Reinhold Würth and his 70th working anniversary

At the company assembly, you talked about jumping out of bed every morning. What has been the source of your enthusiasm and single-mindedness over all these years? Actually, I don’t know either. My wife always says I sleep like a bear. So I would say a good night’s sleep makes you jump out of bed in the morning, wouldn’t you? Us younger people would like to know whether you have a secret
recipe that helps you look as young as you do. Is there any day cream that you can recommend? Well, I use cream on my face every morning: Eucerin. I probably should get a commission from Eucerin now. Prof. Würth, we were told that your place is always full of chocolate
when you are invited to a meeting. Is that true? And what is your favorite kind of chocolate? That is true, but my doctors say sugar is not right for me,
which is why I really had to cut down on chocolate. I must say I don’t really have a favorite kind of chocolate, as long as it’s chocolate. Chocolate is just like beer. Beer is beer, it’s good when it’s cold and wine is wine. We would like to give you the book Nelson Mandela as a gift,
so you are well prepared for the upcoming fall holidays. Thank you very much. I can tell you this book won’t remain unread for long Simply because Nelson Mandela is one of the people I admire the most.
I would even call him a role model. Being imprisoned on an island outside Cape Town
and then turning from a prisoner into a president and seeking no payback, no revenge, but forgiving what has been done to oneself in great human elegance,
I consider that an almost superhuman feat. So this book is really a great gift for me. Thank you very much for that!

North Korea-U.S. working-level talks resume in Stockholm Saturday

it’s late Saturday morning over in
Sweden where North Korea and the US have just started their working-level
discussions although details are sketchy our eg1 tells us what we can expect from
the talks North Korea and the u.s. agreed to resume their working-level
talks on Saturday at the villa a fixture and inland Ingo northeast of Stockholm
details are not yet known about the meeting but that is what’s been
reportedly agreed by the two sides at their preliminary discussions today
before it is known that the US special envoy for North Korea mark Lambert and
Kwon jungin the former head of the regime’s North American Affairs
Department carried out Friday’s exchange as the discussion was in preparation for
Saturday’s meeting the two sides only met for a few hours Friday morning to
reportedly work out the schedule and administrative tasks for the actual
working-level sit down regarding general atmosphere it’s been
reported that the US thinks proactive talks were exchanged in an amicable way
while not much is known about saturday’s talks ji myung-gil will be heading the
North Korean delegation while US Special Representative for North Korea Stephen
vegan will do so for Washington there was speculation that the talks could go
on for more than a day should there be more to discuss but there are no
indications of that happening as of yet this is the first time that the two
sides have sat down on the negotiating table since the annoy summit fell apart
in February with President Donald Trump recently having mentioned the possible
new calculation eyes are on whether the two sides can agree on the
denuclearization steps and their corresponding measures first the main
sticking point of Saturday’s meeting is expected to be whether North Korea will
give up anything more than the young banned nuclear facility and whether the
US will give partial sanctions relief or security guarantees in exchange
Time magazine citing two US officials said Trump is prepared to offer Kim
jong-un a three-year waiver from UN sanctions on textile and coal exports
should Pyongyang agreed to dismantle its main nuclear facility at Young Gun and
hold its production of highly enriched uranium easy one

Tech Meets Business | Tarun On Reducing Cloud Spends By 50%

Hi guys. I’m Pooja, I look after Strategic Initiatives at Zapr. Welcome to our first session of our special series ‘Tech meets Business’ One of the most interesting things for a software engineer is that his or her work directly impacts the industry Here at Zapr also, we really want to make this real impact in the media and advertising industry by constantly improving and innovating things. Today we have Tarun Gupta with us. He is a Technical Architect here at Zapr. Let’s talk to Tarun then! Happy to be here Pooja. So, we recently did a major activity of optimizing our cloud spends where I was responsible for reducing it. So can you help us understand, how did this requirement come up in the first place? Ya, sure. We were about to integrate with a major partner and we realized that we actually expected a five fold increase in our user base and we realized that because of this our costs were going to shoot up using our predictive model analysis, we figured out that these kind of costs are not really sustainable and we need to
figure out how these costs are distributed across our systems: which
systems we can actually tell where exactly we can reduce this cost or we
can actually get away with some of the redundant systems. So that’s how we came up with this idea of cost optimization in the first place. While this was the major reason for us, the other reason was as a growing startup Zapr was also looking for expanding our business across different geographies, even international geographies which would have further increased our costs so that’s why we wanted to do this cost optimization exercise so that we have a better understanding of our cost distribution across different systems So Tarun, why is this cloud storage and computation so expensive? And how much does a company like Zapr rely on cloud? So, the cloud is becoming cheaper day by day and the main benefit of using cloud is the
elasticity you get Also, you do away with the cost of having an expert team which manages on-premise infra But going to cloud has its own caveat, so as you grow as a startup, your userbase grows the data that you store grows the amount of data you are churning grows so what it requires is, it requires placing in best practices around operating on infra. you did the impossible by reducing the
cost 50% in just a span of about 2 months So how did you go about achieving
this? Actually before starting with any optimization activity, what we did was that we did a very thorough tagging activity. What it helped us
understand is that where actually the cost was coming from. So we tagged each
and every of our resources with important tags like project, servicing,
team and with that we were able to get a clear picture of where each cost was
coming from, what component was contributing how much. Post that, what we did was we tried to question the existence of every component and then
went out went ahead with understanding why that component is costing so much.
Post that, we put a target in mind that how much this component should actually
cause and then that is how we release catched up a plan for reducing the
overall cost by 50% This must have been a massive exercise. Can you tell us about the different optimizations that you did? Did you have to work across teams also for this? Yes, it was. So major themes were around removing redundant component so wherein we identified like how same data is stored at
two different formats or two pipelines producing the same similar kind of data.
We identified this and removed. The other was like right sizing and auto scaling, wherein we identified that are we using the right kind of resources for
right things or should we like move to a higher memory instance which have low CPU
or where do we require more CPU and less memory. The other part was around auto
scaling. So you do not really need to be running at peak capacity at all the time.
So for instance, at night time you really don’t need all your resources to be up
So we established metrics around that how do we want to automatically scale in
and scale out. Another important thing was life cycles and backup. So as a company, you are always taking backups and you are really not
worried about removing it and with growing scale and with time your data
also grows the data that you’re storing grows so what we did is we identified which type of data we want to store for how much period and how do we
transition this across different storage tiers which has different different
costs. Along with all these we did lot of core optimizations as well. So what we
did was that we rewrote one of our core components for better efficiency giving
almost 10x performance and the other thing was like we analyzed that where
we can compress the data and reduce the data in flight and data X store. Also it required working across with all the engineering teams and some business teams as well. At times it was tough to get everyone at the same page but
what it led to was that during these discussions we did get some very
innovative solutions or answers to the problem that we were trying to solve. That’s really impressive,Tarun. So, tell me, while figuring out where
each penny was spent what was the most unanticipated place you saved the cost? Sure, so I love to talk about this one. See almost two billion fingerprints daily which leads to a lot of influx of data so when we were looking at this component, we saw that we were doing as much “data-out” as the “data-in”. For most of the cloud
vendors, while data-in is free data-out is charged at a significant price and
this was really puzzling to us that because we were not sending too much
data-out and this was an unexpected place where the volumes look very high.
So on digging out further deep we figured out that this is because of the
SSL certificate exchange that is happening and this is must for an HTTPS
which is the norm of the security in today’s world.
So initially it looked unavoidable but we really wanted to solve for this, so
then further digging deep down we figured out that each SSL certificate
has a chain and the longer the chain the bigger the SSL certificate exchange is. So
we figured out how we can reduce this chain and we bought in certificates
which were like having shorter chain and just by changing the certificates itself
we saved a lot of costs there. Thank you for sharing our experiences, Tarun. As we rapidly scale, it’s really important for us to solve for efficiency of our systems and only when technology and business comes together and work together this real impact can be achieved in the industry. Thank you for watching us. We’ll catch you in our next session of the special series Technology Meets Business at Zapr!

Brock School of Business, Rite of Passage

this is just the next step in their
process they’ve still got two years with us here at the Brock School but now
they’re a declared major they’ve got a clear path and a direction for their
career and it’s a chance for them to focus in that area and sharpen their
skills in a way that is going to make them really attractive in the job market I’ve really enjoyed my time in the Brock
School of Business I have enjoyed getting to meet new friends through the
business school I’ve enjoyed the way that it has prepared me for life the
communication skills it has taught me the professional skills that has taught
me and I I feel like I’m ready for a professional life after the business
school over the last several years with my experience with students in Brock
School of Business I’ve been so impressed with the training that they’ve
had the excitement that they have for the work that they’re gonna do and
really just the good leaders and good character that they have as they enter
into the workforce

My Philosophy on Risk When Starting a Business

What’s up, guys? Danny Carlson here. Got a beautiful pool behind me. Rice fields they’ve just harvested them. So not quite as green and beautiful as
normal, but it still looks pretty damn good. So I just want to take this quick video
about risk and Entrepreneurship and starting out self-employed whether it’s
just a small freelancing thing or starting your own business from scratch, there is
risk involved and it takes some really conscious risk management to… Not blow up your business. But at the same time be taking enough
risk that you’re moving forward and you’re moving in the right direction because
it is not really possible to be in these kinds of Endeavors risk-free. So, me personally I’ve always
been a very risk tolerant person. I grew up doing a lot of extreme Sports. You may have seen videos of me downhill
skateboarding, I was semi-professional in that, racing around the world and that’s a
heck of a lot of fun and even now I still have a really fast Sports
motorcycle and I… I’ll Admit I drive like a little bit of a
Maniac sometimes or all the time but point being is I tend to be a much
more risk tolerant person. So I actually had the opposite problem of
most people when it started in business which was being too aggressive and I got
bit in the ass by just taking on too much risk and making decisions
that were too optimistic. And I ended up losing good chunks of money
in my first couple years of business doing that kind of stuff. But most people have the exact opposite
problem, it is they’re not willing to take on enough risk. They’re Never completely certain about a
decision and they want more information want everything figured out before they’re
going to you take the plunge and that is equally Insidious. If not even more Insidious because the
problem with that is to really get your business figured out. You need to have a feedback loop. And the only way to have any kind of
feedback loop is to continually be taking action and making mistakes. So you can use that data from the mistakes
to course correct and improve and go. This goes for every single company out
there from small startups to massive companies like Google, you know, Facebook
is really famous for their motto “Move fast and break things”
or something like that. So they really take that to heart. And so often I see especially first-time
entrepreneurs or people who are just starting out. They delay action by months, sometimes
years of starting their first business or getting the first, you know, they hit a
roadblock and then they really can’t make a decision and its
really holding them back. That… That mindset will block these people
forever from being successful with their first business. So, I mean, where do you
find the healthy medium? Because when I started out I was much too
aggressive and you don’t want that but you also need to be taking action. So my personal philosophy with this is
that, if you are 65 percent sure on a decision you have some limited data and
you’re really unsure but your gut is telling you that it’s good 65 percent
sure, then you have to go for it. But don’t just go for it just based on
that go for it, but also have feedback plan like okay, so I hypothesize that this
will happen if I invest in this or if I go in this direction, but what
will I do if X happens, right? So if… If I make this decision
and it turns out I’m wrong. What is my backup plan? Right. You don’t want to make decisions that
you don’t have a good course correction strategy and you certainly need to be
using this feedback loop to continually improve and get better. Right. So if you have that point of view,
it becomes a lot easier to make these decisions because it’s
not a permanent decision. You’re making the decision to take one
step forward and then measure and then course correct and keep going. No decision is ever “I stepped over
this line and now I can’t step back”. I mean unless you’re like selling drugs
or something like that, but don’t be an idiot. Right? So constantly looking at
it as a course correction. Someone the other day. I heard a great analogy is Google Maps. What happens when Google Maps, if you’re
following the directions and you take a wrong turn? Google Maps will automatically recalculate
the best route for where you going, right? So you have the end goal in mind but the
path to get there you can’t really be certain what it is. So if you wait too long,
you don’t take enough risk. You will never ever, ever get there. So, have that in mind
guys, course correction. Taking… Taking small calculated risks along the
way knowing that you will never have the full picture. Is my personal philosophy on what is
a good balance of risk and reward? So hopefully this helped you out guys. If you guys want some more risk, I
would highly recommend riding Sports motorcycles. That’s one of my favorite things to do
plenty of good volcanoes out here in Bali windy roads, perfect Pavements. Come let me know if you want to go do that
I’m always looking for rooting partners and risk away.

