Top 10 Best Career Option After 12th | Job Oriented Courses (Commerce/Science/Art)

Hey guys welcome back with another video, and yes, we did not uploaded video from Last 3 Week Sorry about that because we had exams so my friends recently completed 12 boards And he was asking me what to do next which courses is best for him and which is not this Question will arise in your mind too, so today I will provide you with some basic information about 10 best job oriented courses you can apply after 12th, and yes We are taking those courses which have a wide range of job availability and not those that have less jobs So let’s get started on number [10], we have fashion designer Fashion Nowadays has become one of the most famous and popular Part in the Modern world and even there is a hell lot of demand for this feeling any student from any stream whether it’s arts Science or commerce can apply for fashion designing courses you just need to have around fifty percent marks in 12th that’s all you have to give an entrance exam at [NIFT] National Institute of Fashion Technology and [NID] National Institute of design and for the admission to various courses related to fashion The duration period Is about four years which is divided in two year for fashion designing and two years for Communication, and the salary for this profession is for beginners it will be around 10,000 to 18,000 Rupees and for Experience it will be around 40,000 to 60,000 Rupees per month So next a number [9]. We have the pilot training school This is one of the most highest paying jobs and one of the coolest places to work. Those who are taken Science can go for the pilot profession after 12th, you must have about 45 to 50 percent mark But it doesn’t matter really one thing for sure you have to clear the Aptitude test in order to get selected in the training program and even you have to give a certain Medical test as you have to be medically fit the duration period To complete this course is Approximately 18 to 24 months and the only worst thing about this course is that it is very costly it will cost you around 20 To 25 lakhs to complete it But it doesn’t matter as after you get the license you will earn way more than what you have invested like for a new or Fresher you will earn between 5 to 12 lakh rupees per year and can extend upto 35 lakhs and experience levels So on number [8] we have the merchant Navy it is one of the favorite jobs to work and especially for those who love traveling it is a type of profession Where you have to work or provide commercial services like scary or deliver Goods from one place to another or take care of the goods and ships [ETC], so for the eligibility to apply this course you must first complete your work with science stream And then you have to give free entrance exams one for screening tests and second for written Examinations after that you have to give one move which will be a medical test and interview to apply this job Let Us come to the salary and the packages the salary varies from place to Place and City to City and company to company co-starter Aka junior engineer the salary ranges from 30,000 to 35,000 and for a head level [I] captain the salary ranges up to 2 lakhs per month so number [7] we have Journalism, journalism is the most demanded and trending profession and in simple term journalism is all about collecting information to a specific or general audience with the help of newspapers, video that is news channel and Magazines Etc there are many big memes channels who provide jobs to this department course student like NDTV, Zee TV Network, Viacom Etc So after passing 12 by any Stream with 55 percentage you can apply for journalism courses The entrance exam may or may not be required Bachelor’s and journalism mass Media is one of the best degree courses we recommend which duration period Is around three years Salary for a starter of fresher is around 5,000 to 10,000 a month and for experience level you will get around 15 to 25,000 and for expert level you will be paid around fifty thousand to one lakh depending on your skills, reputation and status On number six we have architecture and interior design demand for an interior designer is huge for building flat interior design – personal room Renovation and it is gaining a huge popularity in the world specially in India and you pursue this course you must have passed 12th with Science stream or any stream But science is better with a good percentage of 60 to 65% but that does not matter here things that matter here is getting a good score in entrance exams and interview, the duration period To complete this course is 5 years and the fees like a cost will be around 1 lakhs to 2 lakhs in a government institute and 2 to 3.5 lakhs in a private in studio it may Vary I just provided you with an approximate Price, after you completed this course you can earn around 35,000 to 50,000 per month that is fresher and sixty thousand to one lakh per month for experience one you can apply for job in both private and government sector on Number [5] we have the hotel management The first thing about this course is that you don’t need a lavish high percentage to pursue hotel management and the second thing is it a job Oriented course you must complete 12th with 45 to 50 percent, and then you have to give some entrance exam Which is held every year during the month April and it will cost you around 1 Lakh – 2.5 Lakh depending on the institution and sometimes more than that the salary range Depending on the organization where you are working unlike if you work at a five-star hotel, then the salary for freshers will be around 15,000 to 20,000 per month and for experience one the salary ranges up to 30,000 to 50,000 per month if you are a big foodie, and you love to make food this kind of profession is amazing for you so on number [4] we have web designing here comes my type of profession, basically web designing is the process of creating awesome websites which are graphically Super rich and user-friendly and in the model world web designing plays a huge role in the overall business of an organization, you work as a freelancer or work for an organization such as Infosys, Wepro, HCL and Lava those are the top recruiting companies if you are looking for a Profession and web designing you must have first completed well with any marks in any stream It doesn’t matter the duration period For this course is about one to two years After you have completed the courses you can earn around 10,000 to 25,000 per month as a fresher and 50,000 to 70,000 per month for an experienced guy So one number [3] we have Animation and VFX another course which I am planning to apply and by the way it is a job oriented post you can join bachelor and animation and VFx After 12th by getting 50% percent marks the duration period Is around 3 to 5 years and it will totally cost you around Aditya Birla institute of technology and Arena animation is the best Institute to apply, the salary for this course is very high which is the most attractive part of this profession the salary ranges from 10,000 to 20,000 for fresher and 40,000 to 70,000 for a guy with experience on number [2], We have a lawyer Law has one of the most jobs available especially in India where the case file is at large scale And there is a fact that over eighteen point five million cases are still pending in the courts of India so you may know now what I want to say And there is a great demand for an advocate in India, so for eligibility to apply for LAW is You have to compete well with 50% in any Stream and apply for bachelor in LAW A.K.A L.L.P The duration is about two years and it will cost you around 60,000 to 1 lakh the salary for this profession Depends on your number of cases and clients you handle per months earlier for Approx a fresher can earn around 30,000 to 50,000 per case and a well-known on a popular advocate can earn in lakhs for Example is a great advocate Name Mr. Sidharth Lutha who charges somewhere between 3 to 5 lakhs per cases So on number [1] we have the chartered Accountancy a chartered accountant means a person who has a depth knowledge And on finance insurance however anystream can apply for this course After 12th you can apply for Ca programs through [CPT] the common Proficiency test, the cost for this course is around forty thousands to fifty five thousand and it is a five year duration period of this course so as per the job salary you earn a lot of money after you acquire the memberships of [ICAI]The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India the salary for fresher is around 25,000 to 50,000 and for a five year Experience starter package will be around 45,000 to 80,000 per month you can work for Banks or companies and even for copyright trademark Registrations That it Thank you for watching if you’re still confused which profession do I choose then I recommend you to apply for a career counseling They will help you to find out which profession suits you and even as best for you, and by the way Thanks for watching do like share if any of the new here do subscribe to my channel till then have a nice day. Goodbye

