledge and application in order to revamp the functionality
of the product and to create and implement different processes and services. In order
to start your career in this field, you must finish your 12th standard exam in science
subjects such as physics, chemistry and biology. Once that is done with, apply to engineering
colleges that have production engineering as an undergraduate course. Here are some
of the top colleges in India that have production engineering as a major course
• AISSMS College of Engineering • Al Azhar College of Engineering and Technology
• Anand Engineering College • Birla Institute of Technology
• Chouksey Engineering College • D. Y Patil College of Engineering and
Technology • Government College of Engineering, Pune
• Haldia Institute of Technology Each of these institutions provide you with
a degree in production engineering. They are recognized and proper institutions that have
encouraged young professionals to choose this field of engineering as a career choice.
However if you still have a couple of doubts in mind regarding the field and profession,
feel free to log on to Here you will find all information you could
be in search of we will be back with more such videos so stay connected with us do not forget to hit the subscribe button

Jon Ohman of GE Aviation Takes the World to Work

Hi, I’m Jon Ohman. Chief test pilot at GE Aviation, here at our Victorville flight test facility — and welcome to day four. Today I’m taking over all our social media channels to show you how we test our jet engines on our 747 flying testbed. My love for aviation came from my dad, he passed it on to me. And after serving as a pilot in the Marine Corps, that passion for aviation led me to here at GE. For me it’s always been about the people and the mission. And the mission of the team here is to ensure air travel is as safe as possible. But before we go up there, we have to spend a lot of time down here. Right here in the office. Before we do a test flight, we spend a lot of time here doing pre-flight planning, and a series of reviews to make sure everything we do is safe. Kind of like a pre-flight checklist. Let’s meet some of the team and see how it’s going. Hey Nate. Morning Jon! How’s the prep going for the next GE9X test campaign? Great! You mind talking us through the process a little bit? Of course, so one of the first step is we have what’s called a Flight Readiness review Where we get the entire team together, and walk through the plan that’s gonna take us to first flight. Next, we plan all the test cards with the engineering team. Then, once the engine shows up, we’re gonna integrate it to the airplane. We’re gonna test all those systems on a series of ground runs, and then we’re gonna have an aircraft safety review. Finally, we’re gonna have a pre-flight briefing with the entire test team on the morning of each flight. Alright, it looks like we’re almost ready! Thanks, Nate. No problem! Alright, now let’s see what it takes to mount one of these engines on to our 747 flying testbed. Hey Michael! Oh hey Jon! Hey, you mind telling us what we do to get this engine ready for tests? Yes, this is actually a CF6, but when we receive the 9X engine from PTO, we use an overhead crane to install it on the aircraft. Then, we will perform a high power ground run to verify we are safe and begin our flight campaign. This is a CF6 engine behind me, but the GE9X is actually way bigger. It has a fan diameter of 134 inches, that’s almost two of me. Alright, let’s go onboard the plane to check out the data console. But before we do that, we’re gonna get suited up. As you can see, this doesn’t look like
the inside of your standard 747. Instead of passenger seats, we have these rows of data collection consoles. Let’s talk to Jason and see what we do to get ready for a test flight. Hey Jason! Hey Jon! Hey, you mind telling us what we do to get ready to collect data for the test flight? Sure, what we’re doing now before the flight is doing our calibrations before we go to make sure that we’re gonna collect the most high-quality data that we can get, at up to two hundred thousand scans per second. So as you can imagine, that’s quite a lot of data. Looks like we’re almost ready for a flight. Let’s go and check out the cockpit. This is the cockpit of our 747 flying test bed. For the most part, it looks like a standard 747, but there are a few unique modifications. We use this flying testbed to test our engines in a variety of different tests. Everything from performance testing– to ensure that we’re getting the most fuel efficiency out of the engine possible, to operability testing, where we make sure that the engine can start under all kinds of conditions. So all of this testing is for the purpose of making sure that our engines are working normally, and safely for our customers. And that’s how we test the GE9X on our flying testbed. Thanks for joining us this week, I hope you enjoyed it.

