The Perspective from Africa – Himla Soodyall: So Where Do We Come From?


(peaceful music) – [Narrator] We are the paradoxical ape. Bipedal, naked, large brained, long the master of fire,
tools and language, but still trying to understand ourselves. Aware that death is inevitable,
yet filled with optimism. We grow up slowly, we hand down knowledge, we empathize and deceive. We shape the future from
our shared understanding of the past. Carta bring together experts
from diverse disciplines to exchange insights on who
we are and how we got here, an exploration made possible by the generosity of humans like you. (peaceful music) – So this is my show and tell. Every single cell in our body
is packaged with my tool kit, which is DNA. And we have two types of DNA
that carries the blueprint that we all walk with and I know to this audience
this is like kindergarten school but I’m showing this to remind us that I’m gonna talk
about two different types of inheritance, the nuclear DNA, which is the chrome
makes up the chromosomes that undergoes mixing at cell
division or recombination, that is now why I am at this
height and at this size. You heard about brain size and
height and weight et cetera, well I am your show and
tell for all of that today. In addition, small is
packaged and dangerous. We have the mitochondrion that
has its own unique set of DNA which over evolution has
come to carry yet another remnant of DNA in every cell. Now the reason why the
mitochondrial DNA is of use is that it is strictly
maternally inherited and carries a trajectory of
our maternal inheritance. So these are my two show and
tell sources of Information and so that I don’t exclude
the males in the audience, yes, you have that little
thing there, the y chromosome. Well genomic inheritance
is known to all of us. We get half our chromosomes
from each of our parents, and they from their parents before and so on and so on and so on. And so with respect to mitochondrial DNA, we would be able to track
what both sons and daughters got from mother, from maternal grandmother and great grandmother and
so on and so on and so on. In males, who have the y chromosome, we have the equivalent mechanism
to trace paternal heritage. But of course the nuclear
DNA carries the contributions from both parental sides and if you go back one
two three generations, you have eight people who potentially contributed to your ancestry and if you wanna go back 20 generations, two to the power 20 would
have contributed to your total genomic information, but you’ll still have a
single maternal ancestor. And it was just by chance
that I chose for my title “So Where Do We Come
From” not knowing that that is among the questions
that Carta looks at. And the reason I chose
that was about 15 years ago I was involved in a
documentary that was produced in South Africa by one of the
TV networks by the same name and in that we showpiece a
whole bunch of local people transcending politics, sport
and all sorts of disciplines and we did their genetic ancestry tests and made a story out of it. And I was going to show
you some clips from that but it would have eaten into
my limited time that I had. But in any event, you’ve
heard about fossils, you’ve heard about tools, you’ve seen a little bit about culture, and basically those
sub-disciplines allow us to track from the past and build up to the present. The genetic tool kit is the reverse. We study the DNA found in living people and we reconstruct the changes over time and for this demonstration
I’m using mitochondrial DNA which is only transmitted
through the mother lines to daughters and only
daughters will pass it on and the sexy thing about this DNA is that it does not shuffle or recombine so you have a mechanism
and a valuable tool to reconstruct the history
of change over time to some point back in the past. And if I were to demonstrate this with a little bit more of a cartoon, so if we were to take mitochondrial DNA, we’d be able to link it to
some point back in the past. We call that the most
recent common ancestor for mitochondrial DNA, and
the reason why I dislike the use of the terminology
mitochondrial Eve, it gives a sense that the
most recent common ancestor was the only female
present in that time zone which is not the case. But in reconstructing the
lineages found in living people, the divergent lines kind of
coalesce or come together at a common point some
in the distance past, dated to between 150
and 200,000 years ago. Now, mitochondrial DNA was made famous by the seminal paper by
Becky Cairn, Mark Stoneking and Allan Wilson, where
they use mitochondrial DNA and in the 80’s, we didn’t have
the sophisticated technology of polymerase chain reaction
to make lots of copies of DNA from small amounts. These authors went out,
collected placenta, which was a rich source
of DNA, extracted the DNA, cut it up with little protein tools called restriction enzymes
and created these maps. And what they found was, when they looked at the relationships of all the different patterns
that made up the lineages, one particular branch was
exclusively containing individuals from Africa. And as you went towards
the rest of the tree, drawn here as the famous
horseshoe shape tree, one found that in the
shallow parts of the tree, individuals from Europe
and Asia were positioned. So this kind of steer headed
the Out of Africa Theory concerning modern human origins. It wasn’t without controversy. There were many many
side chirps around this criticizing the technique
for the dating methodology and so on, but that’s a long story. But several other types of studies started to come to the fore and what was now becoming
more and more apparent was, that as you went further away from Africa, and you know for our
colleagues from east Africa that’s seen as the center of
the evolution of our species, as we went further away from Africa, the amount of genetic diversity was becoming more and more reduced and this was further evidence that our species originated in Africa. I don’t think the world
was still ready for this because just think about it, all the social issues going
on about coming from Africa, and that’s another five lectures to go, but I will spare you that. None the less, as the
technology started to improve and we’ve gone from restriction mapping to the advent of the introduction of polymerase chain reaction, better techniques for genetic sequencing and now we can do whole genome sequencing. The culmination of the
human genome project gave us scientists an open
era of asking questions and trying to resolve that
through analysis et cetera. And so some colleagues
sequenced a few individuals from their whole genome
sequences from southern Africa. It was the first sequences from
the southern African region and it included among those individuals, there were four people
from Namibia who were San, and our famous archbishop Desmond Tutu. And so when we got the results from there, all individuals, with respect
to their mitochondrial DNA, had similar patterns to
that of the San and Khoe, the indigenous people
from southern Africa, and that is what made the news. Even Oprah Winfrey Show
and all the news bulletins were talking about archbishop Desmond Tutu being part and parcel of
ancestry to the first people. This was a whole genome sequence. The mitochondria is yet but
a small component of it and, but the world was talking about the mitochondrial genetic
study showing linkage of archbishop Desmond
Tutu to that of the San. Now what the study brought out was quite an interesting observation. Using the x-axis in a plot of, summarizing all of the data collectively, each individual in a pair wise fashion, you saw that there was one cluster that was associated with African people from the Niger-Congo language family and there was another cluster that contained those four San individuals and those people from
the European regions, can you see it, just
clustered into one spot? So immediately you can see,
just with a few sequences, the vastness and the
diversity present in Africa and if you were wanting to
a magnified view of that, if you just looked at
the African individual, once again, you saw this
increased diversity. But there’s something emerging from here, that people from different
parts of the continent, their genetic structure
was seemingly different. And we had theories about
multi regional theory concerning all human origins and people started to talk