Flesh-Eating Bacteria Is Real and This Is How It Works

Flesh-eating bacteria sounds like something
out of a horror movie, but in fact, it’s very real. And while rare, cases of it do occur all over
the world each year. So let’s confront this villain head-on and
flesh it out. Thank you for coming. Hi, my name is Isaac Chiu. I’m an assistant professor at Harvard Medical
School in the Department of Immunology. I’m very interested in understanding how pathogens
interact with the immune system and in this case, in highly invasive infections such as
flesh-eating disease. Flesh-eating bacteria is more commonly known
as a necrotizing infection. This cell death of the body’s soft tissue
is called necrotizing fasciitis, and you can get the types of bacteria that cause it in a few different
ways. So you could get necrotizing fasciitis from
a bacteria that came in from an insect bite or from a wound. Maybe you had an opening in your skin and
you stepped in brackish water. So there are many ways which bacteria can
get in. And one of the main types of those bacteria
that causes this disease is from the same family as a common infection we all know and
have maybe even had—strep. Six hundred million people a year get strep throat,
but that same pathogen can also in rare cases cause necrotizing fasciitis, but it’s the
same pathogen. The leading cause is streptococcus pyogenes,
but it can also be caused by both gram-positive and gram-negative types of bacteria, including
staph aureus and vibrio. And some actually are polymicrobial so there are
several bacterias together that form these necrotizing invasions. So a big question is how does the bacteria
become aggressive and dangerous, causing this invasive type of soft tissue infection? When it gets into that person in that
situation, that its tissue environment sends a signal to that bacteria that makes it switch
on genes that are making it more virulent? Is it that individual that’s more susceptible
to infection and that’s why it’s become necrotizing fasciitis? These are important questions. And while necrotizing fasciitis is still rare, fewer than about one in 100,000 adults will contract it, certain people are more susceptible to
it. Some risk factors include diabetes and compromised
immune systems. And with a mortality rate of up to about 30% in the U.S. and higher in developing nations, it’s a dangerous disease no matter where you live. Not to be alarmist, but I think it’s definitely important to watch for symptoms of infection
generally to get that treated. But it’s very, very rare. When it does infect the body, it can spread
quite rapidly, invading the deeper tissues. This happens when blood flow becomes blocked,
destroying the soft tissue. It can occur in our limbs and groin areas,
and that’s how it gets its name flesh eating. One of the major characteristic of flesh-eating disease is pain. So pain out of porportion with other clinical manifestations This could be a sign of potential necrotizing fasciitis. Once this bacteria makes its way down to the deep tissues, you may not see the superficial signs you’d see with a normal infection, such as redness or swelling. But you would experience an extreme amount of pain. This “pain out of proportion” is a red flag for a possible flesh-eating disease. One of the ways unfortunately to treat this disease is to surgically remove the tissue or even
to amputate the limb to prevent the bacteria from getting further than it can go, as well
as IV antibiotics. So I think one of the points is that it’s
hard to treat because it’s so aggressive. Potentially if you treat it earlier on with
antibiotics or surgical removal, their survival rate will be better. And normally, an infected site would be full
of white blood cells like neutrophils, which help trigger inflammation and send a signal
that something is wrong. Neutrophils are kind of the white blood
cell army. They’re mobilized during infection. They’re circulating in our blood and they
hone into the tissues as soon as there’s infection, but they’re not able to get to the necrotizing
fasciitis lesions very efficiently and they’re silenced by the bacteria as well through toxins. If you look inside a necrotizing fasciitis
tissue, you don’t see that many immune cells. That’s one of the contributing factors because
the bacteria has found a way to evade the immune system. But there is hope on the horizon, including
treatments that can block the bacteria from invading as efficiently and even the use of
a common cosmetic treatment. So we have found, for example, by using botulinum
toxins or Botox, you can silence the nerves from releasing these anti-immune molecules
called CGRP. So this is effective because we found that
the nerves block neutrophils, the immune cells that are really important for fighting infections. So by blocking that with Botox, neutrophils
come in to fight the bacteria at that site. So these are areas we’re really excited about
pursuing to slow down this bacterial spread during necrotizing invasion. While flesh-eating bacteria and infection
are rare, it’s important to know the signs and seek medical attention if you’re concerned. I think the point is that you just should see a doctor if you have, like, any infections… period. So the key is to go early and get it treated.

Settle Down, Pay Attention, Say Thank You: A How-To: Kristen Race at TEDxMileHighWomen