Kelly Dunham of GE Aviation Takes the World to Work

Hi, I’m Kelley Dunham. Lead test engineer here at GE Aviation’s test operations in Peebles, Ohio. Welcome to day three: stand testing. Today, I’m going to show you how we assemble the final pieces of our GE9X engine, And then take it through a series of tests. So for that, let’s go check out our first stop: The Ed Spears Complex. So yesterday, you got to see development assembly of the GE9X in Evandale. And they send the propulsor here and we put on the final touches. So we install the fan case and the fan
blades. So now, it’s time to install the fan blades. So this is one of the 9X’s we’re prepping for tests. As you can see here on the side, This is all the instrumentation we’re putting on the fan case. Oh and look, it’s Phil. Hey Phil, how’s it going? It’s going good today! My name is Phil Ferguson, I’ve been here 15 years. Down here in the Fred building, we install the instrumentation, Anything to measure vibration temperature just to name a few, To ensure we have the best engine in the
world. Awesome! Thank you, have a great day. Behind me is the fully assembled GE9x. It has a total of 16 composite fan blades. Out here in Peebles, our facility is pretty big. In fact, it’s just over 7,000 acres. That means we can’t exactly just push the engine to the next stop. For that, we gotta hitch a ride. Before an engine is certified for flight, We have to take it through a series of rigorous testing. And when I say rigorous, I mean rigorous. Crosswind testing, hailstorm testing, hailstone testing, ETOPS, Performance testing, endurance testing,
block test, dynamics testing. Let’s head inside now to check out the control room where the testings actually done. I’m gonna introduce you to Nick, Who’s gonna tell us a little bit more about how we monitor tests while they’re running. Nick! Hi, I’m Nick– Test level owner here at site six. So today what we’re gonna do, we’re gonna run this vibe endurance check here, Make sure everything looks good in this engine I think we’re ready to go if you are. Alright, let’s do this! Let’s do it. Alright let’s do this. Vibe check Kelly? Vibes are good! Here we go, time is 14:18. Begin accel in three, two, one Vibe tests will be running for awhile, So let’s go check out some other engines that are running. This engine behind me is running power calibrations. That big dome you see over there is what we call the TCS dome or the turbulence control structure. Behind me are the two production test cells. So once the GE9X is the certified engine, All the engines will run through here for production testing. The great thing about the indoor test cells is that we can run no matter what the weather is. Rain, sleet, or snow, we can still run the engine. Thanks for following along today! I hope you enjoyed the inside look at how we test our GE9X engines Here at the Peebles test operations in Peebles, Ohio. Check back in tomorrow for on-wing
testing with our chief test pilot. See ya!