Sen. Cory Booker on Civility in Politics and Working with Mitch McConnell

-You talk about,
in all seriousness, in so far as we
talk about politeness, which will be
an interesting thing in this campaign going forward, you talk about civic grace and you talk about
courageous empathy. Can you speak a little bit
to what you mean by those ideas and also the difficulty
in expressing those, in practicing those at a time where the opponent will
likely not be using those? -Look, I was running on an Iowa
stage, and we were so psyched. Hundreds of people there. I’m about to jump up,
and this guy sees me, a former tight end
for Stanford University. He’s a big guy. He puts his arm around me
and he goes, “Dude, I want you to punch
Donald Trump in the face.” And I stop in my tracks
and I go, “Dude, that’s a felony, man.” [ Laughter ] And, you know, this —
Donald Trump is a guy who you understand he hurts you,
and my testosterone sometimes makes me want to
feel like punching him, which would be bad for
this elderly, out-of-shape man that he is if I did that.
[ Laughter ] [ Cheers and applause ] This physically —
physically weak specimen. A physically weak specimen. But you see
what I’m talking there? That’s his tactics. And you don’t beat a bully like
him fighting him on his tactics, on his terms, using his turf. He’s the body shamer. He’s the guy that shows — tries
to drag people in the gutter. And I — This is a moral moment
in America. And to me, what we need from
our next leader, especially after the time of
moral vandalism that we’re in right now, is we need a leader that’s not
gonna call us to the worst of who we are but call us
to the best of who we are. And we need to be, as a party — [ Cheers and applause ] In this moral moment, we need not to talk about
necessarily what we’re against, but what we’re for, and the best way of looking at
this is just our history. The gardens of our democracy
have never been free of the weeds of bigotry,
hatred, a demagoguery. Every generation has had them. I literally had an elder friend
of mine text me, saying, listening to Donald Trump’s
rally last week, that he was talking —
the words he was using reminded him of
a George Wallace rally that he watched
in black and white and now it’s in living color. But how did we beat them before? First of all, don’t mistake
strength for — to be strong,
you need to be mean. We beat Bull Connor,
for example, in Birmingham not by bringing bigger dogs
and bigger firehoses and matching his demagoguery
with more. But these were incredible
artists of activism that called to the moral
imagination of a country, that called us to a greater —
a revival of that civic race that pulled black folks
and white folks and more folks together
that relegated that demagogue to the ash heap of history. We will not beat Donald Trump
by trying to be more like him but by showing
that we are not like him. We are not weak morally.
We are not weak mentally. We’re a strong nation,
and we’re a nation that unites. [ Cheers and applause ]
-It does seem like — Obviously, it’s going to be
a difficult undertaking for whoever the nominee is
to take back the White House. It might even be
more statistically difficult for the Democratic Party
to take back the Senate. So, let’s say
you’re in the White House, but Mitch McConnell
is still running the Senate. Where does — Where can you find
any optimism to think that you can get something done
as long as Mitch McConnell, who has been
incredibly effective, no matter what
you think about him, effective in sort of having
this Republican platform that has been a wall that’s been
impossible to break through. -So, that’s a distinction
of my record. Look, I was the mayor
of New Jersey’s largest city in the middle of a recession where people told me
what we couldn’t do, and now from transforming
our school system to the biggest period economic
development in 60 years, we got things done
people said couldn’t be done. I got to the Senate. One of the things
that drove me there was the fact that we have one of the most shameful
criminal-justice systems on the planet, where we say
we’re the land of the free, but we incarcerate 25% of
the globe’s incarcerated people. And I went there
to do something about it. And I remember people
in my own party telling me, “You’re never gonna get
legislation like this passed through the United States
Senate, especially freeing people
from prison at a time in the aftermath of
Willie Horton, where everybody
is gonna be afraid to do that.” Well, with Mitch McConnell
there, I led from the Democratic side a bill that not only got passed
but right now, last week, we saw thousands of people
being released, the overwhelming majority of
them being African-Americans. -This is the First Step —
-The First Step Act. And, so, I do not
resign myself ever to people saying
things can’t get done. And why I fight so hard
in this election, I tell people, I know that the number-one thing
people want in my party is just to beat Donald Trump. But I’m like, “That is a floor.
It is not the ceiling. We have to have
bigger aspirations.” If we make this election
all about him, that’s a small man, one office. That’s not what I want
this election to just be about. We will beat him.
I will beat him. But we’ve got to make this
more of a movement election to create
new American majorities. And I’m not talking about
Democratic majorities. But the fact of the matter is we actually agree on
more than we disagree. The lines that divide us, they’re not as big as
the ties that bind us. And so, I think our generation
now, and this election and this moral moment has to
begin not to resign ourselves to a fractured broken government but aspire to do
what our ancestors did. We just came off a weekend where they created
the new American majority to defy the limits
of human potential and put a person on the moon. It’s time for our generation
to begin to reject divisive tribalistic politics and inspire people
so that we in our generation can defy gravity as well and do the things that other
people think are impossible. -Alright. Well, thanks for
making the time. I know it’s got to be busy
out there. -Thank you. -Best of luck in the next round
of debates. That’s Cory Booker, everybody.