Translator: Alina Siluyanova
Reviewer: Denise RQ Does anyone here feel at times
that your life is just a little bit crazy? (Laughter) Modern life is crazy, and this craziness
significantly impacts adults at work, parents at home and kids at school. I know a little bit about this craziness. Seven years ago the pace of my life
led to a full body breakdown, an autoimmune disease,
likely triggered by stress. This happened
while I was pursuing my PhD, studying, ironically,
the neurology of stress. (Laughter) I had a full time job, I was writing
my dissertation in the evenings, I had a toddler, I was pregnant
with my second child, and for some reason
my husband decided this would be a great year
to remodel the house. (Laughter) Life was crazy, but it wasn’t just me. It didn’t matter whether
I was talking to a teacher, a student, a CEO, or a mother of four. We were all living
at the same frantic pace. As women, we are
the consummate juggler. We are executives,
entrepreneurs, social activists. We are mothers,
caregivers for our aging parents, family organizers,
homework tutors, and chauffeurs to the 18 different activities
our kids are involved in each week. For most of us it’s rare
to have a conversation that’s not fragmented
between incoming texts, Google calendar, reminders,
and our own distracting thoughts. From a neurological perspective,
this chaos is a disaster. But it’s not just women suffering
from stress, it’s our children, too. One in five 9 to 17-year-olds
have a diagnosable mental disorder. Depression and anxiety rates
among elementary school students are at an all time high
and continue to rise. In my work with parents and teachers, there are 3 things I hear us
say to kids all the time: “Calm down”, “Pay attention”,
and “Don’t forget to say ‘thank you'”. Emerging research on the brain reveals
why it’s so difficult for all of us to calm down, pay attention
and be thankful. Today I’m here to share
my work with children and families that not only helps us calm down,
pay attention and be thankful, but helps us become resilient
to the stress that modern life presents. Let’s talk about stress for a second. Imagine you’re alone in the mountains,
and you see this coming towards you. (Laughter) It happened to me. I was alone in riding my mountain bike, but I had been taught exactly
what you’re supposed to do when you run into a bear. You simply get off your bike, lift your bike over your head,
and slowly back away while speaking to the bear
in a non-threatening voice. (Laughter) For some reason,
upon this encounter, my reaction was to scream
as loud as I could, (Laughter) turn around, and try to ride my bike up and over the mountain,
outrunning the bear. This is a classic
fight-or-flight response. Let’s take a look
at what it looks inside the brain: my eyes sent the image of the bear to the relay center in my brain
called the thalamus. The thalamus perceived
the bear as threatening and sent a signal to the amygdala which activated a set of responses
designed to promote survival. This floods our nervous system
with chemicals. Our heart pounds faster. Our breathing becomes
quick and shallow. Muscles tighten and senses sharpen. It’s a way of protecting us. From an evolutionary perspective, this is how our nervous system
was supposed to respond. Similar to right before
you give a Ted talk, by the way. (Laughter) Now, that message also goes
to the prefrontal cortex. This is the part of our brain
responsible for attention, impulse control, problem solving, decision making and forward thinking. It’s the part of our brain
that registers positive emotions and helps us work and learn efficiently. Basically, we have the smart part
of our brain, the prefrontal cortex, and the alarm part of our brain
in the limbic system. The alarm part of our brain reacts faster and, at times, can be stronger
than the smart part of our brain. In this instance, my prefrontal cortex was slow to access the information
I had learned about bears because the alarm response had taken over. If we were to look at it on a graph,
it would look something like this. At our baseline,
we feel calm and at ease, and our prefrontal cortex is in charge. When the alarm is triggered,
our limbic system is in charge. This is a classic fight-or-flight
response, or stress response. There are, however, stress responses
triggered all the time in our lives that aren’t necessarily life-threatening, but the chemical reaction and
what happens inside our brain is the same. Let’s talk for a second
about chronic stress, like on the morning of my son
Charlie’s fifth birthday party. My daughter Macy and I
left the house early to get the cake and balloons
before the party. My first spike came
when I got into my pickup truck and realized there was
no gas in the tank. So, we headed
to the gas station to fill up and somehow I had earned
a free car wash. So we pulled the pick up truck
into the car wash bay. And the doors were closed,
machines started. It wasn’t until the blowers
came on at the end when I remembered the football pinata
in the back of the truck. (Laughter) Spike number one. (Laughter) Actually, that was
spike number 2, sorry. The gas was spike number 1. As the blowers blew
what was left of the football pinata and hundreds of pieces of small candy
violently flew around the car wash bay, (Laughter) this was going to be tough
to explain to Charlie. So, Macy and I
headed to the grocery store, and we went to the bakery
to pick up the Bronco’s cake that Charlie carefully picked out
from the cake book a few days prior. There, the woman
in her nicest voice told us they had run out of Bronco’s kits, so she used the Rockies kit
and made it a baseball theme cake instead. (Laughter) She acted like this
was no big deal. (Laughter) Spike number 3. (Laughter) Even the expression
on Macy’s face insinuated this was a really big deal. (Laughter) When she realized
the enormity of the situation, she said she’d call another store
to see if they had a Bronco’s kit, they could quickly
put on a cake. While she made that phone call,
Macy and I raced across the store to the floral department
to pick up the helium balloons. There we waited while the sweetest
and slowest elderly man ever blew up the helium balloons,
one at a time. (Laughter) His arthritic fingers were not equipped
to tie ribbons on balloons, and the process was painful to watch. Another spike. Eventually, I jump behind the counter to help him tie
the ribbons on the balloons, and we raced back to the bakery
with my bouquet of balloons in hand. There the woman
was writing out the directions where we were
to pick up the Bronco’s kit and suddenly I hear what sounds
like gun shots coming from behind me. Spike! (Laughter) When I turn, I realize the gunshot sound
was merely the balloons rubbing up against the sprinkler
system on the ceiling of the store, popping and dropping one by one. (Laughter) It was about this time that Macy
pulled on my shirt and whined, “Mom, I’m hungry!
Why is this taking so long?” This was now my baseline. When our brains look like this,
we can’t calm down, and we don’t know
how to pay attention because the part of our brain
responsible for those skills is completely offline. Today I want to share tools
that bring our brains back into balance, tools that keep the spikes
from going so high and that bring us back
to baseline more quickly. Mindfulness could be one
of the single most effective ways to help us all calm down,
pay attention, and be thankful. I define this practice, mindfulness, as paying attention to the present
moment without judgment. It’s thousands of years of old knowledge that, new science is demonstrating,
can improve your relationships, your performance at work,
your parenting, your health, and your happiness in general. Mindfulness strengthens
those neural pathways in our prefrontal cortex, making it stronger,
more efficient and easier to use. Mindfulness doesn’t just decrease
stress and increase pleasure for you, it leads to profound benefits
to the people around you. In one study out at the UCLA,
parents practiced mindfulness for one year and noticed significant improvements
in their parenting skills and their interactions with their kids, even though no new parenting
practices had been taught to them. Over the course of the year-long study, the behavior of their kids
changed as well. They got along better with their siblings. They were less aggressive.
Their social skills improved. All their parents did
was practice mindfulness. Our research shows that when we can
teach children the skills of mindfulness, they demonstrate significant improvements
in their ability to pay attention, their ability to regulate their emotions and their development of empathy. This creates a brain
that’s more resilient to stress, more efficient as a worker and a learner,
and most importantly, a happier brain. Today, or tonight, I would like
to share three simple practices that could bring profound
improvements in your day-to-day life. The first is mindful breathing. Mindful breathing is simply
bringing your awareness to your breath. It looks something like this. Seems simple enough. It also could be the single
most effective way to calm the stress response in the brain
teaching us how to calm down. You can sit on a cushion,
in a chair, or even lie on the floor and dedicate 5, 10
or ideally 20 minutes a day to bringing your awareness to your breath. If your mind wanders off, which it will,
simply notice and return to the breath. That is all. If you feel like your day is too busy
to practice mindful breathing, try this: each time you’re at a traffic light,
put your hand on your belly and count how many breaths
you take while you’re there. Every time your phone rings, take a long, slow, deep breath
before you answer it. And when your child is struggling,
offer them a three-breath hug. Simply embrace and take
three deep breaths together. It feels as good for you
as it does for them. Mindful listening. The practice of mindful listening
teaches us how to pay attention. When we practice mindful listening, we stimulate the reticular activating
system in our brain, the RAS. The RAS is responsible
for filtering through all incoming stimuli and determining which stimulus
is the most important to focus on at that time. At work we have to filter through thoughts
about what we forgot to do this morning and what we need
to do later in order to focus on what we need to get done right now. In a classroom, kids have to filter
through a ton of information: noise from other classrooms,
distracting classmates, humming lights and the buzz of the air conditioner. When our RAS is working efficiently, we are able to focus on the tasks,
the situations and the people that are the most important. Now, you can practice mindful listening
with a chime or tone bar. At work you can simply
set timer for one or two minutes and listen for the farthest
sound you can hear. When you are on a walk
with your children, take one minute. Be totally silent and just listen. Ask them what they heard.
It’s fascinating. These simple practices bring
our awareness to the present moment. They also teach us how to pay attention. Finally, gratitude. Our brains are 3-5 times more sensitive
to negative information than positive. This helped us as we evolved
because it was more important to be aware the poisonous snakes
than to stop and smell beautiful flowers. Today we don’t often have
those same threats to our survival, yet our brain is still more
sensitive to negative experiences. When we can intentionally pay attention
to the positive things in our life, we strengthen the neural pathways
associated with those positive memories. The more frequently we use those pathways, the more our brain
likes to use those pathways, increasing positive thoughts and lessening our focus
on negative experiences. Gratitude is an excellent
practice for anyone who wants to experience
more positive emotions. People who formally practice
gratitude are 25% happier. They are more kind and helpful to others. They are healthier, more interested,
motivated and determined. And grateful children
and teens tend to thrive. Kids who practice gratitude
get higher grades, they are more satisfied with their lives. They are more integrated socially
and show fewer signs of depression. There are many ways to do this,
but here are few of the most simple. This holiday season, give everyone
in your family a gratitude journal. Each night before you go to bed write down 3 to 5 things
you are grateful for. And when you see your kids
for the first time after school each day, instead of asking “How was your day?”,
ask, “Who was a good friend to you today?” It’s so easy for all of us
to get caught up in people that bother us and bring us down. Intentionally focus on the people
and the things that make you feel good. For me, one of the beauties of mindfulness
is that we don’t all need to go on 3-month silent retreats
to receive tremendous benefits. Through my work I’ve learned
that short frequent practices can be so beneficial both for you
and the people around you. Let’s face it: life is crazy. But a few small changes
can make a big difference. Breathe, listen,
and say “Thank you”. (Applause)