about asking the question about evolution in Africa and so already we’re seeing
this specific patterns in the southern part, in the western part, and in people who were
migrant to the southern part, similar to that in the
wider part of Africa, namely people who were
speaking Bantu languages. And so my group has been
for over three decades now, I have been in this business
from the very beginnings when DNA technology kind of hit the world, and we picked it up in South
Africa almost like a backlash 10 years later, and so
I came into the business when were still using
very simple techniques, to the point of where you can do whole genome sequencing now. And over the years,
through my predecessor, Professor Trevor Jenkins, we’ve been interested in the
history of peoples of Africa and we have always tried
to do it in a holistic way using genetics as our tool but also engaging with colleagues
from other disciplines, linguistics, archeology, paleontology, history and anthropology and so I’m a bit of an
apprentice of all of that and consider myself more
a molecular anthropologist than a hardcore geneticist
because I’m interested in these sorts of questions. In any event, I had a
very bright PhD student, Carina Schlebusch, who was
interested in following up on some of the studies were were doing among the Khoe and the San populations. She’s now doing amazing work with Mattias Jakobsson in Sweden and last week I had the
privilege of being at a meeting there in Sweden where
they brought together the world’s best, working
in the disciplines of linguistics, archeology and genetics to talk about the diversity in Africa. And while we present a very
simplistic overview here, the more recent work is
actually very dynamic, lots and lots of debates and the thing that was
most mind boggling was that the researchers in France now, modeling linguistics,
archeology and genetic data collectively to kind of get
a deeper vision of the past. In any event, we did some
snip chip technology, moving away from just
mitochondria and y chromosome that we’d been busy with for a while and what we found was
that the first branch in the human tree, with
this kind of genomic data, contained populations
that were exclusively Khoe and San speaking peoples. They had genetic information
greater than 100,000 years and the first time there was a divergence from that major branch was
as recent as 45,000 years ago where we see some splits in
populations from central Africa, eastern Africa and west Africa. So that was quite a major observation. We were not the only ones
who made that observation, others have done so as well. Now this is a scary slide, but just allow me to walk you through it. This is another analysis that
people do with genomic data. It’s called structure, and
basically what they’re doing is is looking at each individual, so if we have 500
individuals in our sample, each individual is a data point
across, from left to right, belonging to that branch
where the sample is placed and it’s amount of add mixture, okay? So they’re not pure populations, let’s just get that first
fact out of the way. There are no pure populations. People seem to think, when
you do add mixture mapping, you’re starting with two pure populations and then you’re blending. No. We are moralized ahead of that. And so now when you look
across using structure, it identifies this different
genetic backgrounds, and all I want for you to see, that if you go with the
green being west Africa, the blue Central Africa, and the red, the southern African Khoe and San, if you look from left to right, you can see different
color structural patterns. And so this is what is going on in Africa. There’s a deep structure of
genetic patterns of difference across the populations
on the African continent. And if I were to just summarize that by a very very nice review written by Carina Schlebusch and Mattias Jakobsson published last year, then you would see a summary
of what we’ve seen before, with a difference. What has now happened is, by looking at some ancient DNA samples, both in South Africa
and in central Africa, in studies published by different authors, they’ve now pushed that convergent point of dating the common ancestry in Africa beyond 150 to around 300,000 and that is in keeping with
some of the fossil evidence that’s come from Flores Bud as well. So when you now look
at that genetic pattern I presented earlier, and
you condense it altogether, we see once again, on one branch, the Khoe and the San populations, central Africans, west
Africans and east Africans and a small branch out of that represents what’s come out of Africa. So you can see now why Africa is every expeditioners paradise, because if you want to
do biomedical research, and if you do not understand
what’s come out of Africa, you might as well pack your
bags and go to the beach because this is what
you need to understand. And so we feel very privileged
to be in that region but it is also quite difficult because while I may sound
very enthusiastic about it of course we have to also
work with all the ethical, legal and social issues that come with working with human subjects. Now if I were to just very
quickly summarize graphically in keeping with a map of where those genetic patterns are seen, you see we also have many gaps, so scientists are busy collecting samples to try to fill up those gaps and the data result there, it’s just coming into
the public domain now. So what we see in Africa
is very deep history. What my colleagues ahead of
me have been talking about is that very very deep history but how far back do we
take the genetics in Africa is unlike in Europe
where we’ve got samples from neanderthals from 45,000 years ago. If some of the archeologists
and paleontologists will allow the scientists to
touch the specimens from Africa maybe we could go deeper. We did publish a paper two years ago but specimens dating to
just over 2,000 years ago to try to understand what would have been the genetic structure of individuals, pre the migration of people speaking Bantu languages to the south and that paper was published and I didn’t want to bring it here because I would have taken
20 minutes to explain. So we have very deep structure. We have migrations associated with the spread of Bantu languages from west Africa into southern Africa in the time period spanning
about 3,000 to 5,000 years and then we have a very
interesting pattern with the advent of pastoralism. As people started to acquire
cattle and move to the south, the Khoe, who we’ve sampled in Namibia, carry a genetic pattern, link
with lactase persistence, the ability to consume cow milk, similar to that found
in the Maasai in Kenya. So there’s another very very
interesting adaptive trait that has come into the
southern part of Africa. Now for those of you who’ve
been following this literature, you know that people in Europe have different genetic markers that allow them to process
or to consume milk, but in Africa, different genes. So to the same cultural trait, different genes have been adapted for and so in addition to that
sort of tracking of mobility, we’ve also had input from Europe and Asia into the African continent
at different times. So not only did Africa
give the rest of the world its genetics, those
individuals who were in exile, some have returned, like me. So, couple years ago, as I
started to engage with colleagues outside of my disciple,
to make sense of genetics, I would go to archeological meetings, engage with other colleagues
and it became very apparent that even among our academics, we were talking across each other. I would get people calling me up and say well if you were to go to
a particular grave site where skeletal remains were found, can you tell us if those were
slaves brought from Zimbabwe buried there, and so I would ask, well did you think that Zimbabweans had a different genetic
pattern to other Africans? So we were talking across,
understanding each other and so I was privileged to
have hosted a conference in South Africa, where we
invited multi disciplinary colleagues from within
the country and overseas to participate and I
was able to edit a book. One of the first on the
prehistory of Africa, where it was a collection
of bringing together this kind of interdisciplinary dialogue. And we’ve progressed to being able to talk a little bit more now, so much so that all of our genetic studies has a recent anthropologist or a historian or an anthropologist associated with it. Colleagues, the biggest story is about translation of science. When we sit in our little ivory towers and we communicate just with our peers, we forget that the individuals