Skype for Business to Teams, a transition story

– [Nick] Hello, and welcome to today’s Microsoft Teams for
Education virtual event. And we’re gonna be talking about Skype for Business to
Microsoft Teams upgrade, and the process of
transitioning your users between the product. My name is Nick Smith. I’m a Principle Program Manager
in the Microsoft Teams team, and I’ve been working with a number of different
educational institutions, helping them to drive Teams usage. Part of that conversation is transitioning their existing Skype for Business
users to Microsoft Teams. And I wanna share with you today is some of the key points, key resources that we’ve been able to use to complete that transition. We only have half an hour today, so I’m gonna be talking about the strategy and tools that you can use. If you want deep learning and walkthroughs of client experience and all
the configuration capabilities, I will be pointing you to a
number of different resources that are available for
you to consume offline as you are planning your journey. So, first of all, why upgrade to Teams? I always like say that
Teams should a pull. We should be pulling users to be having, to be coming to you, saying,
“Hey, I want to use Teams “as my primary way of conversing,” rather than pushing
them off the old system. And we’ve actually done a lot in Teams to make sure that that pull happens. We’ve introduced advanced
features and capabilities that allow you to do more than what we had in Skype
for Business Online. We’re also rapidly
introducing new capabilities, sometimes every two
weeks, into the product, that give them enhanced,
greater capability, enhanced reliability,
and a richer experience. We’ve also made sure that we’ve modernized the user experience. There are a number of
challenges that we had seen with previous architectures, with Skype for Business,
Server, Online, Consumer, that we were able to address
at a larger scale in the cloud, and provide a great user experience that aligns with how people want to work in the workplace today, and the new way in which people want to collaborate. And so, what we’re doing is we’re taking a lot of the capabilities that had previously been
in Skype for Business, and merging it with the ways in which people want to communicate. Things like persistence of chat, rather than a session that you converse realtime, you close the window, and then where did it go? We’ve also done a lot of design work to improve the overall
performance of the system, to improve the reliability, and to make sure that
meeting join is much easier. Across all of these, we’ve
made vast improvements, and our customers are seeing those. And that is also something that has had having people come to us and say, “Hey, how quickly can I get to Teams, “what is the process, how do I get there?” Teams has also been the fastest-growing business
app in Microsoft history. It’s already used at
over 500,000 companies, 91 of the Fortune 100, and many of ’em have
already gone large on it. Over the course of the next two years, we’re gonna be working with
many of those customers to help them complete their Skype for Business to Teams upgrade, and we’ll continue to iterate in Teams to make that experience better. When we first announced
that Skype for Business was gonna be upgrading into
Teams, about two years ago, we actually went out and
we published a roadmap that talked about the features of Teams and the feature of Skype for Business that were available in the market. And we talked about the number of features that we’re gonna be bringing into Teams. Over the course of those two years, we have delivered a tremendous
amount of features into Teams that weren’t there at launch. So, if you kind of heard about
this and you looked at Teams, maybe you looked at it a while ago, but it was missing a number of features, please look at this list again, because there’s a number of things that we’ve improved into the product. In fact, there are a number
of things on this list that we never even offered
in Skype for Business Online. There were more Skype for
Business on-prem features that we’ve been able to architect
and introduce into Teams. So we’re really working to making sure that you get the complete
experience with Teams of the features that you
had previously in Skype. Now, I don’t wanna say that
we have feature parity, because there are certain things that we do different in
Teams that no longer, no longer equate
one-to-one with what we had for Skype for Business, because we’re doing things
a little bit differently or a little bit better. But, by and large, the
biggest feature sets, we’ve been able to deliver. There are a few things that we know are holding a couple of companies back, and so we’ve also already put out a blog in which we’ve announced what our plans for Skype for Business to Teams are, and we’ve detailed a couple
of those additional gaps that are coming into the product, things like enhanced 911 support. Speaking of that blog, here’s a little bit more about the blog that we released late July. And, essentially, what we did is we said, “Hey, we’ve been working on “a Skype for Business to Teams upgrade “for the past few years. “We’ve been talking
about it for a few years. “And we’ve gotten to the point now “where we have the majority
of features in Teams.” And so, we have announced the Skype for Business
Online retirement date. And we actually gave
you two years’ notice. So, if you’re using Skype
for Business Online, you can continue to use it, but we encourage you
to start thinking about your journey to Microsoft Teams, how you’re going to adopt it,
how you’re gonna get there, because we plan on retiring
that service on July 31st, 2021. That’s a full two years’ notice. A couple things that I do
want to call out about this is that this is specifically
to Skype for Business Online. If you are running Skype
for Business Server, which is the on-premise version, or if you’re working with Skype Consumer, those are not affected. We have not put out a
retirement date for those. Those are gonna continue to be supported. We’re gonna be continuing
to work with those. Another thing to call out is that many of you who may have deployed Skype for Business as a phone system, and have a number of
third-party IP phones, we realize that you’ve made the investment in that infrastructure, and the investment in that hardware, and that even though
you’re moving to Teams, you still need to use that hardware in order to make phone calls. And so, what we have announced is that we will continue
to support the gateway, allowing those third-party IP phones that were designed to connect to Skype, they’ll still be able
to connect into Teams, and they’ll still be able to make calls all the way through 2023, which is about the same time that many of those devices
are going end-of-life. So we will continue to support that and allow you to use those,
even against the Teams backend. I mentioned a little bit earlier a couple of features that
we know are coming to Teams that some people may be
waiting for from Skype. We do have a plan on
delivering dynamic 911, shorter retention periods of chat, Teams and Skype Consumer interop, and then we’re also working
with a number of partners on making sure that we have contact center integrations
and compliance recording. We have found, through our
survey with many, many customers, that these are the things with both that we’ve already delivered
and that are on this list that will help unblock
people from getting to Teams, and with that, almost everyone
can make it into Teams. So, with that said, what do the Teams upgrade paths look like? How do you get there? Just a couple things that I
wanna make sure that we set from a terminology standpoint. We have a number of different modes that you can go through and
configure via an admin policy and assign to your organization or users that define what your experience is between Skype for Business and Teams. By default, if you have
made no other changes, you’re probably in something
called Islands mode. And what Islands mode is means that Teams is an island and Skype
for Business is an island, and the two don’t communicate right now. And so, that means that if I send a chat in Skype for Business, as long
as I’m still in Islands mode, that is always going to
land in Skype for Business for whoever I’m sending it
to, within your organization. If I send a chat message in Teams, that’s going to land in Teams. That’s the meaning of Islands mode. You have two different
applications that both provide somewhat overlapping
features and functionality. This also means that they have the ability of scheduling Skype
meetings and Teams meetings. Now, the reason why we have
Islands mode by default is because, when we
think about the strategy of wanting to upgrade users from Skype for Business to
Teams, we don’t just wanna change their experience
completely overnight. We want them to have the
ability to go through and become familiar and
build trust with Teams, and that’s where we
want to work with that, have them working with Teams, that eventually turns
into that pull motion, that I talked about earlier, of users coming to you and
saying, “Hey, you know what? “I really wanna use Teams
for all these communications. “How can I just make this
my only application?” That’s gonna be your
indicator that it’s time to start making that
upgrade and transition. And so, what we do is we want to spend the time in which we’re in Islands and going through and making sure that everyone who is using Skype is
getting introduced to Teams, that they’re building
familiarity and capability. And once we see that our
usage level and our adoption within those departments is the same is when we will start, is when we will look at
configuring the policy so that we can upgrade everyone to Teams and start delivering all
these messages into Teams. There are a number of different
modes that can be configured based upon the transition
path that you want to take and whether or not you
are an on-prem customer, a hybrid customer, or Online. If you are strictly Skype
for Business Online, our recommendation is that
you go from Islands mode, you get saturation, and
then you go to Teams mode as quickly as you can. What that does is it helps
to reduce user confusion, it helps to reduce kind
of the help-desk term, and it gets everyone into Teams, using it as a collaborative
platform, at the same time. You can assign these policies to users, you can assign them at the organization. So, if you wanted to test this
within your IT department, you could assign that policy
to a couple of users to test. One thing that I wanna call out is that you could have different modes
assigned to different users. And so, if you have Islands
mode assigned to one user, and you have a mode like Teams Only assigned to another user, what will happen is that we
will redirect chat messages to whatever platform is necessary based upon the configuration
of the receiving user. And I’ll tell you what that
means in just a second. So, the destination mode
that we wanna get to is called Teams Only. And what this does is it
essentially goes through and on the services in the backend, it will go through and it will redirect any chat or calling messages, and it will actually
deliver those to Teams instead of Skype for Business. So, if you had a user that was Teams Only, but the rest was in Islands, any message sent from
Skype for Business or Teams would show up in Teams. They would be able to reply back, and it would go to the originating system. But this is something
we have called interop. And interop allows us to make sure that we connect the two systems in the time in which you’re
going through the upgrade, but this is also where we see
the most amount of questions, and a slightly different experience. And even from a user perspective, we’ll prompt them with a message saying, “Hey, this conversation is happening “with a Teams user or a
Skype for Business user. “We recommend that you
both switch to Teams to get the greatest set of capabilities.” You can certainly do this at a user level or departmental level,
but our recommendation is that as you go through,
you get saturation, you go ahead and upgrade the enterprise to Teams at the same time. And that way, it limits the amount of time that you’re in this interop mode, and it also reduces confusion
from your users and help desk in terms of, when I send a
message, where does it go? Some other things that we do when you set someone to Teams Only mode. So, not only do we redirect
all chat and calling to arrive in Teams, we also go through and
look at any meetings. We will remove the ability to schedule a new Skype for Business
meeting from Outlook, and they will only have the ability to schedule Teams meetings. And we will also go through
and look at their calendar and any Skype for Business meetings that that user has scheduled using the Skype for
Business meeting add-in will automatically be updated with coordinates to join
that as a Teams meeting. So we’ll go ahead and
take care of that for you in the backend, and
what that means is that, when you go to join a meeting, you’ll start to join Teams meetings, and meetings will be
scheduled as Teams meetings. Now, the one exception to this is that if you are a
user and you are joining someone else’s meeting that has not yet been upgraded to Teams, or is maybe using Skype for Business in a different organization, they will still have their
Join Skype for Business link. What we will do is we will leave the Skype for
Business binaries installed, and when you click on that,
we will actually launch the Skype for Business client, we’ll allow them to join the meeting as the Skype for Business client, but they’ll have limited functionality in Skype for Business. It actually won’t let them