work smarter, not harder

What’s up? Thank you so much for joining me today. I’m hoping I can add value to your life, if not something you resonate with. And, yeah. So today I will be speaking about uh passion, work, adding value, not creating more suffering; It all connects in a way, so bare with me. So the only reason you’re seeing me now, the only reason that you were able to click a link, or do what you did to reach this video is because essentially I am doing what I love. I’m doing what I’m passionate about. I’m doing something that brings me enthusiasm, and I’m doing something I accept. So thank you to Eckhart Tolle. He mentioned in his book, “A New Earth: Awakening to Your Life’s Purpose,” (a good read) He mentioned the three (3) modalities. It’s what I got out of it most. And those modalities are important for reasons. So the three (3) modalities are enthusiasm, enjoyment, and acceptance. I realized sometimes we find ourselves in situations, or we even put ourselves in situations that we aren’t enjoying, we don’t find enthusiasm in, and most importantly, we can’t accept it. If you can’t accept something, then the first thing we’ve gotta do is deal with the resistance. Why are you resisting it? Why can you not accept it? Because we all know sometimes we find ourselves in situations that we aren’t able to enjoy, that we aren’t finding enthusiastic such as: having to replace your tire on the side of the road ’cause yours just went flat on ya. Of course that’s not fun. Of course that’s not enthusiastic, but the least we can do is accept it okay? With that being said, I see people working for jobs, applying for jobs, high-paying jobs, that they don’t like. Office jobs. May be high-paying but it’s an office job, working at McDonald’s, being a cashier. Not looking down upon any of those jobs because some of them are other people’s passion. But if it’s not yours, Why are you applying to it? You’re only going to burn yourself out. So thankfully, I learned this lesson at a young age. I’m 19 years old, and I found myself working six (6) days a week. My only off day was Sunday. There was nothing wrong with my jobs. I liked them, but it wasn’t my passion. It wasn’t something I saw myself doing, and I know if I continued, that would only lead to a burn-out. ‘Cause I was already starting to feel sad, you know, stressed. A little bit depressed every time I woke up. Even though it wasn’t hard on, it was just that subtle feeling that always stuck with me, so I had to stop it right there. I’m too conscious for that. Yeah, so when you’re finding yourself in a job you don’t necessarily like that’s causing you pain and suffering, and anxiety that’s because we are creating that. You’re not accepting it, it doesn’t cause you enjoyment, it’s not giving you enthusiasm, so you need to leave it. And what we can do after we leave it, or what we can do instead of working a job we don’t like is finding something we’re passionate about. Finding a skill that you know you love doing. Like playing the drums or playing violin. Just any skill that not everybody has. Something important I forgot to say is: If you’re unable to leave the situation or leave this job now, if you’re unable to accept it or enjoy it, what you can do is find something you do enjoy within that vicinity, within that area. It doesn’t even have to be connected to your job. You know, if you’re working a 9-5 office job that you absolutely hate, but hey there’s a cup of coffee waiting for you at the office.. stick with that. Stick with that cup of coffee. Be like “okay let’s GO GET this cup of coffee,” okay? Work that 9-5 and get that coffee. That’s completely okay. As long as you’re getting by. As long as you’re able to not create so much suffering for yourself that you can’t see the good in some things, then we’re okay. You’ll know you’re passionate about it because it’ll spark something in you. It’ll spark something in your soul and you’ll never get tired of it. You can be working, you know, instead of a 9-5 job that you absolutely dread, you can be working from nine (9) to 9AM to 8PM just by doing something you love. You will never get that burn-out. You will always have that energy backing you up. The universe will always back you up in that sense. Not only that, doing something you’re passionate about will give you that extra energy, but then the necessities that you were looking for when you got the high-paying job will come to you easier. It’ll just start flowin’. You know, if you find that skill and you get better at the skill either If you learn more, if you grow more at that skill, and then add value on top of that and you monetize that, all of the things that you need will just start flowing your way just by doing what you like man. Just by doing what you like! And that’s essentially the goal. That’s the goal at the end of the video. Right now we need to plant the seed of finding our passion if we don’t know it already, growing in that, focusing on that passion, and then adding value. Not every- body can play the violin. Not everybody can play the drums. Nor everybody can whip out a camera, speak confidently enough to post it on the internet where anybody and everybody can see and then KEEP doing that. Growing at it, Monetizing it.And just going with the flow. You know, i’m not doing this cause i’m looking for something. I’m doing it because I like it. It gives me energy. You know I like the whole process. Making the video, editing it, transcribing it. That gets to my soul, and that’s what I want everybody to find. What strikes your soul in a good way that you can do and see yourself doing everyday, every other day that’ll essentially help you in the long run when you add value to it. So that’s all I wanted to say. Thank you so much! Wrapping up the video, you wanna find something you’re passionate about. If not you wanna find something you can enjoy, find enthusiasm in, and if you can’t do none of those, the least you can do is accept here and now. When we don’t accept here, when we don’t accept the present moment, we’re thinking about how our life could be better in the future. “Oh what am I gonna do? When I have this and that it’ll be better then.” Or we think about how we got here from thinking about the past. No, that doesn’t exist. Think about now, accept now. If not, deal with the resistance. So, thank you so much for listening!! I hope that resonated with you, or helped somebody out. If so, give it a like, give it a dislike, comment, don’t comment. I’m here for the fun and to add value so. THANKYOU!

Placebos Work Even if You Know They’re Placebos!

♪♪♪ Despite not containing any actual medicine
whatsoever, studies have found that placebos can help people. They’ve been shown to alleviate symptoms
in a number of medical conditions, including depression, pain, and even Parkinson’s Disease. And that’s supposedly thanks to the power
of belief. Basically, if a person really believes that
they’re taking an effective drug, their brain is somehow tricked into making them
feel better, whether it’s by producing chemicals or activating key neural regions. But… it turns out that’s not the whole story. You see, scientists have discovered that even
when patients know they’re taking placebos, they still feel better. So somehow, they’re experiencing the placebo
effect even though they don’t believe they’re taking medicine. And figuring out why this happens will help
us understand what things our brains can and can’t fix all on their own. Placebos were first used to test the effectiveness
of treatments. The idea was simple: You give half of a test
group medicine and the other half something inert, and if the group taking the medicine
fares better, then the medicine works. But, in some cases, the placebo group got
better, too. So, instead of getting frustrated over a ruined
study—though I’m sure that happened as well—clinicians took advantage of these happy accidents and
started giving patients placebos as treatments. Anywhere from seventeen to ninety-seven percent
of doctors say they’ve done this at least once, though there’s a lot of debate about
whether it’s ok from an ethical standpoint. I mean, sure, if it works, you’re helping
the person. But you’re also lying to them about their
medical care. Of course, you can’t let them in on the
ruse, because then the placebo won’t work. Or… will it? See, this whole practice of actually prescribing
placebos made some medical professionals wonder if there was a way to use them without deception. And it turns out, there is. Open label placebos are ones where the patient
is informed that they are taking an inert medication. And like other placebos, they can be used
in one of two ways: either as a dose extender after a round of medicine to prolong its effects,
or just straight up as a treatment. Either way, clinical trials have demonstrated
that they work. For example, in a series of small studies,
one research team found that open label placebos were more effective than no treatment or the usual treatment for a variety of conditions, including cancer-related fatigue, migraines,
and test anxiety. They even worked for patients with irritable
bowel syndrome in a 2010 study. The participants either received no treatment
or a placebo that was carefully billed as such. They specifically told the patients it was
“like a sugar pill”, and the pills came in a bottle labeled “placebo”. Yet, after three weeks, fifty-nine percent
of patients in the placebo group reported adequate symptom relief, while only thirty-five
percent of the ones who received no treatment did. That’s on par with the best pharmaceuticals
for IBS, even though the participants knew they were taking a completely inactive pill. Weirdly enough, researchers think that these
open label placebos still manage to work for many of the same reasons the usual, deceptive
ones do. Like, they can tap into prior conditioning—the
automatic responses you associate with a specific, learned stimulus. I’m sure you’ve heard of Ivan Pavlov and his
dogs. That’s the most famous example of classical
conditioning. By pairing the click of a metronome with food,
Pavlov was able to get his pups to salivate from the sound alone. And something similar seems to happen with
medication. Say you take something to lower your blood
pressure every day. Your brain might learn to associate the ritual
of taking that pill with a drop in blood pressure so much so that it actually stops mattering what
pill you take. This is essentially the idea behind dose-extending
placebos. A round of medicine first trains the brain,
then the placebo maintains the response. For example, in one study, patients were given
an immune-suppressing drug along with green, strawberry-flavored milk. Afterwards, when they drank the weird milk
with a placebo, their immune function became suppressed, just like it did with the active
medication. And it only took four sessions over three
days to condition their brains. This kind of conditioning could also occur
subconsciously all the time, which might be why you don’t always need a training regimen
with real medicine to see results. Simply taking effective medicines may condition
your brain to associate pills, grossly-flavored liquids, or whatnot with the physiological
responses that make you feel better. It’s also possible the secret to open label
placebos is in fact the power of belief or, what psychologists would call an expectancy
effect. Even if patients don’t believe they’re
taking medicine, they could still believe that the treatment will work—and that might
be why it does. You see, studies have found that open label
placebos are more effective when a doctor explains the rationale behind them, especially
when they explicitly say things like “It is well known that placebos are very effective”. Still, whether it’s because of conditioning
or expectancy or a bit of both, it’s still pretty amazing that placebos work at all. And researchers are still trying to figure
out their limits. Since their effect comes from convincing your
brain to help you out, they seem to work best when symptoms are directly controlled by brain
activity—things like pain, nausea, and fatigue. So if larger studies continue to demonstrate
their potential, open label placeboes could eventually supplement or replace medicines
like opioids that have nasty side effects. But what’s really wild is that, when you
think about it, so much of what goes on in our bodies is ultimately controlled by our
brains. So someday, open label placebos could replace
all sorts of expensive drugs and reveal just how powerful the human mind can be. Aren’t brains just the best? I think so, anyway. And if you do, too, you’ll probably love
all the episodes we produce here on SciShow Psych. And to that end, I have some great news! By clicking that subscribe button, you can
make sure each and every episode is delivered straight to your YouTube feed! So you won’t miss a single one. ♪♪♪