Aaron Perry of GE Aviation Takes the World to Work

Hey there, I’m Aaron Perry, Development Assembly Mechanic here in GE Evendale on the GE9X. Welcome to day 2. So today I’m gonna take you through the process we use to take all these parts and make a GE9X development engine. Let’s go! The parts came from all over the world. Check it out. Booster came from Belgium. Fan Hub Frame came from France. Forward Cases came from Taiwan. CDN, United States of America. TCF, Germany. LPT, Italy. See I told you they came from all over the world. Looks like this engine needs a Lower Stator Case but before we can install that we got to go see the planner who’s developing the process. So now that we have the Lower Stator Case ready for assembly, we need our process, our instructions, our plan for making sure that it gets installed correctly. That’s where my buddy, Aaron Caskey, comes into play. Sup, Aaron! He’s a GE9X planner. He’s gonna tell you a little bit more about what he does. Oh yeah, so here we are developing a template to install the Lower Stator Case on the GE9X. But it’s not set in stone yet, have to bounce it back off Aaron to make sure it makes sense to him. Once we look at it and we determine that everything looks good and that the Stator Case assembly should go as expected, I’ll come back to Aaron and say, “let’s go to the next step.” Thanks, Aaron! Thanks, Aaron. So before we put this Lower Stator Case on, we got one more stop. We need to check with our Instrumentation Process Engineer, Freddy, to make sure he’s got all his hardware installed. Hey Fred. Hey Aaron. Currently working on installing light probes as you can see it’s on the outer case of that forward case and it’s all done right now. Let’s go install this thing! Alright, we’re ready to install the Lower Stator Case. We’re gonna take the Stator Case and I’m gonna put it on the engine right there. My buddy Mike is here to help us out. Hey Mike, introduce yourself. Yes, my name is Mike Whalen, and I’m an Assembly Mechanic with General Electric and I’ve been here seven and a half years. Alright Aaron, you ready? Let’s do it! Alright it looks like we’ve got this engine just about wrapped up and we wanna check with our Assembly Engineer to make sure all the paperwork’s in line before we ship it. Hey Anne! Just making sure everything’s checked off to ship. How’s it look? Looks good. Let’s ship it! So growing up, I always like space flight, space travel, aircraft, airplanes. That curiosity has stayed with me. Still fascinated with it, I still love it. And here I am, an aviation icon, GE Aviation, working in my hometown on the biggest, best jet engine manufactured today with the newest technologies. It’s the best place to work. Hey, thanks for watching how we put these beasts together. Come back tomorrow to see how we test them at Peebles. See ya.

When are Work Gloves Dangerous?

It seems like common sense: Wearing gloves
to protect your hands. Almost always this is true, but when working around machinery
with moving parts wearing gloves can actually create a danger. That’s what happened to
Julie. Despite having no experience, Julie offered
to help mill parts at a friend’s business. The business owner warned Julie about the
danger of clothes, hair, and jewellery getting caught in the milling machine, but not about
the same risk with gloves. Spinning at high speed, the chuck caught the
glove Julie was wearing, breaking and cutting her arm. Luckily, the glove ripped apart,
allowing her to free herself. Wearing gloves around rotating or moving parts
can pose a serious entanglement hazard. In the last 5 years, about 300 manufacturing
workers in B.C. submitted injury claims as a result of getting a glove caught in machinery. Let’s test your knowledge of when and when
not to wear gloves: Should this worker using an angle grinder
be wearing gloves? Yes or no? Yes, but he needs to keep both hands on the
handles of the grinder. This worker is using a lathe to turn down
a piece of stock. Gloves?
Yes or no? No, lathes are notorious for catching onto
gloves. You’re running a drill press.
Gloves? Yes or no? No, gloves can be caught in the rotating bit
or chuck. Watch out for swarf too.
It’s like a magnet for snagging gloves or loose clothing. Grinding metal on a bench grinder?
Gloves? Yes or no? No.
Gloves, even tight-fitting ones, should not be worn when operating bench or pedestal grinders. You need to move this wood strip away from
this drive chain. Gloves?
Yes or no? This is a trick question.
A B.C. worker actually reached in and knocked the wood strip down with his hand.
The chain sprocket caught his glove, pulling his hand into the sprocket and amputating
it. The important thing here, when clearing debris
or doing maintenance, is to de-energize and lock out the system first.
Guard the nip points as well. Each workplace is unique.