send any new chat messages outside of the context of a meeting, and it actually won’t let
them see their contact list, because we’ve migrated
all of that to Teams. They will also get a warning in the Skype for Business
client when they first launch it that says, “You’ve been upgraded to Teams. “Go and communicate there.” So, we do as much as we can
within the client experience to make sure that they know
that they’ve been upgraded and they should go communicate
in Microsoft Teams. The other thing that we do is
we go and we look at the data that had previously been
in Skype for Business, and we transition that into Teams. So we’ll go and find any
of the existing contacts and federated contacts, and
we will put that into chat underneath their contacts section where they’ll get all of the contacts and all the contact groups
that they previously had. So we will go through and do a refresh, make sure all of that
information is within Teams as they get migrated to Teams Only mode. So, very quickly, who’s done this? We have a number of different customers, enterprise and education, that have already gone through this. We have customers of all different sizes, whether it be a very small institution or fairly large institutions, that are already in the
process of doing the upgrade or have already completed it. What we have here is the
University of South Florida, who was gracious enough
to give me a quote. They recently completed their Skype for Business to Teams upgrade, and what they found is that as they were deploying Teams, they very quickly had more users on Teams than they did for Skype for Business. And I see this very common
within education customers, where Skype for Business is
used on the staff/faculty side, many times in the administrative units of the education business, but is not used broadly enough in which it’s being used by all students or it’s being used by
the entire community. And so, we see, very quickly, that Teams growth has outpaced
the adoption of Skype. And that’s when we know that
we wanna start looking at when do we set the policies
in order to do the upgrade? One thing that I wanna call out is that if I have a thousand
users who are active on Skype and a thousand users
who are active on Teams, that doesn’t necessary mean that they’re the same thousand users. And I’ll show you a tool in just a moment to help you identify how
close those user sets are. But as you can see, the University of South
Florida went through this, they went through their Teams deployment. They saw that they could reduce confusion and that they had already
kind of introduced Teams into many of those departments. So they went ahead and set a notify on the Skype for Business clients, saying, “Hey, Teams is gonna be
upgraded in the next 30 days.” They set that switch,
they sent out emails, they communicated it,
there was 30 days came, they set the policy for the organization to go to Teams Only,
and they were upgraded. And, in fact, this
process went so smoothly that they really didn’t
have too many support calls. More of, “Hey, where do I get Teams?” for those that hadn’t actually had Teams deployed to their machine yet. But as you can see, they had
a very smooth experience, and it allowed them to
move forward with Teams and go ahead and be done with supporting that additional application with the overlapping workload. So what does the journey from Skype for Business
to Teams look like? So, if you’re already using Teams, then you’re in that period of coexistence in which you have Skype
for Business and Teams and you’re in Islands mode. And, as we talked about, that
is using it side-by-side. When you’re at this
point, what you wanna do is you wanna plan your
upgrade for Teams Only. You wanna look at who your users are for Skype for Business, have
they been introduced to Teams? If they have, then are we achieving the same levels of usage
in those departments? And then we know that we can
go through and do the upgrade. So, there’s a number of
things that you wanna plan. What are your dates that you want to do? How long do you want to notify users that you’re gonna be upgrading from Skype for Business
to Teams beforehand? What type of communications
do you wanna put out? Most of this change is
about change management rather than, hey, we’re just gonna go and replace one client with the other. And so that’s what you
really want to think about. But, once you get Teams introduced, they’re really gonna know
what Teams feel like, they’re gonna know of
the advantages of Teams, and it makes the process a lot easier. If you have a more complex deployment, or if you have on-premise or hybrid, there are some other
steps that you can take, these other policies in which you can move
workloads into Teams. So, if you wanted to use
Teams just for Collab but not use chat, you
could configure that. Or if you want to, you
introduce Collab and Meetings, you can do that. Again, those are for the more complex, if you have on-premise or hybrid. The majority of customers
that we work with are completely in Skype for
Business Online, using Teams, and that’s where we suggest going from Islands directly to Teams Only. If you have not yet started using Teams, then we want to get started now. Like I said, we have two years between now and the end-of-service date, but we wanna make sure that
you are currently going through planning your deployment
and getting things set up. So, start by going and envision how you want to do teamwork
within your organization. Identify some pilots,
identify some use cases where people have an
existing business need that they’re trying to solve,
and introduce Teams there. And then start to deploy
Teams and grow your usage. Really start with those people that are gonna become your champions. And you’ll see that Teams
starts to grow fairly rapidly. And that’s when you get into
the area of coexistence, which is what we had on the first slide. And you continue to grow and adopt Teams, and then you get into
planning your Teams Only mode once you reach that saturation
level in which you know the people who are
using Skype for Business have been introduced to Teams and that they’re gonna be comfortable with what that upgrade means. So, how do you know which users are your
Skype for Business users and which users are your Teams users, and whether or not there’s
a good enough overlap? The good news is that we have something in the Office 365 Usage dashboard called Microsoft 365 Usage Analytics. It’s something that you can go
and turn on for your tenant. It will load all of the
usage in your tenant and it will give you a Power BI report. And these Power BI reports
are very, very powerful because they allow you to
filter down to different levels. I’m showing you a screenshot that has a whole bunch of kind of randomized data because I don’t want to be sharing anyone’s email address or anything else. But a couple things that
I wanna point out here. You can get this Usage
and Analytics report for any Office 365 workload, right? Which is great, because that means that we can look at what
our Teams user activity is, and we can look at what our Skype for Business user activity is, and that allows us to see,
are they the same users, or is there a similar number
of users who are using that? So, you get this report for
all Office 365 workloads. The next thing is that you get to go and see who your top
departments are by usage. And so, this, as long as you have department configured in active directory, it will pull this information, and I can see that there
are some departments that use the workload more than others, based upon the size of the box. When I am planning my Teams rollout and I’m planning it
specifically for the upgrade from Skype for Business to Teams, I know I want to go and
target those larger boxes because those are my
larger amounts of usage. And what we’ll see is we’ll actually see Skype for Business
usage start to tail off. So you can see this
for Skype for Business, you know you need to target it, and then you can see
those boxes grow in Teams so that they’re relatively the same amount of usage as what you had for Skype for Business, and this calls it out. The next thing that this
really helps you with is, a lot of times people say, “Okay, “I know that this is being
used within a big department, “but who are my top users
in that department?” Through the magic of Power
BI, you can go through and click on that department, and you can actually, in the bottom, have a filtered list that
shows who your top users are and what pieces of the
technology they are using. So, in the case of, “Hey, we’re doing “Skype for Business to Teams upgrade,” here are the ones that need
a little bit more assistance, because they’re the ones who are actively using
the system a lot more. They’re the ones that you
want to target and say, “Here’s the advantage of Teams.” Make sure that they’re
really introduced into Teams, because they will also
become your champions within the department
making that transition. So this is the tool
that you will really use as you’re going through
to say, “Am I ready? “Is this department
ready to make the jump?” Because what you’ll see
is that you will see either the equal amount of Teams usage to Skype for Business in there or you’ll see Skype for
Business usage tailing off and Teams usage in those
departments going up. And that’s when you know that you’re ready to make the change. So, this has been a very
high-level conversation, but I wanna make sure that I also give you the links that you need to go for that more technical conversation. What are the policies that I can do? What is the client experience like? What do I need to do from a end user change
management adoption? Unfortunately, we didn’t
have enough time in this call to cover all of it, but I wanna make sure that you have access to these resources. So, first of all, we
have a great resource out at This is an entire page dedicated to how people can make the
transition from Skype to Teams. It will give you links
to videos that detail the entire technical process, all the different admin capabilities, what interop looks like. But it also gives you a lot of
different adoption resources that help you to go
through, how do I plan this? Who are my project stakeholders? What are we doing for
technical user-readiness? How are we making sure
that it’s out there? And how are we continuing to grow and build our champions for Teams? That not only helps you do the Skype for Business to Teams upgrade but puts the infrastructure in place to really have the champions to drive Teams usage
within your organization. So I highly recommend that you go and you check out these resources. It will give you information about things that are coming into
Teams, how to structure these, what sample timelines look like, and what the technical
information looks like if you are the IT administrator. And then, we also have a number of other links in here that will
help you with Teams adoption. ‘Cause, like I said, the first
part of doing this upgrade is to get to Teams adoption out there. So, lots of great resources. If you are an adoption specialist, I highly, highly, highly recommend that you go and check out
the Teams Adoption Toolkit. This has a number of different videos, a number of different posters, a number of different resources you can go through and look at, hey, how do you go and get Teams deployed? How do you drive user awareness? What are some posters, email samples, other things that you can send out? Then along the side, we also
have lots of things about, you know, we talked about Skype To Teams, we have Teams Training so that you can get a foundation in what Teams is, why it’s different from
Skype for Business, why we made certain decisions. Teams is also so much more than
what Skype for Business was. I wanna make sure that I stress this. If you look at Teams as just a Skype for Business replacement, then you’re gonna look at it and say, “Well, why did they do certain things?” But if you think about Teams as not only are we bringing the Skype for Business workloads into it from a private chat functionality, from a meetings perspective, but when you overlay it with the way in which
people can collaborate, the way in which people
can co-edit documents, the way in which people
can work out in the open, then the architecture of Teams and the user experience of
Teams, makes so much more sense. And so, I really want you guys to look at not only is Teams just a
replacement for that capability, but it’s so much more, and you’re getting a lot more that you can
do with the product. I did talk about a few
Teams Roadmap items, and so that’s where you can go and see Teams Roadmap
at And then another fantastic
resource is Success With Teams. This is a website that you can go to that pretty much kinda
gives you, at the beginning, a guidepost of what is your
role, what are you trying to do? And it helps you to navigate
the wealth of information that we have out there
about Microsoft Teams, and gets you into the resources
that are most valuable for what it is you’re trying to do, whether that’s, I’m trying to find out how to do the upgrade, or technical policy management of Teams, or where do I find end user training? Success With Teams is the place that will take you through and show you all those different capabilities and help you to navigate that information. So I highly suggest you go
and check out these resources, they’re gonna be very helpful in having you go through the process of actually doing the upgrade from Skype for Business to Teams. With that, thank you very much. I appreciate your time today. And please go out, check
out those resources. Based upon your role, they’ll give you the technical specifics that you need for policy configuration or end user change management
adoption during the upgrade. Thank you very much.