that we need to serve are the general public and
so in my own field work, having to work outside of the ivory towers of university boundaries, you rarely rarely get acculturated into what society is all about. And fortunately for me,
there’s always a tree somewhere and I would use the metaphor of a tree to talk about all living
people being a leaf on the tree and your connection through
branches to the common trunk is actually the history of how your DNA links to the common trunk. It has the opportunity
to bring people together to realize that we are one species, bringing human solidarity
into the dialogue and also having the
ability to tell stories. And so I created, with a
company called Jive Media in South Africa, some of these tools where we’re telling stories and as you tell the story,
here the grandmother, the Gogo, is telling her family how her people have come to be where they are. That’s oral history. We, cultural anthropologists
collect information on oral history and we
intertwine the story into this cartoon where
one of the individuals has been to university and he’s
had a genetic ancestry test and so the young buck, the curious little guy
wants to know all about it. And so in unfolding this
story, with different cartoons, we now unpack what a
genetic ancestry test is. Now, because that is
what I was interested in, we use it as an opportunity because lots and lots of people are doing my medical
research in the country and that whole issue of informed consent is not only about the signature. That inform part is actually very powerful and so we try to have tools to be able to take the jargon out of the conversation and bring in a visual to help the process, so I just wanted to put
that little point in and to say that the science that we do, could not stay out of the public domain. It very quickly crept
in with opportunities to engage the public, people demanded to have
genetic ancestry tests, and so we had to set it up and part of that documentary, I even was privileged to
have had the opportunity of testing former
president Nelson Mandela. And his mitochondrial DNA
was present on this branch, so this is my famous tree,
which is actually adapted from the tree that was
published by Behar et al in a schematic way so that we could show how the different branches are related. All the branches with green circles carry mitochondrial lineages
commonly found in Africa and then as you come out of Africa, the M branch is seen in
the Indian subcontinent and into the Americas and through the N, we see most of the branches that are found in Europe and some in Asia
called Eurasian lineages so this is a summary of the
mitochondrial DNA patterns that exists in living humans today. So former president
Nelson Mandela’s lineage was found on this branch, L note, which is the one found most
commonly among Khoe and San. And believe it or not, having now done research
in various communities, one of the things I’ve
tried to do is take back a result, a mitochondrian
y chromosome result to individuals so that they don’t feel that parachute type of
science that you go in, you take the samples and you go out and never to be seen again. So we go back, giving them those results and so now some other
unique thing has come about. People are now calling me
up, almost on a daily basis, to have their genetic ancestry test done, because in some areas, they’ve been told that if
you have your genetic test, it’ll be your certificate to tell you whether you are San or not, and in that way, you may
be able to claim land in the whole land claim
issue that’s going on. So what started off as
a very complimentary way of keeping the relationship going between the science and the communities, it’s now coming back where
there’s opportunistic aspects being brought into it. So one of the, the second fact, the first one was that we
are not pure populations, the second fact that
you must go away with is that a genetic ancestry test does not tell you anything
about your identity. As you sit here, you have
myriads of identities, but not genetic test could
define any one of those, so that’s the second thing I
like to emphasize to people, that genetic ancestry is
not equal to identity. Identity is complex, it’s
multi-faceted and it’s fluid. Your genetic ancestry
is the unbiased record of your genetic heritage
going back in time. So colleagues, genetics,
that was just genetics 101 or genetics 0.05, has
been a very useful tool to try to track movements
of people around the globe. Not only have we used mitochondrial DNA and y chromosome DNA to kind
of plot the final geography of the human journey, the advent of whole genome sequencing and various types of
analysis with that data now is refining theories
concerning our origins. Ancient DNA has allowed a
deeper view into the past and I don’t have time to
talk about those components but it is another way of gaining insights into questions that we would otherwise not have had opportunities for. So in closing, I first of
all want to acknowledge with deep gratitude, the Carta Institute for this opportunity to be here, participants who obviously make us who we are in our careers, various collaborators and funders and I have to give a point
wearing the cap of my new role as the Executive Officer
of the Academy of Science is that science should be done to promote and advance science, evidence based science in serving society. Then there’s science for society, and of course science for policy. So the next time you venture
into your science world, just try to deposit a few coders in each of these three boxes. Thank you very much. (applause) (upbeat music)

CARTA presents Anthropogeny: The Perspective from Africa – Lyn Wadley Sarah Wurz Judith Sealy


(piano music) – [Man] We are the paradoxical ape, bipedal, naked, large-brained, long the master of
fire, tools and language but still trying to understand ourselves. Aware that death is inevitable yet filled with optimism. We grow up slowly, we hand down knowledge, we empathize and deceive. We shape the future from our shared understanding of the past. CARTA brings together experts
from diverse disciplines to exchange insights on who we are and how we got here. An exploration made possible by the generosity of humans like you. (upbeat music) – Good afternoon, thank you
Bahani, you’re very kind. We all know fire today as a source of heat, light, protection. A technological aid and a social enabler. But it hasn’t always been like that. And at what stage did hominins
lose their fear of fire as something really dangerous? Wildfire must have been a source of fire for early hominins and presumably they grasped
it and used it right there at its source. But lightning is probably
the most common cause of wildfire in Africa and it thus provides a
seasonal source of fire. But a very brief source of fire. So in the early days, when
hominids first made use of fire it would not have been very commonly. We have to distinguish fire use as opposed to the deliberate control
of fire and its creation. So the opportunistic
seasonal collection of fire from a natural source seems
likely for the earliest hominins but what we don’t know is
whether in those early times, they could necessarily transport the fire, feed it once they got
it where they needed it and then maintain the fire
for as long as they needed it. As a sideline, it’s
quite interesting to note that Raymond Dart in 1948 named the three million year-old Makapan fossils Australopithecus Prometheus
and Job already mentioned that, but he named them that
after the mythological giant that had stolen fire from the heavens. And the reason that Dart named it that was because there were some
blackened bones associated with the fossils in the sites. And he thought that perhaps
they were making fire. But unfortunately, chemical
tests quickly showed that this was simply
staining on the burns, and so the name was discontinued until recently resurrected by Ron Clarke as the name for his
new fossil Little Foot. But of course not because Ron believes that those fossils were using fire, but because of the
morphological similarity. We have only rare evidence
for early fire use in Africa, and I’m selecting three of