Assess yours to determine when it’s the right time to wear gloves and also when it’s

The Market Revolution: Crash Course US History #12

Hi, I’m John Green, this is Crash Course US
History and today we return to one of my favorite
subjects: economics. Mr. Green, Mr. Green, I don’t wanna brag,
but economics is actually my best subject. Like, I got the bronze medal at the state
academic decathlon tournament…among C students. Yeah, I remember, Me from the Past. By the way, thanks for getting that picture
into our show. It just goes to show you: aptitude is not
destiny. Anyway, economics is about much more than,
like, supply and demand curves. Ultimately, it’s about the decisions people make and
how those decisions shape their lives and the world. So today we’re going to turn to one of the
least-studied but most interesting periods in
American history: the Market Revolution. There weren’t any fancy wars or politically charged debates, but this discussion shaped the way that most Americans actually live their lives and think about work on a daily basis. Like, if you or someone you know goes to work,
well, then you have the Market Revolution
to thank, or possibly to curse. [Theme Music] The Market Revolution, like the Industrial
Revolution, was more of a process than an event. It happened in the first half of the 19th century,
basically, the period before the Civil War. This was the so-called “Era of Good Feelings,”
because between 1812 and 1836, there was really
only one political party, making American politics,
you know, much less contentious. Also, more boring. The Market Revolution saw many Americans move
away from producing stuff largely for themselves on
independent farms – that Jeffersonian
ideal – and toward producing goods for sale to others,
often others who were very far away, with prices
set by competition with other producers. This was closer to Hamilton’s American dream. In the end, buddy, you didn’t get to be president,
but you did win. In many ways, this was the beginning of the
modern commercial industrial economy, not
just in the United States, but in the world. The first thing that enabled this massive
economic shift was new technology, specifically
in transportation and communication. Like, in the 18th century, it was very difficult
to bring goods to markets, and that meant
that markets were local and small. Most trade was over land, and transporting
goods 30 miles over land in the United States literally
cost as much as shipping them to England. So, to get something from Cincinnati to New
York, for instance, the most efficient way was to go down the
Mississippi River, through the Gulf of Mexico, around Florida, and then up the Atlantic coast,
which took three months, but that was still less time and less money
than more direct overland routes. But new transportation changed this. First came better roads, which were largely
financed by tolls. Even the federal government got in on the
act, building the so-called National Road, which reached all the way from the massive city
of Cumberland, Maryland, across our great nation to
the equally metropolitan Wheeling, West Virginia. Mr. Green! Mr – Mr. Green, Mr. Green! I know, Me from the Past, West Virginia did
not yet exist, argh, shut up! More important than roads were canals, which
made transport much cheaper and more efficient, and which wouldn’t have been possible without
the steam boat. Robert Fulton’s steam boat Clermont first
sailed from New York to Albany in 1807, demonstrating
the potential of steam-powered commerce. And by 1811, there were steam boats on the
Mississippi. The introduction of steam boats set off a
mania for canal building. Between 1800 and the depression of 1837,
which put a halt to most construction,
more than 3,000 miles of canals were built. And no state was more instrumental in the
canal boom than New York, which in 1825 completed the 363-mile-long Eerie
Canal, linking the Great Lakes with the Hudson River,
which made New York the nation’s premier port. Other cities like Buffalo, Rochester, and
Syracuse grew up along the canals. So much so that Nathaniel Hawthorne once said, “The canal is like fertilizer, causing cities
to spring up alongside it.” That’s such a good simile, Nathaniel Hawthorne. It’s almost like the United States didn’t
have any good writers until Mark Twain, but we need to read somebody from the early
19th century, so I guess it’s you. But from a long-term perspective, the most
important new transportation? Railroads. The first commercial railroad, the Baltimore & Ohio,
was begun in 1828 and by 1860, there were more than
30,000 miles of rails in the United States. And on the communication side, we got the
telegraph, so no longer would Andrew Jackson
fight battles two weeks after the end of a war. Telegraphs allowed merchants to know when
to expect their shipments and how much they
could expect to sell them for. And then, as now, more information meant more
robust markets. But perhaps the most important innovation
of the time was the factory. Now, when you think of factories, you might think of,
like, Chinese political prisoners making smartphones,
but early factories looked like this. More than just a technological development,