What Is A VO2 Max Test? | Why & How To Work Out Your VO2 Max

– [Mark] Now we talk about
a lot of different metrics in sport such as heart
rate, pace, calories, cadence, and so on. But one that always turns
the heads is VO2 max. – Yeah, now you’ve all
likely heard the term VO2 max and with advances in technology these days is becoming far easier and accessible to be able to measure it yourself. In fact, this very watch here apparently can tell me my VO2 number. – Which is great, but
actually what is VO2 max and why is it thought to be so important? Well, today with the help
of the Sports Science Lab at the University of Bath and our channel partner Polar, we’re going to be answering just that and one of us actually
doing a VO2 max test. – Now, before we flip a coin here, Mark, let’s have a little bit of background about what a VO2 max is. Now, a person’s VO2 max is also known as their
maximal oxygen uptake. And, is a measurement
of the maximum amount of oxygen a person can utilize
during intense exercise. Now, the measurements of this are milliliters of oxygen used in a minute per kilogram of body weight. – Right, well, since oxygen is critical in fueling our muscles to perform, the higher your VO2 max, the better, the fitter you are in theory. And this means the higher
you can get your VO2 max, the more oxygen your body
can deliver to your muscles enabling you to perform better or faster. And by knowing your VO2 max, we can then accurately
create our training zones and train more smartly. So, to give you a little
bit of perspective of what we’re aspiring to, Greg Lauren, the ex pro
cyclist, had a VO2 max of 92.5. Kilian Jornet, the epic
ultra runner adventurer, has a VO2 max of 92. And it said that Paula Radcliffe, the previous women’s world
marathon record holder, had a VO2 max of 75. – Okay, well that’s all very well, but to give a little bit of context here, it is said the the average person, male, should I say, has a VO2 max somewhere between 40 and 45. And the equivalent for female is somewhere between 30 and 35. – Yeah, and that being said, by having a high VO2 max
doesn’t necessarily mean that you will perform
well and go win races and beat those with a lower VO2 max. Actually, a lot more
components are in play, such as your physiology, your psychology, but obviously having a
VO2 max and being fitter is important, will help,
but more crucially, knowing your own VO2 max, tracking that and seeing improvements in
that, is what we’re after. So, with all that, we should really look at how you find out your VO2 max. – Yeah, and there are a couple
ways that you can do this. But the first one that we’re
going to concentrate on is by going into a sports lab and measuring it that way. – Yeah and it’s time to
flip the coin, Fraser. Heads or tails? – I’ll go tails. – Ready? (suspenseful music) Heads! – Oh, it’s heads. And I’m guessing you don’t want to do it. – Not really mate, no. – All right, okay. Pull my socks up, get ready for test. (soothing music) – All right, so, behind me, Fraser has just started his VO2 max test. I’ve done a number of these over the years and I can tell you, they are not pleasant. So, I’m kind of pleased I’m
not on the treadmill today. You will notice though that
Fraser’s got a mask on his face. That’s staying connected to a
rather fancy bit of kit here. This is a gas analyzing machine. This is measuring the volume of oxygen that he’s inhaling and the amount of air that he is exhaling. And typically, during a VO2 max test, the athlete will perform
some form of ramp test where the intensity gradually increases until the athlete either
fails and has to stop, or their oxygen consumption plateaus. So yeah, like I said, this
is a pretty tough test. What happens during the
plateau during the test, is basically the athlete
goes from aerobic metabolism to anaerobic metabolism. Meaning that, they are
no longer using oxygen to fuel the breakdown of carbohydrates, amino acids, fats, and so on. Because there is simply
no oxygen to do so. So yeah, we are doing this in a lab, which also means that we
can take blood samples which is really handy, so
we can get lactate levels and we’re going to get that all
important VO2 max for Fraser. Good luck, Fraser! (upbeat music) Well, Fraser, valiant effort in there. That was, impressive. – Yeah, that’s one way
of putting it, Mark. I’ve only just stopped sweating now, about an hour down the road almost. I mean, yeah, it was only 11 minutes, so just under 11 minutes of running, but, it was a tough 11 minutes and that’s the whole point. The numbers in particular were starting at 11 kilometers an hour and then every minute increasing up about a kilometer an hour, so that got me to 20.5 kilometers an hour at my failure point. And then the crucial numbers at that point were 198 as a max heart rate,
which doesn’t surprise me. – That’s high. – Used to, no, yeah my heart
rate always went quite high. And then the whole point
in the test was the VO2 and now it comes in at 67.3. – [Mark] Which is also very
good by most people’s standards. Maybe not yourself, given
what you used to have, – Yeah, it seems– – but, you’re not practicing. – No, I know I’m not. I forget that. It seems quite low, but either way, if that’s what it is now, and– – And also, we were able
to take bloods in this. You got peak lactate of 7.6, which again is good.
– Milibles. Yeah. – Yeah. – Seems like a reasonable
number for working hard. – So a lot of interesting stuff there. But what if I told you, Fraser, I also got my VO2 max once
you were on the treadmill and I just sat in a chair. – Yeah, not entirely happy about this. How did you do that? – Well, on a number of devices out there you can do a fitness test. So on our Polar Vantage V, they have a fitness test function. Now, devices and brands differ. Some brands and devices require you to do a little bit of activity. This one in particular
actually just needs you to take your resting heart
rate, heart rate variability, and a few other metrics like
your height, weight, etc. And it will workout your VO2 max. So I did that. And I know what you’re
probably thinking out there. How on earth can that be accurate? Well, we’re going to put
this to the test here. ‘Cause I thought, you’ve now
got a very accurate VO2 max from the lab. – Sure do, yeah. – So here’s a heart rate, and let’s do the fitness test. – Okay, well, it’ll be
interesting to compare. (upbeat music) So I have just finished
doing my VO2 max test on the watch here. And, actually, I’m surprised at the number this has given me. This has given me 69.0,
which compared to my 67.3 from the very accurate lab test
I’ve just done this morning is very, very close indeed. – Yeah, I’m absolutely amazed by that. That’s really impressive. Now, obviously this isn’t quite
as detailed as a lab test, but it gives you a really
good ballpark figure and hopefully that changes
as your fitness changes. – Yeah, I mean there’s pros and cons to everything of course. And with the lab in particular, you know that it’s going
to be in a very controlled environment, you’re going to
have extremely accurate results, very detailed results as well, and you’re also going to get
some more detail in there with things like the
efficiency you’re running at, heart rate values obviously, and your lactate is coming out there, and so on and so forth. – Yeah, I guess though on the flip side, the down side of a lab test is,
well firstly you need access to a lab which for some
people, just isn’t possible. – Yeah. – Well now they are becoming
increasingly more available. Then you need to find
availability within that lab, be able to book in. That’s going to cost
you and it’s hard work. – Yeah, where as with this fitness test on the watch, it’s free
to use once you’ve paid for the watch in the first place and you can keep doing that whenever you want going forwards. It’s also very easy and
instantaneous information to get from the watch as well. – Yeah so just keep doing
it over and over again. But then as I mentioned already, obviously it’s not as detailed and maybe as accurate as
a fully fledged lab test, but it’s open to anyone, as
and when they want to use it. – Yeah, so I guess now Mark, we have to decide what do we actually go and do with this VO2 max information? – Well and go compare
everyone else, obviously. – Yeah, true, actually. I was thinking maybe more in terms of what we could do with our training. – Oh, yeah, yeah. Well, obviously from this you then will be able to calculate your training zone. So theoretically, using your VO2 max is probably the most accurate way of calculating those training zones. So those percentages of your VO2 max for your training zones are
on the screen right now, so make sure to take
a screen shot of that. And the idea being if you go ahead and train to those training zones, you’re really like, bang on the money and should really see an
improvement in your fitness and hopefully your performance. So that is what VO2 max is, how you can find out your VO2 max and what you do with it. Now, if you have enjoyed today’s video, make sure you give us a thumbs
up and like for the video. If you don’t already subscribe to GTN, make sure you click on the
globe on screen right now and hit the bell icon to get notified when some of our videos come out. – Yeah, now hopefully you
have enjoyed this video because I’ve put in quite a lot of effort, – You sure did. – To get the number I did. But, if you want to see some other videos, then one that we have made recently is a swimmer versus a runner. And you can see that here. – Yeah, and if you’d like to see how to run to heart rate zones, you can see that by
clicking just down here.