the most famous of the sites to demonstrate that. Koobi Fora, Swartkrans and Wonderwek. So Koobi Fora is at Lake Turkana in Kenya. And it was excavated
predominantly by Jack Harris. The site is an open site
and I make that point because it’s important. It’s one and a half million years old, and Jack found burnt sediment
in the site associated with burnt stone and burnt bone. Many of the critics would have suggested that perhaps wildfire
swept through the site and burned the traces. But Jack points out that in addition to the burnt bone and stone, there are unburnt bones and
stones in between those patches. And so it seems most likely that hominids exploited fire here, though
perhaps very briefly. And at Swartkrans in Member 3 which is one million years old, Bob Brain found 270 pieces of burnt bone which he believes was evidence for fire, pretty much directly below
the grid that you see there and associated with those burnt bones were bones that had been used as tools. But subsequently Lucinda
Backwell believes were used for extracting termites
out of their mounds. Wonderwerk I think is
particularly interesting because this is a cave and I emphasize that caves are dangerous
places where carnivores live. And it would seem really
unlucky that hominids would be able to move in
there without the use of fire. And I emphasize always the difference between the use of fire as
opposed to the control of fire. There’s very little chance that
fire could have accidentally got into Wonderwerk because
the fire traces here are 30 meters from the entrance. And this implies that the hominins would have transported
fire from its source, perhaps wildfire but the
traces are ephemeral. So fire probably wasn’t
maintained for very long within the site. Here is the stratigraphic
evidence and micromorphology from Stratum 10, one million years old. And if you have a look
over on the left there, within the black box, you’ll
see the layers of ashes that demonstrate that fire. Alongside that also, there
were burnt bits of bone and FTIR, Fourier transform spectroscopy demonstrates that burning of bone. They were actually on hand axes
associated with Stratum 10. Now there were no fossil remains but presumably the actor was Homo erectus, also known sometimes in
Africa as Homo ergaster. Leaving aside those sites for the moment, we must ask a question, what evolutionary changes were
taking place from the time that we see the evidence for fire? And is there any way of linking
these changes to fire use? Homo-erectus appeared in Africa somewhere between two and one-and-a-half
million years ago. That’s certainly before we
see the archeological evidence for the traces of fire that I showed you. But what is interesting is that compared with earlier hominins, the brain size of Homo erectus increased and the teeth and the gut size decreased
as Job showed you earlier. Big brains are expensive tissues and this increased brain size
yet reduced tooth and gut size imply that Homo erectus must have had an enriched diet compared with earlier hominins. Now there are competing
schools of thought about why the physical evolution
took place at this time. The first one is that hominins may have become more
effective at obtaining meat, especially fatty meat. Secondly, that hominins may
have processed food mechanically in the case of plants to break down fiber, in the case of animal
foods to break down tissue. And thirdly, that hominins may have cooked their food sometimes. How likely is it that Homo erectus sometimes used fire for cooking? This claim is made in
“The Cooking Hypothesis” by Richard Wrangham in his
wonderful book “Catching Fire”. And cooking would especially
benefit the young or the aged with deficient teeth. But the sporadic archeological
evidence for fire use doesn’t wholly support
the cooking hypothesis. But as archeologists, we
recognize that evidence may be absent for several reasons not least preservation
in many of the sites. So could she have cooked
dinner some nights? And more importantly could Homo
erectus have roasted tubers like the Hadza do today? O’Connell and colleagues in
their Grandmothering Hypothesis suggests that there sort of being a particularly cogent thing
for older women to do, that they would have improved
the health and the well-being especially of children by collecting tubers and roasting them to break down net fiber. And what is the earliest
archeological evidence that we have for roasting starchy plants? It’s certainly a long
time after the presence of Homo erectus. Now the African Middle Stone Age began about 300,000 years ago and we don’t get direct
archeological evidence for tubers even then. But at Border Cave which
is now being reexcavated under the leadership of Lucinda Backwell, we see a middle Stone
Age archive that begins about 227,000 years ago and continues to about 43,000 years ago. A stunning site as you
can see from this image. And at Border Cave, we have discovered starchy
underground stems and combs that were roasted from at
least 160,000 years ago, perhaps 200,000 years ago. So in Members 5BS down at the bottom and Member 4WA, we have now
more than 60 whole corns or tubers that were roasted and preserved. After about 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens in many parts of the world developed pyrotechnology even further. And this suggests that perhaps
fire was now created at will, that people had control of fire. Perhaps through percussion of rocks, the strike-a-light method
or friction of wood on wood. But African archeology
is silent on this matter. We simply don’t have evidence for that. And yet we see increasingly
sophisticated pyrotechnology appearing through time implying that fire should have been created
whenever it was desired. So I’ve chosen three South African sites just to demonstrate some of that rather complex pyrotechnology. Down in the South,
Pinnacle Point and Blombos. And up on the East Coast, Sibudu. Rocks were heat treated at
Pinnacle Point 164,000 years ago. And there at the bottom left
you see a heat treated biface from the area. The heat treating of rocks
improves their flakability, it makes it possible to
strike longer thinner flakes and it makes it easier
for the stone tool napper to strike those flakes. It also improves the
quality of the rock itself. And Blombos, the heat
treatment of silcrete about 75,000 years ago demonstrates that it facilitated the pressure flaking of points to produce these long thin rather beautiful points. At Sibudu, we see something different but it’s much more recent. By 72,000 years ago, people
were making compound adhesive. And Ramen and EDS spectra
show that both hematite and carbon was part of the recipes. And at 64,000 years ago, gas
and liquid chromatography confirmed that there was coniferous resin on some of the tools mixed
together with hematite. Now, adhesive needs low temperatures for the drying and the hardening. So fire is an important part of the complex adhesive
manufacturing process. And temperatures were controlled
through firewood selection and the knowledge of how
much wood should be used on any given fire. To sum up, the first use
of fire by Homo erectus were seasonally opportunistic. The creation at will by Homo sapiens, the creation of fire
at will by Homo sapiens probably started somewhere between 300,000 and 200,000 years ago
in the Middle Stone Age. And although we don’t have
direct archeological evidence for this, increasingly
sophisticated pyrotechnology from this time suggests that people must have controlled fire. Now in Europe we know that Neanderthals were using manganese oxides
and various rocks to create and strike fire but we haven’t yet found any of that evidence in Africa. I’m sure it’s simply a
question of looking for it and that that’s a story that
will be told in the future. In addition to the heat treatment of rocks and adhesive manufacture, people used fire to create medicinal smoke through the careful choice of fire woods. They used campsite
maintenance by using fire to clean up their bedding for example and clean trash from these sites, which undoubtedly would
have improved the health of the people who lived there. They used fire for
hardening of wooden tools, and Hillary Deacon thought
that they might have stimulated the growth of fresh grass in the felt even during the Middle Stone
Age to lure game to sites. These and other hot topics are fuel for another day so thank you. (audience applauds) – Good afternoon, it’s an honor