the factory was an organizational innovation. Like, factories gathered workers together in one
place and split up tasks among them, making
production much faster and also more efficient. The first factories relied on water power, which is the reason they were all east of the fall line – the geographic reason why there are so many waterfalls and rapids on the east coast. But after 1840, steam power was introduced,
so factories could be located in other places, especially near the large cities that were
sprouting up in what we now know as the Midwest. So the American system of manufacturing, which
centered on mass-production of interchangeable parts, grew up primarily in New England, but then it moved to the Midwest, where it spent its adolescence and its adulthood, and now its tottering decline into senility. So, all these new economic features – roads, canals, railroads, telegraphs, factories – they all required massive up-front capital investment. Like, you just can’t build a canal in stages
as it pays for itself. So, without more modern banking systems
and people willing to take risks, none of this
would have happened. Some of these investments were facilitated
by new business organizations, especially
the Limited Liability Corporation, which enabled investors to finance business
ventures without being personally responsible
for losses other than their own. In other words, corporations can fail without,
like, ruining their stockholders and directors. People don’t always like that, by the way,
but it’s been very good for economic growth
in the last 180 years or so. So having angered a bunch of people by talking about the important role that big businesses played in growing the American Economy in the 19th century, I will now anger the rest of you by talking
about the important role that the state played. In the 1830s, states began passing general incorporation laws, which made it easier to create corporations, and the Supreme Court upheld them and protected them from further interference in cases like Gibbons vs. Ogden, which struck down a monopoly that New York had granted to one steamboat company. And the Charles River Bridge case, which said that building a second bridge over the Charles River did not infringe upon the charter of the first bridge. In both those cases, the court was using its
power to encourage competition. And this brings up something really important about
the growth of American capitalism: government helped. The federal government built roads and canals
and its highest court protected businesses. And states issued bonds to build canals and
offered sweetheart deals to companies that
built railroads. And despite what we may believe about the
heroic risk-taking entrepreneurs building the
American economy through solitary efforts, without the government protecting their interests,
they wouldn’t have been able to do much. All right, let’s go to the Thought Bubble. The Market Revolution changed the landscape
of work, which, for most of the prior 200 years,
happened at home. Small-scale production of clothes and other goods had been done in the home, largely by women, and initially, this is how industrial production worked as well. Factory owners would produce some of the products,
like patterns for shoes, and then farm the finishing
out to people working in their houses. Eventually, they realized that it would be more efficient to gather the workers together in one place, although the older, “putting-out system” continued in some industries, especially in big cities. After the Market Revolution, more and more Americans
went to work instead of working from home. The Market Revolution also changed the way
we imagined work and leisure time. Like, on farms, the seasons and hours of daylight
regulated the time for work, but in factories,
work is regulated by the clock. Which, by the way, was one of the first products
to be manufactured using the American system
of manufacturing. Railroads and shipping timetables further
required the standardization of time. Factories also made it possible for more people
to do industrial work. At first, this meant women. The workers in the early textile mills at Lowell, Massachusetts, for instance, were primarily young, New England farm girls who worked for a few years in the mills before returning home to get married. Women were cheaper to employ, because it was
assumed that they would not be a family’s sole
breadwinner. At least, this was the excuse for not paying
them more at the time. I can’t remember what excuse we have now,
but I’m sure it’s a great one. Anyway, all of this meant that the nature
of work had changed. In colonial America, artisans worked for what they
called their “price,” which was linked to what they
produced. In a factory, however, workers were paid a
wage according to the number of hours they worked,
regardless of how much they produced. This may not sound like a big deal, but working for wages with one’s livelihood defined by a clock and the whims of an employer was a huge change, and it undermined the idea of freedom that