Working with the PowerShell Pipeline

Hello tech world this is tech thoughts and welcome to this special Tech Thoughts video series focused on learning PowerShell. This is an operationally designed video series intended to get you ramped up and using PowerShell quickly. This is video 2 in the series, working with the PowerShell pipeline. as always if you prefer written documentation the corresponding article for this topic can be found on the blog which i’ve linked in the description below. Let’s go ahead and get started. so we can start off with what is a pipeline? Well, it’s not something that you really need to overthink It’s just a pipeline operator that moves data from one command to another. so we can do something like Get-Process Which will return all of our processes But instead we can use the pipeline operator designated by this symbol here And instead pipe that to something like Sort-Object. So here what we’re doing is we’re taking all of the processes found by this cmdlet, and piping those over one at a time over to Sort-Object and we can sort by… let’s say ID. So instead of sorting by name or sorting by another factor, we can sort by a different property So in this case, we can pipe that to sort object and sort by ID Notice that we are starting at 0 over to 8 And so we see this is nicely sorted by ID number now. we could instead if we wanted sort this by name and we will get a different output and now everything is sorted by the name of the process that is running. So this concept of pipeline passing works for a variety of different cmdlets. We can start demonstrating this by opening a notepad and moving that over to the right. and if we run Get-Process, and search for our notepad processes notice that we do find one notepad process because we’re running one notepad over here. We can leverage the pipeline to pipe this to Stop-Process. So what’s happening here and because PowerShell does work with objects, we’ll pull in the notepad process object and then pipe that over to Stop-Process which should terminate this notepad window. so notice that as soon as I go ahead and click enter it immediately terminates that particular process. This is the power of the PowerShell pipeline. Do keep in mind that not all cmdlets will accept pipeline input. so, if you’re not sure you can use get help as we’ve demonstrated in a previous video, and see if things like Stop-Process support the concept of a pipeline input. So if we do a Get-Help Stop-Process -full We’ll get a lot of help information about that particular cmdlet, and we can come up to the various parameters and we can see in here that indeed if we specified the process to stop, that a pipeline input is supported. Another thing to keep in mind is that you can’t do a Get-Service and pipe the name of service, bits, in to Stop-Process. This Stop-Process is expecting a process object. Whereas the Get-Service cmdlet is going to return a service object. So, if we click enter on this, this will of course bomb out and say that, hey I can’t find a process with the name bits. It doesn’t understand how to process that particular object. when working with the pipeline, there is one automatic variable that is critical to understand, and that is PSItem. And PSItem contains the current object in the pipeline. If you’re new to PowerShell this can be a kind of an abstract concept to understand but a couple of demos real quick and you’ll understand this pretty well. So if we run Get-Process that will of course return all the running processes on our system. Note though that if we pipe this to a ForEach-Object what we’re telling PowerShell to loop through each object we can tell it to work only with the current item, which is PS item. So we’re telling it to get all the processes and for each of the objects found in those various processes, go ahead and return the current object. So if we click enter you’ll notice that we get an identical return because that’s what’s really happening when you run Get-Process anyway Is it’s piping to ForEach-Object and writing out to the current object. Here is a simpler way to visualize this. So we can load up a very simple amount of objects. So the number is 1, 2, & 3, and pipe those two for each object Just like we did a moment ago and of course specify PSItem. So, what do you think will happen when I click enter? Let’s find out. It wrote the numbers 1 2 & 3 Because we loaded three simple integer objects into this pipeline, when it went through ForEach-Object we can clearly see that PSItem contains an individual object and for each of those objects that wrote out that particular object that we loaded into the pipeline. PSItem is an important concept to understand. When dealing with day to day PowerShell and as you explore the internet for examples, you’re very rarely going to see PSItem written out like this. Instead it will almost always be designated with the dollar sign underscore which is a shorthand way of writing PSItem note that if I copy this command And replace it with dollar sign underscore we get the exact same output. And this is the way you’ll see most PowerShell code written. One of the primary use cases for the pipeline is just working with the data objects that you get back from a cmdlet. So we can see that if we do things like Get-Date it will return a subset of information that PowerShell thinks that we want to see .so a basic string representation of the date, but we can pipe that information, Get-Date to… for example Format-Table and this returns a table display of that same information. Tables can be a great way to easily display information but because they’re a table they’re limited in to the space that could be taken up on the console window. And so they will truncate some of the information that’s available from particular cmdlets. If you want to see the majority of data returned by an object, another way to do this is to pipe it to Format-List. In that case we get all of the data that’s returned from a particular object. Some cmdlets though return a lot of information. So let’s launch another notepad window and again, we’ll run a Get-Process and we’ll search for notepad processes. And this the course will return some information. Again, this cmdlet is returning a subset of the properties of this object and we only get one two three four five six seven seven of those properties back from that particular object. If we pipe this to Format-List we get a different set of properties then we previously got on just running the regular cmdlet. But again, Get-Process has a great many properties that we’re not seeing. So, in order to get all of them, a common tactic is to add an asterisk when piping to Format-List. Note that if we do this we get an enormous amount of information about this particular process that’s running, including the name and a wealth of other information. This type of object is always being returned by the Get-Process, but PowerShell limits on what we see because it highlights the information that we’re most likely to want. If you’re after all of the information and the full object make sure that your piping things into Format-List with that asterisk to see all available properties. So when we pipe this to Format-List with an asterisk we got everything back, but a lot of times you’ll only be interested in a very few subset of information. So we’ll continue with this example of getting processes about our notepad But we’ll pipe this to Select-Object and we’ll choose which particular items that we would like to go after. So in this example I will select the objects of name, ID, CPU, and responding. we can see here now that only those particular properties are returned by piping this to Select-Object and specifying the properties that we would like to see. Another common tactic for working with objects is to sort them based on some criteria. So we can of course run Get-Process again and pipe that to Sort-Object and maybe we can sort them by which processes are utilizing the most CPU. And if I click enter you’ll notice that in the CPU column, which is right here that some of the processes are not actively engaging that CPU as they sit at 0% But then some processes are using the CPU quite frequently. so you can quickly identify which processes are utilizing the most CPU in your system. Okay, so now we’re going to tie several of these concepts together with a very powerful Where-Object. So, we’ll do Get-Process and we can pipe that to Where-Object. Where-Object is a lot like Select-Object except that we can select objects based on provided criteria. I’ll go ahead and type in Where-Object and we’ll fall back to our of course PSItem and I’ll designate where CPU is greater than 50. This may look a little confusing to you If this is the first time that you’re seeing this, let’s go ahead and break this down. We’re of course getting our processes we’ve seen this several times, and we’re piping this to Where-Object. Inside of these curly braces is the criteria that Where-Object will evaluate This represents the current objects in the pipeline. This will be the first process that runs on the first iteration of Where-Object. So on the first process, it will evaluate the CPU property and determine if that CPU property is greater than 50. Let’s go ahead and execute this command and see the results. Notice that I have far fewer returns when I run it with Where-Object because the vast majority of those processes are not running the CPU higher than 50. Where-Object is extremely powerful way to interact with stuff inside of the pipeline, giving you the only the information that you think is necessary. Let’s do another example of Where-Object where we evaluate file sizes. So this time we’ll do Get-ChildItem And Get-ChildItem can find information out about the files on your system. So we’ll do Get-ChildItem and we’ll tell it to go to… evaluate our home drive. and we’ll recursively look at all files that are found in that home path. We’ll pipe this to Where-Object, and whenever I type Where-Object I typically just go ahead and open and close a couple of curly braces and then I’ll go ahead and add the current object in the pipeline and I want to evaluate how large that size of that file is and that is designated in PowerShell as length. and then we’ll say greater than let’s say 20 megabytes ins size. we’ll go ahead and execute this command. Again, let’s break this down. We’re pulling in all of the files that are found in the home path. We’re piping the results of those objects over to Where-Object and Where-Object is evaluating the length which is designated by this property here and we’re determining if that length is greater than 20 megabytes. Notice what we ran this again and change the criteria to 50 megabytes that we get no objects returned because no objects meet that criteria. Remember that it is possible to pipeline more than once so we can even pipeline this to Measure-Object to determine how many files, say… meet the criteria of being larger than 10 megabytes. So again breaking this down we’re recursively evaluating all files in the home path, piping that to Where-Object is greater than 10 megabytes and then piping again to Measure-Object and we can see that nine files meet that criteria because Measure-Object is evaluating how many objects there are. So using the power of the pipeline you now have a way to count the number of large files on your system. In these few examples you may have noticed that I’ve used this symbol here – gt which is greater than This in PowerShell is known as a comparison operator. Comparison operators are very common in programming languages and there are a wide variety of them like greater than, less than, equal to, so on and so forth. so you can make some programmatic decisions about what you’re looking for You can find a list of these comparison operators on the blog which I’ve linked in the description below. If you’ve been following along in the video series you’ve seen a few example where I’ve used parameters against cmdlets. Let’s take a moment to explore parameters. They’re very simple to understand. So each cmdlet differs in the number and type of parameters and wll parameters really are is just a way of passing various options or arguments to a cmdlet. So notice that if we run Get-TimeZone, it returns the current time zone configuration of the device very simple Get-TimeZone has various parameters that are available to it. I’m using the intellisense of this particular console and intellisense supports auto-completion. So if I push – on this Get-TimeZone and click tab on my keyboard It will tab through the various parameters that are supported by this particular cmdlet. If I shift tab it will go backwards. So I can tab forward or shift tab back through the available parameters of this cmdlet. Again, you can always use Get-Help to determine what parameters are available for a particular cmdlet. Using our Get-TimeZone, which again displays the current time zone of the device, if we instead pass the list available parameter to this cmdlet It doesn’t display the current time zone but rather displays the available time zones that this device could be configured as. I hope you found this video on the PowerShell pipeline informative. Let’s close out with one last example The PowerShell pipeline is arguably the most important concept to master when dealing with PowerShell. It’s what makes PowerShell so powerful! Imagine, for example, what this would do… Probably not something you would want to do in production, but an interesting thought exercise when we can of course always add a what if and just see what that I actually do. We could theoretically stop every single process on this system. That’s a good point to take away in that PowerShell trust you the operator to understand the ramifications of the commands that you run. PowerShell doesn’t do a whole lot of hand-holding. Don’t forget that all of this information is available in written format on the blog, and if you found this video helpful, go ahead and click that like button, and subscribe for more tech thoughts videos!

The New Cruise Deal for Partyers (feat. Brad Garrett) – Lights Out with David Spade

Virgin Voyages has launched
a hard-partying adults-only cruise liner
where kids are not allowed. Passengers have access
to onboard tattoo parlor, karaoke room, app that gives them champagne
all night. Uh, hopefully, they have access
to condoms and penicillin. (laughter) They want me to say, “Brad, you look like a monster
who lives in the ocean.” What do you think?
I’m not saying it. I’m not gonna say it. No, you don’t. You’re tan, you look good. -Because of his tan.
-Yeah, you look good. -That’s why.
-The tan… -You’re tan
like an ocean monster. -Yeah. A tan fixes everything. So this… this… Brad? I’m here. I’m taking it all in. SPADE:
Okay. It’s nice. They have Plan B on your pillow,
like a mint when you go to bed. A virgin cruise. When I heard, “Virgin cruise,” I was like,
“A cruise for virgins.” -KILLAM: Right.
-They’re all, um… -KILLAM: Now by the end of it…
-And they may very well be. -Yeah.
-They found each other. -Or you get virgins.
-KILLAM: Oh, nice. -So… it’s an Epstein…
-SPADE: Oh, that would be a… -a higher… higher priced…
-Have you ever been on a cruise? -Epstein.
-Cruise lines. Epstein Cruise Lines. So criminal,
you’ll kill yourself. That’s a new GoFundMe. -Go ahead, Brad.
-Have you ever been on a cruise? Well, you probably
have your own yacht. You got a big yacht? You seem like a… Sometimes
they let you steer, right? -They hold you up?
-I go on Sandler’s. But… I’ve only been
on a couple cruises. I don’t think
you need champagne. I think you should…
the thing is, is you shake your phone
and they bring champagne? -Is that…?
-Yeah, the app, yeah. Yeah. I’ll tell you
what you really need. Uh, you should be able
to shake your phone, and they should deliver
a bottle of imodium. -(laughter)
-Because, um… I’ve been on these cruises, and-and the dumper’s
gonna take a punch. And I’m saying this… I would
never say anything up front, but you’re gonna… you’re
gonna shit like a wounded goose -(laughter)
-for about… for about five days. -Yeah?
-For about five days. Not you,
’cause I know things just go. You-you probably hold on
to your stuff for the winter. -Yeah.
-Right? Poop on weekends. -Um…
-(laughter) they also said
they have lawyers on board in case your wife
accidentally falls over. Because a lot of guys go,
“Hey, Captain, “sharp left turn
at three o’clock. Honey. Sploosh.” You killing your wife,
that’s hilarious. Anyway… I know, it’s funny. -Um…
-It’s fun. It could be husband.
It could be husband. -We had a big debate
over that. Uh… -(laughter) A new study
probably written by a comedian shows that farmers have
the most sex of any profession. -(laughter) -Well, sure,
the cows aren’t that fast. -(laughter)
-That’s right. Uh… boy. I’m grateful for milk
and eggs and corn. I could not do that on my own. SPADE:
Got to keep ’em happy. The study found, uh–
of course, over in the UK, -I don’t know why…
-Is this really a farmer? -(laughter)
-It’s a hipster. Come on, it… it looks like…
it looks like August -in the gay calendar.
-(laughter) -SPADE: In the gay calendar?
-Come on… Okay, there’s just corn
everywhere! It’s as tall
as an elephant’s eye! (laughter) You don’t get letters,
do you, Davey? -No.
-(laughter) 67% of the farmers claim
to be incredible in the bedroom, followed by doctors and lawyers. -So they’re…
-So they study themselves? -Yeah, they’re saying…
-They study themselves, they’re like,
“I’m great in bed.” It’s a loose study
where they claim– if they’re claiming,
I would say… I-I would just say, “I’m good.”
I don’t know why… I don’t know why doctors
and lawyers are lowballing it. (laughter) That is… I think you gotta… You’ll… you’ll have
a writers meeting after? -Yeah, right after.
-(laughter) These are…
these are just off the top. Yeah. -Go ahead, you have a…
-Well, no, I don’t, uh… You know, being a…
being a Jew, I haven’t been on many farms. (laughter) -SPADE: Okay.
-I was on a fat farm, and… -Does rehab count?
-(laughter) Well, we were on all fours. People were feeding us kibble,
that’s all I remember. We’re gonna… we’re gonna move
over to some inspirational news. Uh, an Instagram model
in Bucharest says she makes
one and a half million a year by posting pictures
of her huge, fake butt. This is who I always wind up
sitting next to in coach. -It’s, like…
-(laughter) Like, is that butt carry-on?
Can you throw it up there? Oh, you’ve never been in coach
in your life. (laughter) God, I’ve been in… I used
to take Southwest all the time. -Is that right?
-Yean. No. -(laughter)
-No, I did. I’m from Arizona. I take it all the time, and… And Southwest is the only one
that’ll go there? -(laughter)
-Southwest is… it’s always full,
like, when you get on. First of all, they go,
“Take a middle seat,” you know. “Quit looking for an aisle. We’re the only
all-middle-seat airline.” (laughter) Like, “You paid $89. “What do you want,
(bleep) miracles? You knew what you
were getting yourself into.” I do love the functionality
of a butt like that, ’cause if you have that butt,
you never have to be afraid that you’re gonna sit
in front of me at a theater, because I’ll always be able
to see right over you. I paid good money
for these seats. -(laughter)
-He’s from Bucharest. I’ve been–
it’s down by Alhambra, I think. -(laughter)
-By the airport. That whole area’s nice.