and a privilege to be here, thank you very much. So I will talk about Klasies
River main site today. So Klasies River main site is situated in South Africa on the
southern Cape coast. And what you see there
is that it’s situated close to quite a few very well-known caves from which we know quite a lot about especially the evolution of modern humans. On the picture below you can see there’s a picture of Klasies River
and there you can see that it’s right on the coast,
so it’s very picturesque to work there, a very nice environment. Also on that bottom slot you can see that there is a lot of
lush vegetation around it. It consists of forests,
a (mumbles) and thicket. That is enough to see to
all of your plant needs if you had to rely on that for food. So this picture shows you
Klasies River main site and what you may first
see is that it consists of four recesses or caves, that we call by different names. So there with cave 1A, I’ve put
you two little human figures to show you the scale. This is against all of
these cave 21 meters of shell midden deposits formed. And this means it’s one of the largest shell middens in Africa dating to between 120 and 48,000 years ago. Then there was a break in occupation and then after some
erosion of the deposits, later Stone Age or Holocene
people came in again and occupied the site from
4,800 to 2,300 years ago. So this vast amount of
shell midden deposits is one of the best features of the site but it’s also one of the most challenging. Because if you have only one
career, where do you start? So there’s a lot of work to do. So what I want to talk to you about today, being such a large deposit
is just flashes of light on some of the aspects
on which Klasies River can throw some light. So at Klasies River, we
have quite a few hominin or hominid human representatives. I will talk about some evidence that highlight the ecological genius and cultural flexibility and complexity of our early ancestors. And I would like to emphasize
that they achieved this without our current super culture, so they really adapted
to that environment. So who lived at Klasies River? We’ve got more than 50 human
fossils at Klasies River and most of them they, between 120,000 and 90,000 years ago. What we can see from
the remains that we have and in the previous slide you will see that they were quite broken up, small pieces of human remains
so we don’t have a full skull or a complete skeletons
fragmentary remains. But what we can still say from that it’s that it’s a morphologically
variable population with very small individuals as well as larger robust individuals. Interestingly, for Klasies River, we get mostly adults represented. For most of the other (mumbles) sites we find mostly infants
represented, so that is perplexing why is this the case? We do have only three teeth of infants, and in the picture that you see there. that’s the Howiesons Poort deposits dating to around between 70 and 50,000 years ago. So if you find teeth of
infants in a deposit, you have to think that it
was families that lived here. These Howiesons Poort
deposits are the deposits that we can see the highest
density of occupation in this site so that’s quite interesting that we find the infants in this layer. Something that’s really
interesting for Klasies River is that almost all of the human remains, especially the lower deposits, those between 120 and
90,000 years ago are burned as you can probably see from this picture and many of them have cut marks. So what is the logical conclusion, is that it was probably
cannibalism that was practiced. Was it ritual cannibalism? Was it dietary cannibalism? We do not know, it is one of
those issues that we need to, that we hope to throw light on in future. If you look at the
remains on Klasies River and that these are
mostly the food remains, you can see that the deposits
from the lower most layers, 120,000-year layers consist
of dense shell middens with all the foods that went into that, so it’s foods from the
coastal environment, fauna, fireplaces, et cetera. So from this you can see
that in this time range that they followed from 120,000
years to 48,000 years ago, we know that the climates fluctuated. And in that time period they targeted different kinds of foods. Klasies River is often facetiously called the earliest seafood
restaurant in the world because at the site we do find as I said in the lowest layers, these dense shell middens. And this is one of the
earliest occurrences of this very dense shell middens. So here you see a few
of these food remains that we find very often there, still remains a shellfish and fish. This is combined then with
large fauna and small fauna. So I’ve put this very large, we call this above it class
size, size class five. It’s above 900 kilograms,
very large (mumbles). And to be able to hunt
such above it successfully you have to cooperate. So we can see throughout the sequence that they were very successful, intelligent, cooperative hunters. That not only targeted the bigger animals but also very small animals. Interestingly since
I’ve started excavating at this site again of around 2015, the layers that we’re targeting now are about 110,000 years old. And what we observed in these layers are these red and quartzite blocks that we haven’t seen before. These blocks are associated
with leached ashes and food remains. In this picture you see postdoc, she was my postdoc, Sonia Benson who did a lot of experiments on quartzite and how it behaves if it
comes into contact with fire. And what we did determine
then is that probably these quartzite blocks
were used to roast food on, and that’s a very early occurrence
of that kind of behavior. Also at Klasies River
you find many hearths. So what you see here on
this side is cave one where we’re currently excavating. So this is what we call the wetness bulk and these layers go from
about 120,000 to about 90,000. This is the picture
higher up in the sequence where we have the
Howiesons Poort deposits. So you will notice here
the lowermost deposits here are full of hearths, it’s these ashy lines as well as these deposits
here full of hearths. So what has been done
here in collaboration with Susan Mentzer and Cynthia Larbey is to take samples from these hearths. Cynthia Larbey took samples of
the ashy parts of the hearths and the darkened soils under that and it’s scanning
electron microscopy on it. And what she did find in these
slides or in these remains was the remains of starchy tissue of underground storage organs in the ashes of the 120,000-year-old hearths as well as the 60,000-year-old hearths. Susan Mentzer, she did
micromorphology and she also, she also identified
these parenchymous tissue in the sediments next to the ashes that Cynthia has identified. So this is pretty important. So so far it’s the earliest
direct published evidence. We also have very early
evidence from Border Cave for the deliberate
inclusion of starch in diet. We don’t think this is
the earliest evidence for starch inclusion because
the genetic evidence shows that modern humans have
more copies of the gene that produces salivary amylase. That’s the enzyme that breaks down starch and this change seemed to have occurred already 300,000 years ago. So it seems that starch
was an important part of hunter-gatherer diets long
before agriculture developed. So this puts a new
perspective on to the idea that paleo diets consist
just of proteins and fats. So starch was really an important
part of that diet as well. So from this evidence that I
just really discussed with you very superficially we can say that humans at Klasies River followed a balanced diet with starchy cooked foods
and roots and tubers combined with roasted protein
and fat from shellfish, fish small and large fauna. So this complexity and ingenuity
that we see in the diets, we can also link that to
their cultural behavior. So here is a picture of
the stone tools found throughout the Klasies River sequence. So I’ve only put the typical stone tools from between 120 and about
70, 65,000 years ago. But what is interesting that we see just as the humans adapted
their diet through time, they also adapted the way in
which they made stone tools. And it was probably used
for the same kinds of tasks but they used different ways
to manufacture those tools. So this gives us some
inclination of how they thought. We do get clearer snapshots
of cultural complexity during periods of more
intensive occupation, and we think at the site it’s