was supposedly the basis of America. Thomas Jefferson had worried that men working in factories, dependent upon their employers, were inherently un-free, and that this would make them unfit to be proper American citizens. And as it happens, many factory workers agreed
with him. Thanks, Thought Bubble. So, one reaction to the restrictions of the
wage worker was to engage in the great American
pastime of lighting out for the territories. With less and less farmland available in New England,
young men had been migrating west for decades. And, after the War of 1812, this flood of
migration continued and even grew. Between 1790 and 1840, 4.5 million people crossed
over the Appalachian Mountains, and six new states
were created between 1815 and 1821. Ohio’s population grew from 231,000 in 1810
to over 2 million by 1850. People even took up the motto ‘Malaria isn’t
going to catch itself!’ and moved to Florida
after we purchased it from Spain in 1819. Moving out West was a key aspect of American
freedom, and the first half of the 19th century
became the age of “manifest destiny”: the idea that it was a God-given right of Americans
to spread out over the North American continent. The term was coined by a New York journalist, John L. O’Sullivan, who wrote that the people living out West – i.e, the Native Americans – must succumb to quote, “our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the
whole of the continent which providence has given us
for the development of the great experiment in liberty.” Stan, he actually wrote “overspread”! One thing I love about providence is that
it has like a 100% rate of giveth-ing unto
us and taketh-ing away from them. One of the results of this migration was that
it was really difficult for factory owners to find
men who could work in their factories. First, they looked to Yankee women to fill
the factories, but increasingly, those jobs
were filled by immigrants. Fortunately, the US had lots of immigrants, like the more than one million Irish people that came here fleeing poverty, especially after the potato famine of 1845 to 1851. Lastly, let’s turn to the intellectual responses
to the Market Revolution. Oh, it’s time for the Mystery Document? The rules here are simple. If I fail to guess the author of the Mystery
Document, I get shocked with the shock pen. And yes, this is a real shock pen! Lots of people are commenting, saying I am
faking the shocks. I am not faking the shocks! I am in the business of teaching you history,
not in the business of faking pain! All right, let’s do this thing. “They do not yet see, and thousands of young
men as hopeful now crowding to the barriers
of the career, do not yet see, that if the single man plant himself indomitably
on his instincts, and there abide, the huge
world will come round to him. Patience – patience; – with the shades of
all the good and great for company; and for solace the perspectives of your own
infinite life; and for work, the study and the communication
of principles, the making those instincts
prevalent, the conversion of the world. Is it not the chief disgrace in the world,
not to be a unit; – not to be reckoned one character; – not to yield that peculiar fruit which each
man was created to bear, but to be – ” Oh, god, Stan, I can’t bear it anymore. It’s Emerson. [dinging noise] It’s definitely
Emerson. It is unreadably Emerson. Indeed, the most linguistically convoluted of the
Transcendentalists, which is really saying something. Anyway, I don’t get punished, but I did kind
of get half punished, because I had to read that. The Transcendentalists – like Margaret Fuller, Henry
David Thoreau, Walt Whitman – were trying to
redefine freedom in a changing world. Work was increasingly regimented. Factory workers were as interchangeable as
the parts that they made. But the Transcendentalists argued that freedom
resided in an individual’s power to remake
oneself, and maybe even the world. But there would be a reaction to this in American
literature as it became clear that escaping drudgery to
reinvent yourself was no easy task for wage workers. So, the early 19th century saw a series of booms
and busts, sometimes called business cycles. And with those business cycles came a growing
disparity in wealth. To protect their interests, workers began forming political organizations called Working Man’s Parties, that eventually morphed into unions, calling for higher wages and better working conditions. And we’ll have more to say about that in coming weeks, but for now, it’s important to remember that as America grew more prosperous, many people – women and especially slaves, but also
free, wage-working men – recognized that the Market Revolution left them with much less freedom than they might have enjoyed 50 or 100 years earlier. My favorite commentary on the Market Revolution
actually comes from the author Herman Melville
in his short story “Bartleby the Scrivener.” Melville worked at the customs house in New
York, so he knew all about world markets first-hand. In “Bartleby,” he tells the story of a young
clerk who works for a lawyer in New York City. Now, when you’re a farmer, your work has an
intrinsic meaning. When you work, you have food, and when you
don’t work, you don’t. But when you’re a copyist like Bartleby, it’s difficult