WOWW – Working On What Works (60 min)

I’d like to talk to you about making a difference in classrooms but I like to start out by telling you a story of how all this thing came about. I have worked with schools forty years as a consultant. I have never been a teacher and I’ve never been interested
in teaching children. I’ve been teaching at the university level grad school level but never any children younger than those students. So, I haven’t been looking for more work to do either cause I’m busy enough already. So, let me tell you how this thing came about. One day, I was visiting a friend in south Florida. South Florida is an interesting place because it is so close to Caribbean Islands. So, there are lots of immigrants. come from Caribbean Islands which is very poor, very very
poor areas there. And so this was a place called Fort Lauderdale which has about three million population in that general area. And I have a friend there that I have known about 10-15 years and I was going to be in that area
so I sent him an email and said, “I’m coming down to your area and I could sit down and have dinner with you.” I have never known him personally. We always meet at the conferences and different meetings. but never in a personal way. So, he said, “Great.” and “I’ll bring my wife.” So, we did, we met for a dinner and his wife comes…
I never met her before because her work does not have
anything to do with my area of work. It is the first time I’m meeting her and this lady comes and says that, “I had the worst day in my teaching career today. I’m just coming from the worst class day I have ever had in all my years of my teaching.” So, I thought, “Oh my gosh!” I knew she’s been a teacher for long time. She says about 28 years, of classroom teaching.
And she specializes in working with… teaching children with what they call “special…” it goes by different names;
“special needs children”, or “high-risk children”. High risk of what? High risk of dropping out of school. The shorthand word is “high risk kids”. So, we call them high risk kids, which is not a good word,
but that’s how we.. how things go. Anyway, she’s been teaching this
seventh grade. She teaches sixth and seventh grade. And in our system, sixth, seventh and eighth are called the middle school. So, the primary school is from
kindergarten to fifth grade. And you have a middle school, and then we have a high school. That’s the system. This is the middle. And among the teachers – any of you who are teachers – middle school children are thought
to be most difficult kids to teach because they are not quite children, they not teenagers. They are in between. So, they act like they are in between too. In the morning they act like little kids, and then in the afternoon they act like they are all grown up
high school kids. “Don’t tell me what to do!” That kind of… Anyway, she said she had the worst day. So, I thought oh my gosh,
she has that many years of experience. If this lady had worst day of her teaching career, I thought this must be really
horrendous situation. So, I made the mistake of asking her “‘So, what made it such a bad day today?” I shouldn’t never said that. And then she started talking about a boy
named Sam in her class. It’s not real name, but we decided to call him Sam. Sam is one of those children
who are about two years behind his level. His family has moved around so much that at seventh grade they think that he may have attended
more than between 10 and 15 schools in seventh grade. So, you know the family is not
in a very stable situation. He also… about couple of weeks before I came down the teacher says he threatened to… He climbed the tallest tree in the school yard and he threatened to jump off the tree
and kill himself. Most seventh grade children don’t talk about… When they talk about suicide
it has to be a bit older than that. Seventh graders are too early for that. But that’s what he did. So, of course everybody got worried, tried to go out, and tried to get him
to come down from the tree. And won’t listen. He was absolutely to jump. And he was
going to jump off the tree and kill himself. They had to call the fire department. The fire department came with
a huge ladder that reached out. And so, the fireman has to climb up there and brought him down. This had happened only one or two
weeks before I showed up. This gives you some idea
of what a difficult child he has been. And then she says, what made it such a difficult day for her today was that he would just pound anything and everything he
could get his hand on. Just all day going around and pounding things. And she just couldn’t get him to stop. She said, “I tried every trick of my trade. Tried to get him to calm down so that he does not
distract other kids in the school.” This is a special ed…
they call special education classes. The classes are normally smaller
than usual class size. So, they only have about 20,
sometimes 22 students. Even that is a large group for those kind of
very very difficult high-risk kids. And so, she was going on and on about this today. So, I was listening very carefully. And… I was very sympathetic of course. I’ve never been a teacher, but I cannot imagine… and this is not, you know, a teacher who has burned out. Not at all.
She just loves her children. She calls them “my children”. She doesn’t say ‘my students’.
She calls them ‘my children”. And she is really passionate about the teaching. Most teachers by that time… when they have been teaching that long they usually are… they show a lot of signs of burnout. But not this lady. So, she just went on and on about this and talking about… So, I said… I was listening and listening… and I said, “So, when you have this kind of problems What do you normally do in schools like yours? What’s the usual procedure when you have this kind of very disruptive child that disrupts the entire classroom?” And she says, “Well, what we do is we send them out of the classroom. And the child, the student can
have conversation with either counselors, psychologist or sometimes what we have,
what’s called in-school detention.” In-school detention means,
instead of sending the child home to… to whatever he wants to do, or get out in the street and get in trouble, they keep him in a separate facility
within the school. And I need to say a little bit more about this school. This school has about, probably between 1600 and 2000 students depending on which year.
Because the population increases continuously and the families move
in and out of the area all the time. And there about 74% of their
students get free lunch. What that means is, family whose income level is below poverty level,
what’s government decided this is the poverty level income. Any family who are below that gets free lunch. So, when school people talk to each other about how many percent of my school’s
children get free lunch that means a very high rate of the student population is poor. And many of them are also immigrant families from the Caribbean Islands. And many parents don’t speak English. So, it’s very difficult to connect with the parents because most parents are either very afraid of coming to school for conferences, because they don’t speak English very well, or many parents also have to have 2-3 jobs because the income, the wages is so low they work many hours. It’s common to have 2-3 jobs. So this is the kind of population
we are talking about. So, I said, “When you send this kind
of children out of the classroom, What happens, there, out there?” And she says, “I don’t know what they do,
but they have a talk. I think they have a talk.” The disruptive child and the either school counselor, psychologist or social worker have a talk with the child and then
child comes back after an hour.” So, I said, “Oh, so, does that work?” And she says, “No! It doesn’t work!” So, I said, “Well, why do you keep doing it then,
if it doesn’t work?” And then she said,
“We don’t know what else to do. We have no idea of what to do
with this kind of children.” So I said, “Oh…oh… there must be a way. They are only children and we are adults.” We should be little bit smarter than they are. And so I thought, “There’s go to be a way. There must be a way.
There has to be a way.” And she said, “What? Tell me what!” I said, “I don’t have an idea.” I have no idea, but there’s got to be a way, right? And then she said, “If you have an idea,
I want to know.” So, that was the sort of a conversation. And then I got back to thinking about it, so I said, “You know you were talking about his pounding
and making noises all day, So what…how did he manage to stop pounding?” And she says, “Oh my gosh, oh my gosh. Oh my gosh, yes! He did.” You see, many people when there’s a problematic behavior like this, we always think about how the problem starts. Nobody ever stop and think about
how does the problem end. How does is stop. Right? We all say, “He started drinking again.” “Why did you start drinking again?” “Why did you start stealing again?” “Why did you start this and this and this?” And nobody ever stop and think about
how does this problem end. The number of these people that always
looking at the other side they also want you to look at. And she was just shocked by this. and “Yes” So, I said, “Well, you came home, he went home. He must have stopped some time. If we know how he stopped, perhaps we can get him to stop sooner, and sooner and sooner. That was my thinking.
I don’t know. So, I thought well…ok… So then, we said, “Is it possible for me to visit your class?” And she says, “Yes, of course. We are very open to visitors. We have people coming in and out. quite frequently students are not bothered by this. OK, so, we made an arrangement for me
to visit her school tomorrow morning, next morning, because I had some time before I got my client. Her husband, who is… his name is Lee Shilts
and the wife’s name is Margaret. So Lee said, “Can I come along?” “Of course.” So, we decided to visit the class tomorrow morning. And we… when they walked in the class… So, I really wanted to see… cause this is not what I normally like to work with, something that I had never faced…
problems that I never faced before, I like to be there. I like feel this out for my self. So, I wanted to see, really, how is it how does these things work. So, when the child is disruptive what does the teacher do, what do other kids do, what so-and-so’s do? always interested in before…
The context. The problem context. We cannot take the problem child
out of the classroom and fix the child’s behavior out there and then put him back in there.
Nothing changes then. We know a lot about this. This is what happens in many many institutions such as residential treatment homes for very difficult children. We send them away in a very different setting. This is not a normal real-life setting, very artificial setting, and they behave differently and then you send them back to the home. Then things starts all over again. So, I thought, wow, I’ve seen this before but anyway. So, we walk in the classroom, and all those children who were very curious
about these two people visiting So, Margaret introduces us to the children, her class. And she says, “This is my husband Lee. He teaches at the University. at the same… in Fort Lauderdale. He is a professor at the university. And this is Insoo. And her introduction was:
“This is a lady who travels around the world.” It was my introduction. So, we quietly went and sat
in the back of the class because we wanted to see this difficult behaviour problem,
very difficult problem. And just as he walked in, we could
sort of tell which one was Sam because what teachers mostly do is their most difficult chid is always
seated right in the front there so that the teacher can manage them all day, right? So, I thought, “Hmm. This must be Sam.” So we went, back, we sat in the back. And then of course the kids are moving around, and they are doing things,
and teacher’s talking over them. About 20 minutes, or so, is all we could handle. The body movement, you know,
it just was a huh! So distracting. So, we decided we had had enough, we had seen enough. And we also had other meetings scheduled with the principal and all this, so we left. And we had other meetings and so on. And essentially, every meeting we had, we talked about… asked questions
about these kinds of way to manage difficult child in classroom. They all got convinced that this
was the only way they know how. And I really didn’t quite believe that because if it doesn’t work –
it’s one of the rules in solutions-focused approach – that if it doesn’t work, we have to stop
doing it, and then do something different. We don’t know what that different is. So, we had different meetings and we had another dinner that evening to discuss today’s visit. And… we forgot… As we started talking about it Lee and I discovered that ‘Oh, we forgot’ We should have given this Sam compliments because he was very different as the day before. He sat down. He came over, and we sat in the back there. He comes over, walks over the isle like this and he comes to me. Not to Lee, but to me and he says to me, “Do you really travel around the world?” So, I said, “Yes”. “Ohh!” He was very impressed by that. And then in his world… his concept of the world is very
different than your’s or mine. He says, “Have you been to New York?” “Yes.”
“Oh”, he was impressed. “Have you been to… ” he tests more.
Have you been to Los Angeles?” “Yes.”
“Oh”, he was impressed. “Have you been to Miami?” “Yes.”
“Oh”, he was so impressed. He had one more question and he said, “Have you been to Boston?” “Yes.”
“Ah. How many times?” He was so impressed. I didn’t know what was this about, the Boston. And then he says,
“I used to live in Boston.” So, this was his main concept
of the world, right? New York, Los Angeles, Miami, Boston.
That’s the world. That’s his world. Anyway, so he was just so impressed by this and then after he was satisfied
with the answers he went back and sat down and he started concentrating on his work all the noises going on,