around 100,000 years ago. For example, Blombos
Cave, 65,000 years ago with Howiesons Poort and 4,800 years ago. So time only allows me
to really quickly focus on some of these aspects. And I’ll do that in relation
to pigments and to bone tools. Because we seem to find
more of these materials during these time periods. So in the 100,000-year-old
levels, we do see this pigment that’s been shaped, or
ochre shaped in a crayon and you can see that it
has these lines on it so it’s been used and
shaped intentionally. Then there’s also this
piece of ochre which has been scorched or engraved, we
don’t think it’s a pattern. We just see, it was
probably used to make powder and this occurs in relation to, in association with these not bone tools made on the ribs of a very
large animal like an eland. And here you can see
some of these notches. We don’t know what it was used for, it is still a mystery but
we are working on that. And then in the 65,000-year-old layers, so we’re jumping up in the
sequence about 12 meters. We do find similar pigments
in the Howiesons Poort but I’ve mentioned earlier that we think it’s one of the highest
occupation parts of the sequence. Here we also find more ochre and here we can see that they
prefer the color red, ochre. They heated some of the ochre,
they also used yellow ochre and interestingly they made
a white material pigment from different materials that
might have contained both. So that’s a quite interesting phenomenon. Also in the Howiesons
Poort, we get bone tools like this bone point. This looks exactly like the
later Stone Age and Holocene and recent Bushmen burn points used in bone and arrow technology and an engraved piece of bone. Then I’m jumping up to
the top of the sequence, the later Stone Age layers, the Holocene layers
dating to between 4,800 and 2300 years ago. So these deposits, we
are very lucky to have it in the same site as the
Middle Stone Age deposits because it gives us a sharper,
much more detailed resolution impression of life ways and behavior. What we do find surprising is that we don’t find a big jump in complexity. The archeological materials, they’re basically the
same types of materials. But what this allowed us is to investigate often neglected part of
our archeological record, sound and our cue music. And in doing this we’ve done
a lot of experimentation and ethnographic research
to try and bring sound back into the Klasies River Cave 1. So this enigmatic implement was found by Singer and Wymer already in 1967 next to lower jaw of a human. It’s a dual hold, two-hold
instrument or implement dating to around 4,800 years ago. So here you see some of the
students doing excavations in that midden, Later Stone Age midden that is on top of the wetness bulk. It’s more or less these layers. And what we found when we looked
at the ethnographic record and by doing some experimentation is that as Singer and Wymer and
others have suggested that this might have
been a musical instrument or an instrument to make sound with. So I don’t know if you
know what a woer woer is or a wirrawirra, it’s just
the sound that it makes. So you put it in the middle
like Joshua is doing here. So we estimated the
length of the rope used by the ethnographic examples. And if you do this it makes a sound. And interesting, the sound is very similar to that made by bees. So we’re investigating this further. So this Klasies River’s archive highlights the kinds of achievements
of African populations that played a prominent role
in the development of humankind of people like us. I would like to thank
everybody for being here and for giving me the
opportunity to speak to you. Thank you. (audience applauds) – So I’m going to talk about behavior and settlement patterns in
Coastal Stone-age communities, the evidence from stable isotopes. And I’m talking about
this because if we look at the long history of our species, we talk quite a lot about
hunting and the role that hunting may have played in human evolution. We talk a bit about gathering plant foods and the importance of that. But we don’t talk very much at all about the importance of coastal resources. And there are interesting questions about when people first began
to use coastal resources, what the implications of this might be? And these questions are interesting because coastal marine areas like this are among the most
productive habitats on earth. And in more recent
times, habitats like this have been very important for hunting and gathering populations. Why have they been important? Well first of all,
coastlines provide abundant, reliable, nutrient-rich
foods like the shellfish. They also provide marine
mammals which are sometimes washed up on the shore. One doesn’t necessarily
even need to hunt them. You can collect beached animals. And when a large animal
like a whale is beached, that provides very large
quantities of food indeed. If coastal communities
have the right technology, they can catch fish. Coastlines provide a range
of stone raw materials and other kinds of raw
materials for making artifacts. Coastlines provide routes for dispersal. So one might expect that
the line leading to humans would have taken advantage
of coastal habitats from early on. I have to say that we don’t have much direct evidence of this,
but that’s at least partly because of issues to do with preservation. So over long timescales, coastlines shift, sea levels rise and fall. And so globally we’ve got
very little archeology of coastal areas that date
to the earlier periods of human evolution. In South Africa though we’re lucky because we’ve got a
relatively stable coastline, at least it’s remained stable over the last several
hundred thousand years. And so we have many
well-preserved coastal sites which make it a good place to investigate these kinds of questions. So in the latter part of the 20th century, most researchers thought
that aquatic resources only became important
relatively late in prehistory. Once populations had already grown and additional sources of food were needed to feed these extra mouths. But today rather different
perspectives are being offered, and some researchers are even suggesting that coastal adaptations
may have played a role in the emergence of our species, and that coastal adaptations may have promoted the
particular behavioral patterns that characterized humans. So what evidence do we actually have for early use of marine foods? Some of the earliest comes
from around the Mediterranean. We’re at the site of Terra
Amata in southern France. We’ve got shellfish that date
to about 300,000 years ago. At Benzu in North Africa, there are shells dating to
about 250,000 years ago. And at the Cave of Lazaret,
also in southern France slightly younger shells. At Terra Amata, these are associated with the shellian hand axes. But there are some disagreements
amongst archeologists as to the dating of some of these sites, as to what these shells
are actually doing there, are they really food remains? So we’re not entirely clear
what we’re actually looking at in these sites. I think there probably are food remains because we know that it’s not just humans that collect and eat marine foods. Non-human primates do it too. And this is a troop of baboons that lives very near Cape Town on the rocks collecting and eating mussels. This particular troop regularly
forages in the intertidal. And they simply pull off
the shellfish from the rocks and bite through them. Here are some more pictures
of them doing that. And this makes an important
contribution to particularly the protein component of their diet. But these baboons don’t do this very much. They spend less than 5% of their
foraging time on the rocks, and the rest of the time they’re
eating terrestrial plants and small animals and so on. Primates do this elsewhere
in the world too. We know that along the Somalian coast, yellow baboons forage for marine foods. In Southeast Asia crab-eating macaques eat intertidal organisms. So this kind of behavior
may we’ll go back a long way in the human lineage. And of course Neanderthals ate shellfish. We know that because they left the shells in caves in Gibraltar and other places on the Iberian Peninsula. So I said earlier that coastal
habitats were productive but we’re only just now
beginning to realize exactly how productive they are. These are some photographs that were taken as part of a research
project in South Africa where the researchers are