Scientists Reveal New Study Tips That Actually Work

have a test coming up and you should be studying but you’re procrastinating, distracting
yourself by watching the Infographics Show. Luckily for you, this episode is a useful
one for your situation. If you’re struggling to figure out how to
study more effectively, we can help you out. While we’re at it, we may as well go into
depth and cover the science behind learning to better understand how to absorb information,
not just memorize. How do we learn and what are the mechanisms
of action that lead to a new level of understanding? Also, what did a bobo doll in the 1960’s
show us about human behavior? What we’re about to explain to you is powerful
information so we suggest you use it wisely and don’t abuse it! In the late 1800’s, Russian Psychologist,
Ivan Pavlov, was studying salivation in dogs in response to food when he discovered something
utterly unique for the time. He had already predicted that his dogs would
salivate in response to being given food. That was a given! But what Pavlov did not anticipate was that
his dogs would salivate just from the sound of the footsteps of someone delivering the
food. That’s when he had the idea to measure salvation
from stimuli associated with food, not just the food itself. With this, the concept of classical conditioning
was born. The ring of a bell on its own isn’t going
to make a dog’s mouth water. But what Pavlov discovered is that you can
teach a dog to react by pairing the sound of a bell with food. When associated, the dogs learned to start
salivating at the sound of a bell. This was not done consciously. Rather, it was the inner workings of the dogs’
minds that figured out that the ringing was an indication of the impending arrival of
their dinner. In this way, the dogs learned to adopt a new
behavior without realizing they were doing it. This can also be applied to humans. If you’ve ever watched the popular show,
The Office, you may remember the episode when Jim offers Dwight an Altoid every time his
computer reboots. After repeated exposure, Dwight holds his
hand out, not realizing why he suddenly expects to be given an Altoid after hearing Jim’s
computer reboot. Jim asks, “what are you doing?” and Dwight
answers, “I don’t know. My mouth tastes so bad all of a sudden.” Dwight was unknowingly conditioned to anticipate
fresh, minty breath every time he heard the familiar sound of the computer across from
him. Following Pavlov’s infamous experiment was
John Watson in the early 1900’s. In a time before ethical considerations, a
baby known as “Little Albert” was introduced to a furry, little, white rat before being
subjected to the obnoxious, distressing sound of a gong. At first, Little Albert was not afraid of
the rat. He was even initially amused by the creature. But after numerous pairings of the rat with
the gong, the baby began to cry upon seeing the animal, learning to feel afraid. This taught us a lot about how we develop
phobias to various things. Watson asserted that we are not born afraid,
but that fear is induced in us through association. For instance, you may be terrified of cockroaches
but that may only be because, when you were young, you watched your mother react by screaming
every time she saw one of those creepy crawlies. In this way, she taught you to be afraid of
them by pairing the sight of the cockroach with a fear response. But don’t be too hard on your mom for this. Odds are, it wasn’t intentional. She was just behaving naturally. And who could blame her? Anyone would do the same. Those things are gross! Unless you give it a diamond studded collar
of course. Now, let’s move on to psychologist, Albert
Bandura’s social learning theory. He believes that learning is a social process,
conducted through observation. To demonstrate this, he used a bobo doll. In 1961, the famous Bobo doll experiment was
conducted on children to measure the extent at which behavior was learned by watching
others. Some children were assigned to watch a clip
of an adult being nice to a bobo doll while others watched an adult committing violence
against it. The children were then placed in a room with
the bobo doll in order to see what they would do with it. Findings showed that the kids imitated the
behavior they’d seen prior to interacting with the doll. Some even improvised, adding their own creative
ideas along with the process. For example, a kid might have picked up a
toy gun and pretended to shoot at the doll despite only witnessing the adult punch and
kick it. This was huge in demonstrating how humans
learn to adopt observed behaviors by watching others. With this, the concept of a role model is
taken to a whole new level. Bandura explains four processes to learning. First there is attention or the degree to
which the behavior is noticed. In order to imitate a behavior, that behavior
first has to grab your attention. This is pretty straight forward. Next is retention or how well the behavior
is remembered. You may initially notice the behavior but
perhaps it doesn’t entirely sink in or register for a long period of time. If it isn’t remembered, you don’t imitate
it. Third is reproduction or your ability to perform
the behavior that the model demonstrated. Sometimes we’d like to imitate someone’s
behavior, but we are limited by our physical ability and can’t. You may see someone do a back flip and wish
you could do it, but you’re stumped. Finally, there’s motivation, our willingness
to perform the behavior. If the reward of performing the action outweigh
the cost, we are more likely to do it. For example, if you see that a guy dressing
well attracts a lot of girls to him, you may feel inclined to also start dressing better
because you’ve witnessed the reward from doing so. Okay, so now for the big question: what do
all these theories tell us about studying? What does the science behind learning teach
us with regards to how to study more effectively? Don’t worry, we’ve got your back! We rounded up some tips drawn from decade’s
worth of research. Here’s how the science says you should study
if you want to better assimilate the information and get that big, fat A+ on your next exam. First, it may surprise you to know that cramming
for a test last minute is not helpful. Trying to squeeze in a bunch of information
into a one- or two-night study session will not do you any good. The consensus states that spacing out study
sessions over time is way more effective for long-term learning. So, for instance, if you need to spend a total
of 12 hours on a subject, it’s best to spend three hours per week across the span of a
month before your test than to cram all 12 hours into one week. Now, maybe in the past, you’ve done just
fine on your tests after cramming but, odds are, you don’t remember the material as
well in the long run. Thus, if you want the cost of your college
tuition to be more worthwhile, space out your time in the library. At any rate, spending three hours at a time
hitting the books and then enjoying the rest of the night off binge watching videos on
YouTube is way more fun than a long, brutal, drawn-out 12-hour session. We should also mention that you’re more
likely to remember the first and final parts of what you study. The time spent in the middle tends to get
lost in the shuffle more easily. You can see this for yourself if you try to
memorize a large list of numbers and then try to recall what you remember. Chances are good that the numbers you spew
out mostly come from the beginning and end of that list. Thus, a longer study session means that less
information is retained in-between starting and finishing. That means more time wasted. Next, mixing subjects is best. If you have to study for more than one class,
the science says it’s better to switch on subjects while studying rather than focus
on a single subject for a long period of time. Why is this exactly? The explanation for it is that mixing or interweaving
subjects is key in learning, forgetting and relearning, which helps cement information
in the brain for the long term. You may study the answer to a history question,
move on to something else and then you relearn the answer to that same question and think,
“oh, right! I knew that.” The more often you have to remember something,
the more important your brain considers it. Thus, it becomes better stored for easier
access and future retrieval. Mixing subjects while studying also forces
students to pay attention to similarities and differences between the things they’re
trying to learn, which gives them an improved understanding of the material. So, don’t just block your study sessions
based on the topic. Feel free to switch off back and forth between
them. The learning theories we covered also centralize
around an important theme. That is, we tend to learn and remember lessons
that are more emotionally provoking or that are significant to us in some way, shape or
form. Try to incorporate some meaning to your study
materials. Find a way to connect some aspect of what
you’re learning to something personal in your own life. This will help the information feel more real
to you and make it more memorable. Applications of theoretical material to real-life
situations and scenarios also make the content easier to understand. For instance, if you’re trying to learn
a difficult math concept, try relating it back to something in your daily life. If you’re trying to figure out a percentage
question, for example, think about when you go shopping at the mall and you have to calculate
prices in your head when something is advertised as half off or 30% off. Then relate that information back to the question
in front of you. If you’re studying vocabulary, consider
the meaning of each word and try to use it in a sentence or two that applies to a situation
that is relevant to you. Let’s say your word is “misanthrope.” You could say something like, “My neighbor
is a ‘misanthrope’ because he surrounds his yard with a barbed wire fence to keep
others away. That and he wouldn’t hand out candy during
Halloween, which I’m feeling pretty salty about.” There you have it. Now you get the idea. Teaching others is also a useful tool in cementing
the information into your long-term memory. This is because, when you have to teach a
subject, you’re forced to think in-depth about it. You have to describe it in a way that will
help the other person understand, which, in turn, strengthens your own knowledge. Also, your student may ask questions that
push the bounds of your proficiency, forcing you to think deeply about the answer, further
grounding the information into your head. The final tip on this list is to test yourself
on your knowledge. If you just engage in repeated reading, without
quizzing yourself on the chapters, you get a false sense of familiarity. You feel like you know the material. But retrieving the material is an entirely
different matter. Thus, testing yourself on your knowledge by
forcing yourself to ask and answer questions lets you know what more you still need to
cover and what you’ve already grasped. Do you find this information helpful to you? What did you find most interesting about the
theories behind learning? Let us know in the comments! Also, be sure to check out our other video
called Why Would a Scientist Inject Himself with 3.5 Million Year Old Bacteria?! Thanks for watching, and, as always, don’t
forget to like, share, and subscribe. See you next time