teacher’s talking loud… he did not get distracted at all. We were just… I was amazed by that. I kept looking at him from the back. He just concentrated, concentrated on his work, never even lifted his head. Very different child than
yesterday’s description. And of course this is an ‘exception’, right? From our language, from our solution-focused
language this is an ‘exception’. Of course Margaret was really mad
at dinner because she said, “I wanted you to see him at his worst, but he was at his best.” She said, “It’s not fair! It’s not fair.” So, we then… you know, we sat down. “Well, we have some ideas.” One of the things that dawned on us,
Lee and I decided, Oh my gosh, we forgot to give Sam
some compliments. Cause we noticed him being so
focused on his work. So, we decided we are going to write him a letter. So, Lee and I wrote a letter, said, “Dear Sam” and telling him how impressed we were that you were able to be so focused on your work even though there were lots of activities
going on in the classroom, you never got distracted.” So, we asked Margaret to give it to him next morning About a week later I get a phone call, and I had been thinking about this.
We didn’t know where to start. Week later I get a phone call from Margaret and Margaret says, “You have no idea what kind of an impact you had on him.” I said, “Me? I didn’t do anything.” And she says, “He was a different child. Very different child all week.” “Ah, what do you mean ‘different child?'” He caught up with his English,
caught up with math, social studies. He was just the best behaved child she
had ever seen him. All week that way. And on top of that he was so proud of
this letter he got from us. He folded it very nicely, folded it and folded it and carried in his back pack pocket. And anybody… anybody who might listen, he would stop them, show him this letter “Look at this letter I got from this Lady
who travels around the world.” So, somehow this meant something to him. And she also said, “Surprise, surprise.” The biggest surprise… his mother called HER, and said to her, ‘What is this letter
that Sam is talking about?’ This is very unusual for mother to call her. It’s really she calling mother. So, she was just amazed by this transformation. So, Lee and I decided, “Wow, there’s something to this.” We don’t know what it is.
We have no idea of what it is. But somehow child like him with one small compliment have
that kinds of impact for a whole week I wonder what would happen if that
somehow got repeated over and over again. So, we came up with this idea and since Lee lives there, right there, and I don’t, he decided… we looked at his schedule and decided that he could
spare three hours a week three hours a week he would donate this time and then he will go to class… – we came up with this strategy – that he would go to class,
sit in the back of the class take notes of all the successful
behaviours of the entire class because for us, taking Sam out of class
did not make any sense at all because it’s the natural environment of children – that’s the classroom – and their behavior problem occurs in that classroom. So, it doesn’t make any sense to take that child out of their context, do something over there and somehow
that’s going to spill over in this context. Doesn’t make any sense. So, we decided that we want to try.
And we talked to the principal and the principal was for it. “Why not. Let’s give it a try.
Nothing else works anyway.” So, we were in agreement with that. Of course we were very sensitive about
counselling department people because we didn’t want the counselling department,
or the psychology people or social worker people to be upset about now someone outsider
is coming in and taking over their job. So, we had to be sensitive about that. And they were OK with that because
they had no other ideas either. So, in some ways, the story
I’m trying to tell you is sort of a… it’s much more of a didactic way of finding solutions cause we don’t know what we are starting with So we have to get in there, looking
for ways to make a difference. So, the only thing we could think of that
worked with Sam – even for a week – was compliment. We complimented on him doing something
that he was supposed to do, but he was doing it. So this was something that is
sort of outstanding for him. So, instead of singling out a child,
as a problematic child, which is done normally, in most schools we decided we’re not going to do that. We are going to work with the whole class. So, we talked to teachers,
asked the teachers who were having such difficulty, difficult days, like Margaret did and the more we talk to teachers the more number of the teachers tell us about how they go home with such headache every day. How stressful this job is, and how difficult their job is
because of children like Sam. All it takes is one child, like Sam that give them a headache. So, we decided that… are they willing
to be our guinea pig, and all teachers said sure why not.
Nothing else worked anyway. So, we started with four teachers who volunteered. Four teachers in three classrooms. There’s two teachers who are doing team teaching. So, if you have two teachers then you have about 42 students in the teaching classes. So, there are two teachers there. And also, what was interesting was that some of the teachers had classes
where students come and go. Like every hour this different class of students come, and they leave and come and leave. Some teachers had that kind of classes. We also had teachers who had
the same class, group of children all day like Margaret did. Margaret had the same group of students
all day long and every day. So, we had a nice mix of different ways
that schools operate we wanted to be as natural possible. So, Lee started. And we gave them a little bit of a presentation
about what this idea, where this idea comes from, what this is all about so the teachers will get some concept of this. So, they said OK after what they heard about what is the thought behind it. It’s not something that we pulled out of thin air but obviously there’s some basis for this. So, Lee sat down in the back and
went in and explained, “My job is here…I am here to find out all the good things you children do in this classroom every day. My job is to take notes and I’m going to report back to you
at the end of the hour. And I will be coming to see you every week, same time, and I’m going to continue to watch what you do that works for you. All the good things going on this classroom.” So, that’s what he did. Lee found around somewhere between
14, 15, to about 20 items which is almost all children in that class. So, all children have something
positive, something to hear from a visitor who they didn’t know
anything about who Lee was. Anyways, so normal ordinary things. We’re not talking about
outrageously wonderful behavior. We were saying things…
The list would include: “I saw 70% of the class sat down
at their desk when the bell rang. You all sat at the desks, had your books out
and got ready for the day.” “I saw you, when you noticed that somebody next to you
didn’t have a pencil you quietly took out your own pencil
out of your pencil box, gave it to him and then you went back to your work.” “I saw you, when your teacher’s phone rang, you quietly went over,
talked on the phone very quietly, took the message down to the teacher and gave her the message
and then went back to your seat.” These kinds of ordinary things that children do. “I saw you walk in the class this morning, you smiled at me and said good morning.” “When I saw you, and you realized it was time, although, and there were some students coming in the class late I saw you getting up and and open the door quietly and went back to your class and sat down.” Nothing heroic things – just everyday good behavior expected behavior. This was the first time.
This lasted about two-three weeks. So, the students get the idea that
someone is coming out here to watch and learn about our good behaviour. Then we started, after about three weeks, we started introducing the concept
of scales: 1 to 10. What Lee did was, he would, at the end of
the summary and report back to class, he would say, “Based on what I have observed – if ten was the best behaving class I have ever seen – I would say your class, today was about four. And I want you to keep trying to stay at four. until I come back next week.” And each, about two-three weeks in the beginning was nothing but compliments and then we started gradually
to introduce the concept of scaling. And, then we started introducing – that lasted about two-three weeks again – and then we went into goal setting, “Based on what you have learned so far on a scale from 1-10,
what number do you want to be at?” Kind of class as a whole. And they would have all kinds of ideas. Some children would say,
“Oh, we want to be at eight.” And the teacher would say,
“Hey, wait a minute. That’s not realistic.” And, the teacher would also have been invited to go for the goal negotiation with the entire class. And then we… This became the class goal. They all agreed that what
we want to do this week is to be at from 4 to 5. “We want to be at five by the end of this week. on Friday afternoon we want to be at five.” And this was a very interesting goal negotiation where the entire class of children tried to negotiate what number they wanted to be at. And so we taught them the concept
of being realistic, goals. And so that when you are at 5, what would Lee, what would coach –
they started calling Lee coach – what would the coach see all of you, the classroom of students doing that will tell him that you are at five? And so, of course all children
very different numbers So, it took quite a bit of a negotiating
entire class of kids to agree. And then when the teacher was invited to participate in this as well, the teacher knows what is realistic for the entire class of kids. That got repeated for one semester. One semester is about 15 weeks, 15-16 weeks. There were some weeks
that the students had field trips, so that we didn’t do it. There was also an exam week. That means that all children had to take test, the achievement test. So that week we didn’t do it cause the children were very busy
preparing for the achievement test. Other than that, about…
first semester, about 14 weeks we showed up and the children started having such positive reaction through Lee’s coming because they can count on Lee giving nothing but compliments to them. So they were just happy to see him. As soon as he walks down the hallway children would say, “Hi mister Lee.” “Good morning” and they would
pull the chair out for him. They were just happy to see him coming. Because unlike teachers always yelling at them. Lee talks about how well they are doing. And by the end of the first semester the principal was just… he kept track of how are the children performing. It’s always performance, measure. And he realized, the principal realized that these three classes had fewer absences, fewer number of children coming to class late, but most of all their academic performance has gone up. And, the teachers also noticed so many different signs that children are responding to this. For example, teachers would notice when, “You hear (that) she gets a compliment
about something she did, if you want to get compliments from the coach, you will imitate what she does. So, watch other children about what is it
that they get compliments for.” And once they do the same thing,
they repeat what other children do, they know they are going to get compliments. Also, some teachers became very creative. So that a teacher at the… he just made a chart, a success scale, we call the classroom success scale. And it looked like a big piece of paper and there is a week, there is a number scale ten and a description of what 10 would look like and children participated in this. What 10 behavior would look like. What nine behaviour would look like. What eight behaviour would look like,
and so on. Children said, “This is what we’ll be doing.” This is all children’s idea, not teacher’s idea. So, they are so excited about that when they moved up to seven, and they know they have to have these
kinds of description of their behaviour in the entire class. So, pretty soon students started owning up the class goal. Because it is something that they decided, they wanted to do. So, we started experimenting this, and we repeated the same thing
second semester. So, this beginning was… first school year is usually… First school year is from September until June. And, they repeated the same thing. And by the end of the first year the principal could see, clearly see, the change. That’s one thing that they had noticed. The other thing they had noticed,
also, teachers noticed, that children are so concerned about
meeting up their goals. If they decided, this week,
we want to be at seven, if some other children start to talk in class
to each other, then other children will say, “Shh, seven, we want to be at seven. So, they start to own up the goal because it’s their goal and they are monitoring each other’s behaviour. Amazing. Teachers start to see the children
very differently. You can imagine that, how teachers respond to them. Teachers also became very creative. So, one teacher decided that she is going to make… And so this the WOWW program. We started to call it the WOWW. WOWW stands for Working On What Works. W O W W So, working on what works. He just came up with that idea. And so, this continued. In seventh school year we had 32 teachers volunteered. They were never asked to this.
They heard about it. Of course, as you know, teachers talk to
the teachers during lunch time, or during meetings. They talk about it. So, (one) teacher said, “You, Lee, I want you to come to my class as well.” How could Lee do this?
30 school, I mean some teachers, classes. He can’t do that.
We’ll not get paid. Nobody’s paying anything. So, Lee has… he also teaches at the university And he decided, “Aha, I’ll ask students,
the graduate students who want to do the internship.” And they have to do internship