working with local communities who collect shellfish to feed themselves. These are relatively
impoverished rural communities and they collect shellfish
as part of their diet. And the researchers were
looking at how long it takes, how much effort it takes
to get a reasonable return in terms of the quantity of food gathered. And the results I think are astonishing. So on average, these
collectors can get almost 1500 kilocalories an hour
by collecting shellfish. And under optimal conditions, so optimal conditions are springload tide, when the seas are calm, they can collect 3400
kilocalories an hour. And if you think that
a sort of medium-sized, moderately active person needs about 2,000 kilocalories a day, this is very productive foraging. And it’s not hard, it’s
certainly a lot easier than trying to hunt down
and kill large game animals. So coastal food resources are rewarding, they are abundant, but they are spatially restricted. They’re restricted to the coast, the sort of linear edge
of the land masses. And so some researchers
are starting to explore the idea that perhaps foraging
in a landscape like this where the human groups would have been sort of aggregated
together might have perhaps promoted the high levels
of social interaction that are characteristic of our species. Here are some images of
the site of Pinnacle Point which is arid in the small
map on the bottom left there. Pinnacle Point has become
famous for the evidence that it preserves of marine
foods at 164,000 years ago. So the lower image here,
that kind of bank of material on the left is a consolidated deposit that has a lot of shells in it, it has a lot of stone artifacts in it and it’s cemented to the wall of the cave. It dates back to about 164,000 years ago. So we’re now back sort of
early-ish in the period of what some people call modern humans. The question is though,
what role did shellfish play in people’s diets at this time? So were the people who lived in this cave collecting shellfish just
occasionally like the baboons do? Or were they focusing
on these marine foods like more recent coastal
hunter-gatherer populations do? Here are a couple of sites
from the same part of the world that date to the last 12, perhaps even more recent than that, the last several thousand years. And you can see that those
are huge shell middens in the upper photograph. All of that gray area that you’re looking at on the ground there,
all of that is shell, that’s hundreds of thousands of shells. On the bottom image you can see very densely packed shell middens. And this is typical of the
kinds of sites that we see in more recent time periods. In older time periods, many of the sites don’t look as dense as this, don’t seem to preserve
this kind of evidence of intensive use of marine food. But it’s often unclear
whether that’s because people were doing something different
further back in the past, or perhaps whether the
evidence is just often not so well preserved. So in order to answer that question, in order to answer the
question of how intensively were people back a hundred
plus, thousand years ago focusing on marine foods, we might turn to a different way of investigating this question. And that is the kind of
thing that I do a lot of which is to measure the
stable isotopes in the bones and the teeth of consumers in order to try to assess what they were eating. So the way this works is
that we measure the ratios of carbon-13 to carbon-12,
nitrogen 15 to nitrogen 14 and those, the two isotopes in the pair, the heavier and the lighter isotope progress at slightly different rates through the reactions that
make up the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. And that happens somewhat
differently on land and in the sea. So we can measure these
isotope ratios in the bones of consumers including humans, and assist more-or-less whether
they were heavily dependent on marine foods or heavily
dependent on terrestrial foods. And these pictures were taken
in our lab in Cape Town. So we’ve done a lot of work like this on more recent coastal populations, because we’ve got a lot more
evidence from more recent times and it makes sense I think to use that more recent evidence that we can interrogate more
closely and then try to see whether we can reflect back
on earlier time periods. So here are the results of
some work that’s been done on coastal communities dating to the last few thousand years. And we have skeletons of
people who died and were buried in the area marked by the yellow ellipse. They have somewhat unusual bone chemistry indicating very intensive use of high trophic level marine foods. Their bone chemistry is
different from the bone chemistry of the people who died and
were buried at the sites marked by the yellow star
although that yellow star is only about 14 kilometers away. The bone chemistry is
sufficiently different that we can infer that there
was a territorial boundary between the two. Those two groups were separate, because we see different chemical
signatures in their bones reflecting diet over many years, probably several decades of their lives. Similarly, on the right,
people who died and were buried in caves marked by the inland green star, the uppermost green star
had a different diet. They ate very little seafood
whereas people who died and were buried on the coast marked by the lower green star were
eating a lot of seafood. So there was another territorial boundary between those sites. Over very small areas of ground. In the middle, we haven’t
got so much evidence so that’s why there’s
a question mark there? We can do even better than this. We can look at diet through life by comparing teeth and bones. So teeth form in childhood
and record the diet that the person was eating as a child, whereas burns continue to resorb
and reform throughout life so they give a longer term average. And by comparing teeth that
form relatively early in life like the first incisor and
the first molars shown here, those teeth complete their
formation pre-puberty. So we can look at a
childhood diet and compare it with an adult diet and we can tell whether people were living
as children in the same area where they died and were buried as adults. In other words we can tell whether people were bringing marriage partners in from outside their own territory or whether they were
getting marriage partners from within their own group. And in this case, the people
with the unusual bone chemistry in the yellow ellipse
were marrying partners from within their own group. So what we’ve got here
in recent time periods are societies that were living out very specialized coastal adaptations. They were specializing in
collecting marine foods and they had a social and a
kind of group organization that supported that way of life. And this kind of intense
coastal specialization is of course documented in many other coastal
hunter-gatherer societies elsewhere in the world, here in
California amongst other places, in other parts of North America,
in Europe and elsewhere. So one of the things we’d like to know is how far back in time does this go? How early in human development can we see this kind of intensive
use of coastal resources and what might that tell us about the way that coastal resources may or may not have factored
into human development. So we’re only just starting to do this but we now have some
results from Klasies River where we’ve, excavators have uncovered a number of human remains. The work that I have done on
these has been on the teeth, not on the bones, because
the teeth preserve better over long time periods like 110,000 years. The teeth are more chemically stable and so we can have more
confidence in the measurements that we make on them. What we’ve found in our analyses
of the teeth from Klasies is that back at about 110,000 years ago, some individuals were indeed
specializing in marine foods. Other individuals were not. And we’re seeing a wide range of variation that pretty much spans
the range of variation that we see in populations
dating to the last couple of thousand years. So it’s clear from this, that
we can push the beginnings of significant reliance on marine foods back beyond 100,000. We don’t know quite how far back yet but towards the earlier
period of the development of modern humans. And we wonder whether if there were marine
specialists back then, does that mean that populations back then were territorial as the same