Why Spend Money in Video Games? – Glad You Asked S1 (E5)

( coin rattling ) ( game sound effects ) Alex: I’ve been playing
video games for about 25 years. One of my first memories
was begging my parents for a quarter at the arcade
just so I could get a little
bit further at “Galaga.” Games used to be simple. You pay for the game,
you play the game. But eventually,
that all flipped.Instead of paying to play…– ( machine gun firing )
…you could be playing
to get paid.
Whether that’s from streaming
or e-sports.
Emcee: ( shouting )
He just made history! Three million dollars
in prizing! Alex:But there’s another
economy at work,
where players can buy
in-game items for real cash.
This flaming mace
is in “Echoing Fury.” In 2012, it was sold for roughly
10,000 real American dollars, making it one of the most
expensive video game items
ever sold.Which brings me to my question:“Why would you spend money
in a video game?”
( music playing ) ( light buzzes ) Games have taken up
years of my life. Literally.I’ve spent more than a year on
the games “Counter-Strike” and
“World of Warcraft,”
and as you can see,
I was a pretty serious gamer.
No! Over the last 20 years,
developers have made it possible for you to spend
more money on games.I sold my first-ever Quest
account on eBay for about
a hundred bucks.
And years later, I paid my rent
by playing “World of Warcraft”
and selling the gold I made.( thunks ) What’s up? – Oh, are we doing this?
– Yes! Welcome! So when we talk about
a virtual item, – in a video game…
– ( laughs ) …these are a range of items
and collectibles that can be bought, sold,
traded, all depending on – the game that you’re playing.
– These are things like… – skins and weapons
– Yeah. Totally. Sometimes they can make
you more powerful, but – sometimes it’s just clout.
– Mm-hm. – Showin’ off.
– Yeah, exactly. Take “World of Warcraft”… In that game today,
you can buy this. This is Hogrus,
a flying pig that you can
ride on. – A flying pig?
– Yeah. Is this also $10,000? This is only $25. You can get the snazzy
“Fortnite” dance. It’s called “Tidy,”
for about 500 V-Bucks. That’s “Fortnite’s” currency. And those V-Bucks can
be purchased for 5 real
dollars in the game. I’m sorry. What–
what is the Tidy? Uh… it’s like a window-wipe
dance move. – I haven’t actually seen
it yet.
– ( laughs ) This is a skin
in the game and basically it’s
just like a– it’s a visual accessory
that changes the way
this gun looks. And this particular
skin sold for
$61,000. – $61,000?
– Nuts. It’s just a commemorative,
special version of a skin that was very rare.There are many ways
to buy virtual items.
Free-to-play games like
“Fortnite” allow you to buy
items directly from the game
using an in-game store.
– ( coin rings )
But other games use
online marketplaces,
usually run by the
gaming companies.
In this case, players
buy and sell items
among themselves,
and the game company
takes a cut.
But there’s also
another way.
And it largely exists
beyond the control
of gaming companies.
These transactions
take place on
third-party sites.
They’re unregulated and
mostly against the rules.
But players still use them
to buy and sell items.
Back in 2012, only some
game makers allowed you to
buy, sell, and trade items in-game with real cash. And the total sum of virtual
items in the market was $15 billion. And some investors
estimate that today the total value of
these goods could be
as high as $50 billion. – Wow.
– To put that
in perspective, that is more than the
global box office of
the same year. Why is this worth
so much? My guess– I–I actually
have no idea. – ( laughs )
– I have no guesses. Essentially, things are worth
what anybody will pay for them. So, if I have a fictional castle
and you want it, and you think it’s worth $5,
then it’s worth $5. So an in-game economy is the
same as a real-world economy. You’ve got a lot of people,
you’ve got a lot of goods,
and you’ve got currency. What’s the difference?
Nothing. Alex:Games are designed
to give you a better experience
the more time you spend in ’em.
In some games, like
“World of Warcraft,”
there are daily quests
where you have to log in
and do the same thing time after time after time.
But in most games you just haveto grind and spend a lot
of time to be at the top
of the game.
On average, a player over 18
will spend more than seven
hours a week
in these digital worlds.I have a weapon in this game
that took me 14 years to get. 14 years!But what if you could buy a
better experience
instead of just
grinding out the game?
Then a new thing started
to happen when developers
offered items
that you couldn’t even
earn in the game.
I’m talking about
flying pigs. I’m gonna show you
how to get one. So, to get Hogrus, I’m going
to go to the main town, and I’m going to open
up the store.It’s really easy.
You just hit “Buy Now,”
it connects you to the shop. Find my credit card.And it says, “Thank you, you
have just earned
Hogrus, Swine of Good Fortune.” I earned it, guys!Oh, he’s in a little
gift box.
So, let’s see what happens
when I click him. – ( mouse clicking )
– Hello? Are you there? “Unwrap.” And there he is,
he popped out.( music playing )So, he runs–oh! Look at him. Look at those wings. So this is the joy that spending $25 in a
video game can bring you.So this is pretty cool.I’m going to go
to a “Counter-Strike”
tournament and see why other players are buying
virtual items.I’m headed to Skokie
to talk to some gamers
at the national
championship series
for an online shooter called,
“Counter-Strike: Global
Today, we’re gonna see players
compete for $10,000.
– ( explosion )
– Yeah! Whoo! So we practice almost
every night. Those guys look kinda
intimidating over there. Player:Singularity is
number fourth in the U.S.
Anything that you’re, like,
prepared for, excited about,
afraid of? “MAC-1”: We’re not really
preparing for anything. It’s kinda like,
the skill-gap between us and even the second
best team is so, like
high, that we really shouldn’t
even draw up a map here. Alex:“Counter-Strike” is a game
that’s been around for as long
as most of these players
have been alive.
But the latest version of the
game only recently adopted
a new free-to-play model,
where instead of paying
for the game,
players are encourage to buy
and sell their skins in it,
by using a marketplace
inside the game.
( “Ride of the Valkyries”
plays ) – ( character screams )
– Emcee:Well, okay,Osee making his expense,
knows where the remaining
two players are.
He’s going to force the issue.
He’s going for this.
If he pops one more head–
this is so deadly–there it is!
Osee can win this.
The one-v-one–oh, he gets it!
Whoo! So Osee just got a
four-kill clutch play. Basically he just killed the
entire other team that was still
alive, by himself. – Alex:Oh. My. God.
– Whoo! So this is an AK-47
in the game. And you’ve actually put
stickers on it as well, so that’s like,
Rosie the Riveter. One player has an AK-47
that’s got, like, gold
foil on it. Another player has a gun
that looks like a water gun. These are all different
skins that you can get
in the game.Within the first two years
of adding skins to the game,
the “Counter-Strike” player
base jumped by 1500%.
I actually spend a lot
of money on skins. I spent like, 2,000. – Like, dollars? Wow.
– Yep. And it just helps me
stay motivated, I guess? – Do those help you play
better in the game?
– ( laughs ) No. – So, what’s the point of it?
– Uh, just to look cool. – Okay.
– You can always resell ’em. It’s not like an asset
that you’re not able to invest into
and then sell. And, uh, if you
do it correctly, the price market fluctuates
in a way, where like, you can buy it at a low point
and sell it at a high point. If you’re smart about
it, at least. So what that “Counter-Strike”
player was talking about was buying and selling items
in “Counter-Strike” to make
a profit.Players have always found
a way to make money.
And early versions of online
trades date back to at
least the late ’90s.
Hello. Markee Dragon. Also
known as Marcus Eikenberry
in real life. I got into business, buying,
selling, and trading of intangible goods.I saw somebody that had like a
sword for sale for $20 on eBay.
And I’m like, “Holy ( bleep ),
I can do that?”
Then actually developed the
website, Markee Dragon.
– Essentially operating
as a broker.
– Correct. Most of the game companies
didn’t want it legal. Four of the different game
companies started getting
involved, and then you know, things
went south. Alex:After game developers
worked to end third-party
like Markee Dragon’s,
they began creating their own.
They formalized the exchange
of real money
with virtual goods
in currency and games.
But these developer-run
marketplaces brought out
a key concern
with these virtual economies,
and that’s risk.
I’m not sure if you’re
familiar with the
“Diablo III” auction house. Oh, my God, yes.It was the wrong
time to do it.
And everybody and
their mother said,
“Oh, my God! I’m going to
make some money playing a
video game!”
But it imploded
on them.
So this auction house
represents the game
“Diablo III’s” auction house. The only difference between
this game and other games
like it, Blizzard, the creator of
the game, decided that they
wanted to experiment with making the auction house
connected to real money. Now I’m going to give
you some coins. These are so cool!
( laughs ) – That’s your face on a…
– ( laughs ) …Glad You Asked penny.
This is the greatest prop
we’ve ever made! So, Cleo, you’ve got
20 gold. Buy whatever
you want. – Let’s get this started.
– All right. – I probably want a shield–
– Ooh. for 10 gold. And I really like
curvy red one. Ah, the scimitar.
Great choice. Now you’re out of money.
But you were only able to
buy two items, and that’s really
not enough. But imagine for a second
if somebody found out a way
to create their own gold. – I’d want to know how
they did that.
– Hey, Joss? – Yes?
– Alex: Yeah, come on in. What’s up? – Money?
– Yes. And pretty soon – you’re gonna have
a ton of it.
– Awesome. – So in this case, Joss
is a cheater…
– ( laughs ) …who found a way to
duplicate this gold. And she’s going to be able
to buy everything she wants. – How do I duplicate this?
– So there was a bug in
the auction house that allowed their players
to duplicate their gold. And that’s exactly what
happened on May 7th, 2013. You have all the gold you want,
so you can buy whatever you
want now. I’m just gonna take it all.
I mean, that’s what you do,
right? And I’ll leave two swords,
how about that? Okay. Since you just bought out
everything of value, even the middle quality items
were highly sought after. So, eventually,
what happened was
hyperinflation, and those prices changed
because people could spend
anything on it. The dollar values
are just dropping so rapidly. One area of it
spins out of control,
the whole thing collapses. Nobody knew what to do
because, remember, you could sell this gold
for real money. Wait, wait, wait, wait.
That– you can sell that
for real money? – Yes.
– Can I sell this
for real money? – Yes.
– Oh, good. Wait. I clearly want to sell
everything for real money. We want real money, Alex.
Let’s do this. So Joss puts all of her items
on the auction house before the game maker
can figure out what’s going on. Joss gets a boatload
of money. Joss does get
a boatload of money. – So that’s for you.
– Ha-ha. ( trilling ) Alex:Within just a few hours,
Blizzard shut down the game.
This whole thing only lasted
a few hours. But before Blizzard could go in
and correct the bug, a lot of damage
had been done. They couldn’t go back and change
or reverse the real money trades
that had taken place because people like Joss
had already gotten their money.So, they deleted
player accounts.
– Oh, my God.
– Oh, no! I just got banned! Some people who weren’t even
duplicating gold got caught up
in this. And I know that
because it happened to me. I had a lot of gold on one
account, and it got banned, and I lost an item
that was worth about 400 bucks. – 400 real dollars?
– 400 real dollars. – Alex!
– Yeah.The “Diablo” crash shows us
how virtual economies
can be riskier than real ones.They just don’t have the same
guardrails and protections,
and a simple design bug
could cause a catastrophe.
So when people say that,
“Oh, you bought something
in a video game.” It’s like throwing your money
down a pit that you’ll never see again
because you don’t own it. So is the popcorn you bought
at the movie theater.
It’s the experience. Alex:And that’s so true.
For most gamers, it’s not about
the money at all.
Jared:In the first place,
you shouldn’t even be playing
“Counter-Strike” for money.
– Whoo!
– You should be playing it
to reach the top and succeed and win. There’s probably
no better example of this than in the battle arena game
“Dota 2.”It’s annual competitive
tournament, The International,
has the biggest prize pool
in all of gaming.
$34 million in 2019.I decided to come to this
“Dota 2” tournament pub stop. This is in New York.
I couldn’t fly out to China where the game is actually
taking place.( music playing )( cheering )In “Dota,” players could buy
a virtual item
called a Compendium
for the tournament.
It’s a bundle containing
numerous quests,
and earnable rewards.
25% of the sales went on
to fund the prize pool
for the tournament,
and that’s right.
The biggest prize pool
in all of gaming
was almost completely
crowd funded by the fans.
People who actually watch
“Dota” itself feels like by
buying the Compendium, they’re actually supporting
the professional players
themselves. We all are, like, literally
financially invested
in this tournament. It’s kind of more
about the social aspect
of getting together, sharing the passion
for the game that we love. all: Oh! So at the end of this,
why would you spend money
in a video game? There’s so many reasons why,
but it just really comes down
to investing in what you love. Boop. We’re gonna talk about other. Beneath the surface.
Okay. Ow.
( laughing )