in order to meet their requirements. And these students just love,
graduate students just love to go to class and have the children
glad to see them. So, al these interns then, – we started to get increasing number of interns – So, we were able to manage 36 classes
without any difficulty. Then third year we went up to 115 teachers. Now, we’ve just started the fourth year. And the school principal said, “All newly hired teachers must do this.” So, when you’re such as, nobody comes
along and makes it mandatory. We really didn’t want that. We didn’t want that, we wanted
this to be voluntary. But he was just absolutely sold on this. As a manager he knows also that he need to get good performance
out of his children. I like to say a little bit about the background of this. I’m sure you have heard about… in education field you’ve heard about the American program that’s called
No Child Left Behind. This is a George Bush’s idea. Many teachers hate this. They just don’t like this And there are some states even
suing the federal government not xxxx this. What it is is, they all – each state – must have standardized exit exam. That means to get promoted
from sixth grade to seventh grade you must pass the sixth grade exam. Otherwise, you have to repeat the sixth grade again. And teachers are saying, “You cannot do that because each child has different circumstances. So, that many students… But anyway, Florida is… Florida’s governor is George Bush’s brother. Of course! He’s 100% behind this. And what makes it even more difficult is that the money is tide up. That if your students perform better than other schools,
your school gets more money. It’s the opposite of that. It’s usually that the poor performing schools needs more support. But they are going to say,
“No, we are not going to give you more money.” This school where we started was… There is a class A, B, C. A is the highest performance school. They get most amount of amount of money. And then there is B’s class and C’s class. This school belonged in the C’s class
when we first began. By second year they moved up to B class. This year – at the end of this past school year – all five and six school year, they moved up to B school, and now they went up to A school, so they are getting more money. You can imagine how the principal is just delighted. I will say this was not the only thing
that’s contributed to that. There are other things, I’m sure, they have done. I like to think that we have had some
contribution to this. We have no way of knowing that, but we are also at the same time trying to collect some data. There is a graduate student who is
doing a doctoral dissertation and she is in the middle of collecting all this data about six classes without the WOWW program the six classes with WOWW program. Comparing two different datas. So, that in the same school the only difference is the WOWW element –
is the only thing that makes the difference between this group of six and this group of six classes. So, we are hoping, by end of this summer Sometimes, certainly by end of this year, there will be some data that tells us
that we are all wrong, or we were right. We will know that. She is looking for that outcome right now. And also she’s very eager to get this done
as quickly as possible, so she could get out of school and move on to whatever she wants to do,
whatever it will be. Anyway, so this is what’s gong on. I’d like to say a little bit about also… since then we have done some different things. Have I mentioned, we are always
invited by the teacher because we are aso very respectful of… and one of the tings we insist on is that coaches always behave like you are a guest in someone’s house. So, always very polite. We have to be thankful. Thank the teacher, thank the class, for allowing us,
or allowing me to come to observe you. We appreciate that. That get’s reminded all the time. And, we really insist on that all they do. And also, negotiate properly with the teachers periodically because teachers really love having other adults – second eyes – in the classroom. And especially, when those other adults
see the same thing that she sees. We also negotiate with the teachers before we start. “When you want us to, we also like to give you,
the teachers, compliments. Do you want us to do it in private, without the students present or do you want us to give you compliments in front of the children?” And surprisingly, almost all teachers say “We want you to give me compliments
in front of the children.” And they say, the reason for that is because these children need to hear what other adults are saying about their teacher. So this is the sort of the….
every step on the way we inform the teacher,
we negotiate with the teacher and… amazing changes are occurring. For example, one teacher tells me that “Insoo, I realized that I am… my language is changing.” That’s what she’s doing.
We never emphasized the language use. You just… you will just be a teacher. You will do whatever you normally do
in your classroom. So, I said, “What do you mean
your language is changing?” And she says, “I’ve noticed that when I talk
to my children I’m different.” So, “In what way are you different?” And she tell me that, “I used to always tell the child, ask the child, ‘Why are you late 15 minutes again
this morning?’ ” I never heard this before, but she says, “Now I don’t do it anymore.” “So what do you do instead?” She says, “Now I ask the child and say ‘What do you need to do, tomorrow morning, so that you will be only late 14 minutes tomorrow morning?’ ” And she says, the following conversation is so different. And she is amazed. And we never talked about this. We just left it up to them. You know, whatever they do, they do; they are the teacher. We’re not intruding on… how to teach.
We are not teachers. So, these are kind of reports we get. And children’s behavior is just
absolutely amazing So, one of these charter school principal calls me calls me up and says, “Insoo I want to talk to you.” So, she wanted to have a meeting, and I showed up. So, she says, “I have these two teachers who are not very good teachers. And I want you to help these teachers.” I think, “Oh my God. I don’t know
anything about how to teach.” But she says, “The problem that the
two teachers have is they don’t know how to manage the classroom. It’s not that they are lacking about their teaching skills. They have all the good teaching skills, but they don’t know how to manage the
classroom. So, would you be willing to work
with these two teachers?” So, I said, “Well, I’ll give a try, but I don’t promise anything. I have no idea. I never done this before.” With some experience of the WOWW program I thought I could give it a try. So I said to her, “Do these two teachers know that you are talking to me about my coming live
to visit their classes?” And she says, “Yes.” “Are they in favor of that?” “Yes” I still didn’t know if they were really in favor of that so I said, “Is it possible for me
to meet with them… individually?” She said, “Of course.
Of course you can do that.” So, I had the meeting and I was thinking about how
do I approach these teachers. I can’t come to them and say, “I understand that you have
poor classroom management skills.” You can’t do that, right? So, I thought about how do I approach this. And so I came up with the idea that I’m going to talk to the teachers and I started out with…
and I did this with both teachers. I showed up for meeting and I said, “You know, as you know, this Dr. so-and-so, the principal of the school, has asked me to work with you. And then I wondered because… I wondered… She, this principal, must have a lot… see a lot of potential in you to be a good teacher. That’s the reason why she is going through this special effort to find me first of all. Cause I’m not known in the schools. Find me first of all, contacted me, had a meeting with me, and she is willing to invest money to help you become better teacher.” What do you suppose the principal sees in you, that would make her want to invest that much time and effort and money into helping you? What do you think that is?” Very nice way to… Instead of just saying “I just think you’re a bad teacher”. Much different way. And so than, they were just really amazed by this. They begun and stop and think about it. Because I’m sure they expected
me to talk about their deficits. Lacking this kind of skill
and that kind of skill, and so on. It has worked out very well. That’s how it began with both teachers. And then we also negotiated… with the both teachers, The one thing that we learned is that we liked to point out, that teachers do well,
as well. Not just students. But we also wanted to make sure that teachers understand what
they are successful at in managing classes. “So do you want us to do this individually, or do you want us to do this
in front of the children?” An they both said, “I want you to do this
in front of the children.” OK, so we had an agreement on that. So, the reason I’m telling you about this is because they had some interesting reactions to that. That is, when we started giving
teachers compliments, as well. This teacher said – who was sort of
forced to be coached to be a good teacher – she said, “I listen to you
giving compliments to the children, and then you started calling my name”
‘Mrs so-and-so, Mrs. Jones’ And then she said, “I was just wide awake.” All my attention went to listening
to what you had to say. Even though knew what was coming, I was so surprised at my own reaction of how I became wide awake.” And I was so amazed by this that with even all these years
with giving compliments to clients, I’m quite used to that, but teachers saying that to me. I was just… So, you can have that kind of impact on teachers. So, I would like you to be reminded of that, and then also how the teachers’
language started changing, which is just absolutely amazing. They also said… many teachers just hate children
passing notes to each other during class time, they, you know… And one teacher decided… We never talked about it. We didn’t tell them what to do, but they came up with this idea. One teacher decided, “I cannot stop kids from
passing notes to each other, so, I decided I will just face it up front.” “So, what did you do?” And she said, “I set a time, I set up aside time, and I tell the class, ‘Now it’s’ time for you to pass notes to each other!’ But this time I’m telling you
what to say in a note. So, the behavior of passing notes
is something that the children do, but she said, ‘I want you to pass notes to
each other with complements for other children.’ Imagine that. The teachers are so creative that way. And there was one teacher who
made a WOWW chair. So, what’s a WOWW chair? She made this chair and decorated it with all this… the gold… and she also made a crown that was from paper, a golden crown, and any child who made the most progress that week get to sit in the WOWW chair, the special WOWW chair
with a crown on his head. They took pictures, and the pictures
get posted on the wall. And of course, all children
want their picture on the wall just like the other children do. So they really work hard to get
their picture taken. This is an example of that. There was this one teacher who
brought down these sticker notes. You know this little short notepad
with stickers to stick on. She said, “I always carries around.” this little notepad,
the sticker notepad and a pen. “Anytime I see some children doing something well, I immediately write a note, stick it on them and then I just move on. And things like this. The teachers are becoming more and more
and more creative in their way of complementing
the children because they realize how powerful this can be for the children. And then, one of the things we tried
in the beginning was writing letters to parents. We thought… there’s a lot of research data (that) shows, when parents are involved in the education of their children, the children do better. So, we wanted to invite parents. And we started writing parents notes
about what we are here for. “This is why we are here.
This is the WOWW program, and we want you to pay attention to
what the child is doing well in coming weeks and months.” And, “If you have any questions, please let us know. And then we started writing letters, you know computer generated letters, and sending to parents. Nothing. No reaction. So, we got very discouraged by this. We thought that this letter writing campaign
doesn’t work very well. The letter was all about
what the child had done well, not about what the child has done wrong. So we thought, that this might create
some curiosity amongst the parents. Nothing. And then, second year, we are hearing from parents. And this maybe a very unusual situation for
this school, but we are going to experiment with that. That is, parents say, their children come home
and they talk about this WOWW. So, “I want to know what this WOWW is.” So, when they hear from their own children, rather than getting this official letter
from school… somehow there seemed to be no impact. We don’t know what that is, whether that is it’s just a very unusual
situation here, with this school. So, we are in the middle
of experimenting with that. We want parents to be involved. And then we work with some… We also have some upper middle class neighborhood schools outside of Chicago. And there parents are so interested and parents want us to give them something about… a presentation
about this WOWW. And the parents say, “Can you train us, can you teach us, to do this WOWW thing,
whatever this WOWW thing is.” So, it depends on the school to school to school. So some parents, the middle class, very interested in their children’s education they have the luxury of time
and also go to the… showing up on meetings in school,
and so on then they a very kind reaction. So, we are still learning after three years, starting fourth year, we are learning
a great deal about this. So again, I’d like you to… I wonder if you have any questions
about this so far. All right, I think we have used up our time. Thank you so much.