to find meaning in what you do every day. You know that anyone else could do it, and
you suspect that if your work doesn’t get done,
it won’t actually matter very much. And in light of this, Bartleby just stops
working, saying, “I prefer not” when asked,
well, pretty much anything. Seeing his boss and society’s reaction to
someone who simply doesn’t buy into the market
economy is comic, and then ultimately tragic. And it tells us a lot about the Market Revolution
beyond the famous people and inventions and
heroic individualism. Now, most people read “Bartleby” as an existentialist
narrative, and it definitely is that, but, for me, the story’s subtitle proves that it’s also about the market economy. The full title of the story is, “Bartleby
the Scrivener: A Story of Wall Street.” I’ll see you next week. Crash Course is produced and directed by Stan
Muller. The script supervisor is Meredith Danko. Our associate producer is Danica Johnson. The show is written by my high school history
teacher Raoul Meyer and myself. And our graphics team is Thought Cafe. If you have questions about today’s video,
please ask them in comments, where they’ll
be answered by our team of historians. Also, suggest Libertage captions. Thanks for watching Crash Course World History. If you enjoy Crash Course, make sure you’re
subscribed, and as they say in my hometown,
don’t forget to be awesome. Just kidding, thanks for watching Crash Course
US History! DFTBA!

Gardner Business Index Update: October 2019

Hi, Chris Felix here, Production Macining editor in chief. I’m here with Michael Guckes, Chief Economist and Director of Analytics for Gardner Intelligence. We’re going to talk about the current numbers for the Precision Machining Index. After the longest expansion in recorded history from November 2016 to June 2019. We’ve seen three consecutive months of contracting business conditions, with October’s reading at forty six point one. This months reading is actually higher than last month. Why do you call it a contractionary reading? That’s a great question Chris, and that’s one of the things that we tried to explain in the index. All values that are below 50 represent a contraction in business activity. Now, when we have a month like September, which was below the October reading, what it means is that business activity was contracting faster than it was in October. And so when the numbers are on an increasing trend, but still below 50, what it tells us is that conditions are still slowing, but not as quickly as they were in prior months. So I know the index is an average of six components. Tell me about what’s happening with those six components. That’s a great question. So we have six components. The ones that are leading the index right now include production and especially supplier deliveries. Supplier deliveries has been really strong for the last 18 months. It’s been one of the leading components of the index. Unfortunately, some of the components have really bifurcated from the others and really that includes backlogs and exports. What we’ve seen in the last several months is that in order to maintain production levels where they have been in the recent past, we’re seeing a lot of precision machinists have to resort to dwindling down their backlogs in order to level set production. And part of the issue there is simply new orders aren’t as strong as they used to be. And so when you look at our index numbers, you’ll see that there’s a pretty reasonable gap between new orders and production results in the last several months. And so that’s really been influencing backlogs. Michael, do the recent weak readings mean the entire PM world is contracting? Not at all Chris, what we’re seeing is that by end market, for example, we’re seeing that aerospace continues to do very well. Aerospace has really been on a tear in the last 18 months or even longer. But we are seeing some weakness in other important industries. And automotive, unfortunately, is one of those where we’ve seen a strong contraction in automotive activity amongst precision machinists in the last, say, nine months. What else is your data telling you about business conditions for production machinists? Not everybody knows that we track information about prices received. So that’s a function of your pricing power. Also, material prices, which we use as a proxy for input costs being experienced by production machinists. We also look at business sentiment and one of the things that we have found through talking to different production machinists over time is that they’re very interested in pricing power, the ability to push through price, higher prices. So what our data has shown us in terms of pricing power through prices received is that in 2018 we had a very large increase in the ability of firms to pass through higher prices. And as you might expect, we’ve seen pricing power has come down a lot. It has not moved into contraction territory, but we have seen it fall substantially. Well, Michael, thanks for meeting with me today. For more information about business trends and activity, please visit and of course for precision machining needs visit