How Digital Cameras Work | How Things Work with Kamri Noel

KAMRI: Digital cameras. We use them every day. They’re in our
pockets, on our phones. But do we actually
know how they work? How does a digital
camera take this. And make it this? Oh, hey, where did,
are you my expert? TOM: Actually, I am. Tom O’Brien the photo
engineer for National
Geographic Magazine. KAMRI: So you’re like the
perfect person to explain how all these cameras work? TOM: Well, I don’t
know about perfect, but let’s take a
look at this camera. When you press
the shutter button, the shutter opens, allowing
the light to stream through the aperture of the camera’s
lens to the camera’s eye. KAMRI: So when I hit the shutter
button it’s like pulling back a curtain to let the light
come in and hit the eye? TOM: Yes, but only for
a small amount of time. The camera only needs
a little bit of light to capture a moment. KAMRI: But how does
it record the image? TOM: The camera’s eye
or sensor as we call it, perceives the light
as electrical signals. To demonstrate this,
let’s take a photo. KAMRI: All right, I got this. Selfie! Cute! TOM: Indeed. Now this is what
your camera first saw. KAMRI: Whoa! TOM: These are the electrical
inputs of the light. KAMRI: Oh, like
pixels in a video game? TOM: Yes. That’s your camera’s
electrical signal of the incoming light. After your camera
collects the signal, it encodes it all as data. KAMRI: Like computer data. TOM: Yes, this carries the
measurements of each pixel. Every pixel’s
color and brightness. KAMRI: So, the more pixels a
camera renders from light the more detail in the photo? TOM: Totally! We call
this detail resolution. However. When a subject moves too quickly
for the camera’s shutter, it can appear
blurry in the photo. KAMRI: Huh.
Let’s try this. TOM: Yeah, let’s! KAMRI: Okay.
Huh, definitely blurry. TOM: Maybe increase the
shutter speed this time. Ready? KAMRI: Yes.
Much better. Tom? Tom? Tom? Now that you know
how that works, catch up on all the other
episodes of How Things Work by clicking right here. And also make sure you
subscribe to Nat Geo Kids by clicking down here. See you next time, bye! Captioned by Cotter
Captioning Services.