way that the coastal hunting and gathering populations were in the last few thousand years? Does that mean that
we’ve got the same sort of anthropological correlates that we see in more recent time periods? I don’t know what the answer to that is, we’re working on it and
perhaps in a few years we will have some answers. Thank you very much. (audience applauds) (upbeat music)

Amazon expands out of Seattle amid fallout with city over taxes


DANIELLE, ADAM ARE STICKING AROUND. MELISSA. MELISSA: PREPARING TO DITCH SEATTLE. THEY ARE MOVING EMPLOYEES FROM TO DOWNTOWN WASHINGTON. REPORTER: MELISSA, WE SAID AT THE TIME IT IS LIKELY TO HAPPEN. AMAZON CONTINUES TO GROW AT AN AMAZING RATE BUT SEEMS LIKE ALL OF THE NEW GROWTH IS HAPPENING OUTSIDE OF SEATTLE, PRETTY MUCH ANYWHERE BUT SEATTLE. THE COMPANY SAID IT WILL EVENTUALLY HIRE 25,000 EMPLOYEES IN VIRGINIA, WHILE ADDING WORKERS IN BOSTON, DENVER, AUSTIN, TEXAS. PERHAPS MORE THAN 10,000 IN BELLEVUE, WASHINGTON, A LARGE SUBURB OF SEATTLE. THE SEATTLE CITY COUNCIL PASSED AND QUICKLY REPEALED AN AUDIENCE CHARGING THEM A FEE FOR EVERY EMPLOYEE IN THE CITY. ONE COUNCIL AULD AMAZON’S FOUNDER ENEMY OF THE CITY. IT WOULD HAVE COST AMAZON MORE THAN $12 MILLION A YEAR. THE RATIONALE, AMAZON WAS DRIVING UP WAGES, HOUSING PRICES SO MUCH IT WAS LARGELY RESPONSIBLE FOR SEATTLE’S HOMELESS PROBLEM. SO IT SHOULD PAY TO BUILD SUBSIDIZED HOUSING FOR POOR. A VENTURE CAPITALIST TOLD THE CITY COUNCIL THAT THEY ARE CHASING JOBS AWAY.>>AMAZON HAS BEEN UNFAIRLY BLAMED FOR CHALLENGES THAT WE AS A REGION EXPERIENCED, THAT WE WOULD HAVE EXPERIENCED REGARDLESS OF AMAZON. REPORTER: AMAZON JUST ISSUED A RELEASE SHOWING WHAT IT HAS DONE FOR SEATTLE OVER 25-YEAR HISTORY. $4.5 BILLION IN CAPITAL INVESTMENT. IT HAS PAID OUT TO EMPLOYEES $32 BILLION IN WAGES WHICH OF COURSE IS SPENT LOCALLY. NOW THE COMPANY IS LOOKING ACROSS LAKE WASHINGTON TO BELLVIEW. IT ANNOUNCED PLANS FOR A 43 STORY STORY NEXT TO TWIN 15-STORY TOWERS. IT HAS FIVE OTHER SITES UNDER DEVELOPMENT.>>CITY STAFF MET WITH AMAZON. WE WANT TO MAKE SURE THAT THEY FEEL WELCOME IN BELLEVUE. REPORTER: CLEARLY AMAZON DOES FEEL WELCOME OVER IN BELLEVUE. IN FACT BELLEVUE IS GETTING SEVERAL THOUSAND JOBS FROM SEATTLE BECAUSE THEY’RE MOVING, THE COMPANY IS MOVING THE WORLDWIDE HEADQUARTERS TEAM, THEIR OPERATIONS TEAM FROM THE HEADQUARTERS OVER TO BELLEVUE WHEN SOME OF THE OFFICE SPACE COMES ONLINE. THEY FEEL COMFORTABLE IN BELLEVUE. THEY ARE INCREASINGLY FEELING UNCOMFORTABLE IN SEATTLE. MELISSA: THANK YOU, DAN. LET’S BRING ADAM AND DANIELLE BACK. ADAM, I LEARNED LEARNED IN THE F ADAM, I LEARNED LEARNED IN THE R ADAM, I LEARNED LEARNED IN THE T ECONOMIC CLASS YOU TAX THINGS YOU WISH TO DISCOURAGE OR DISCOURAGE THINGS WHEN YOU TAX. A HEADCOUNT, TAX EMPLOYEES, TAX BUSINESSES FOR HAVING EMPLOYEES, YOU CHASE THOSE VERY THINGS AWAY, DON’T YOU.>>I’VE SPENT A LOT OF TIME IN SEATTLE AND BELLEVUE THIS YEAR ALONE. THE SHORT ANSWER TO THE QUESTION, THE SIN TAX IS NOT ONLY REASON YOU TAX. YOU TAX BECAUSE YOU NEED REVENUE FOR WHATEVER REASON. THOSE ARE GOOD REASONS. AMAZON HAS MADE A HUGE INVESTMENT IN REAL ESTATE IN SEATTLE. I WOULD GUESS THE REASON THEY’RE GOING ALL THESE OTHER PLACES HAS MORE TO DO WITH A LACK OF AVAILABLE OPPORTUNITIES IN SEATTLE PROPER THAN IT DOES ANY REACTION TO THE SEATTLE CITY COUNCIL. $12 MILLION, BY THE WAY, AMAZON HICCUPS $12 MILLION ON AN HOURLY BASIS. MELISSA: THAT IS THE ASSUMPTION. THAT’S THE ASSUMPTION, DANIELLE. SO LITTLE MONEY THEY WON’T EVEN NOTICE. THAT IS HOW WITH THE DEATH BY 1000 CUTS YOU CHASE PEOPLE OUT. WHEN YOU LOOK WHAT HAPPENED IN NEW YORK, YOU KNOW THEY CHASED PEOPLE OUT TO CONNECTICUT AND KNEW JER. BUT NOW, LO AND BEHOLD, TAXES THERE ARE HORRIBLE TOO. I WONDER, ONE OF THESE BIG CITIES DID AN ABOUT-FACE? WHAT IF NEW YORK SLASHED IT IS INVESTMENT TAX, REAL ESTATE TAX, INCOME TAX, AND GOT BUSINESSES BACK? WHAT IF BIG CITIES STARTED DOING THE REVERSE, WOULDN’T THAT BE INTERESTING?>>IT CERTAINLY WOULD. LISTEN, I LIVE IN TEXAS. OBVIOUSLY AUSTIN IS A HUGE BENEFICIARY. IF YOU FLY INTO DFW, I CAN’T TELL YOU FLYING OVER I CAN’T TELL YOU HOW MANY AMAZON WAREHOUSES. IF YOU MAKE YOUR CITY, YOUR STATE, BUSINESS-FRIENDLY STATE, YOU BRING MORE JOBS, MORE ECONOMIC OPPORTUNITY TO YOUR AREA. I’M SURPRISED SEATTLE PUSHED THE ENVELOPE TO THE EXTENT THEY DID. SOMETIMES JEFF BEZOS IS ITALIAN AND HE REALLY HOLDS A GRUDGE. AFTER THE EXPERIENCE IN NEW YORK, I WOULD HAVE BACKED OFF AND ROLLED THE RED CARPET BACK OUT. IF YOU THROW ABSOLUTE NUMBERS AMAZON IS CONTRIBUTING TO THE SEATTLE ECONOMY, THINK OF INDIRECT EFFECTS IT HAD ON THE OTHER JOBS CREATED AS A RESULT,

Attendant Pro for Skype for Business Training: Contact Details Panel (Related Contacts)


In this recording we’re going to take a
look at contact the contact detail panel, which gives you additional
information about any contact that is clicked. It is similar to the Outlook
Skype for Business contact card but with the additional benefit
that it can be used to transfer calls. So if your call you click transfer then
you can click to the voicemail of this contact or the related contacts over
here, which includes the Assistant the Microsoft Exchange Assistant along with
the other organizational people. It allows you to enter a note about this
contact, if you have Exchange Web Services enabled, and it gives you one-click access to a greater number of functionality than most of the
contacts have room for by default. So for example you can send an e-mail or you
can send an email call back reminder or you can open the calendar about this
user and of course see the department title and other information. It also will give you a visual look
quick look at the current and next Outlook appointments which you can
double-click on and open the actual Outlook calendar for this user from here.
Also there is a section of related contacts. We already noted that the
Microsoft Exchange Assistant is available here and if you don’t want to
see one of these organizational people you can always minimize it or collapse
it. Sometimes people want to see the manager of managers you can close that but any of you close
or open. Once again the related contacts can be transferred to just like
a contact up here. So for example if you’re in a call you want to transfer to
the assistant of Japheth Nolt or to his even voicemail a single click right
there will do that. All related contacts can
be used to transfer and act on calls, just like contacts. So for example i can
right click, and do a transfer, open so let’s say I can send an IM
even if the button isn’t on the contact card. I can pop out the contact
details. So for Jessica if I work with her a lot transfer calls to her, I can pop her out
along with as many as I want, can better use my multiple monitors and just place
her on there and if I want to transfer to her assistant or her manager very easy
to do. The contact details for one more you can open and pop them out and use
your extra monitors more efficiently and contact details can also be turned off
just by going either into the options or right up here on the main screen and
turn it off. Most people like it on because it gives
a nice insight into that contact by doing nothing by clicking on the
contacts. All right, Attendant Pro contact details. Thank you.

2020 Dems pushing socialism are ‘dangerous to the economy’: Nathan Latka


RICH WITH THEIR FAR LEFT POLICIES. COME IN MILLENNIAL CAPITALIST AUTHOR OF HOW TO BE A CAPITALIST WITHOUT ANY CAPITAL. I’M SURE THIS ONE HAS GOT YOUR G ALL.>> IT GETS ME GOING, DAVID THESE FOLKS THEY PUT UP THESE SOCIAL POLICIES AND YOU GO THESE GUYS NEVER CREATED A JOB IN THEIR LIFE. DO THEY UNDERSTAND WHAT IT MEANS TO RUN AND BUILD A BUSINESS? DAVID: THE BOTTOM LINE IS THEY WANT THEIR MONEY AND NOW THAT THEY’VE GOT THEIR MONEY, THEY DON’T WANT ANYBODY ELSE TO GET THERE’S.>> WELL THEY ARE FREAKING OUTGOING OH, MY GOSH THIS THINGWORX. I’M GETTING WEALTHY. I BETTER HIDE THIS STUFF BUT THE FACT IS THAT CAPITALISM WORKS IF YOU DO IT THE RIGHT WAY AND YOU AND I BOTH KNOW TODAY WE DON’T HAVE A TRUE CAPITALIST SOCIETY, BUT TRUMP IS TAKING CARE OF THAT KNOCKING THIS STUFF DOWN, HE’S MAKING IT BETTER WE NEED CAPITAL ISM AND THESE FOLKS ARE DANGEROUS TO THE ECONOMY WHEN YOU TALK ABOUT THE SOCIAL POLICIES THEY ARE PUTTING FORWARD AND HOW YOU PAY FOR IT. DAVID: THE BOTTOM LINE IS THERE S A PENDULUM HERE. YOU’LL NEVER HAVE PURE CAPITAL ISM, YOU’LL NEVER HAVE PURE, EVEN IN THE SOVIET UNION YOU HAD SOME BLACK MARKET CAPITALIST ACTIVITIES, BUT WE, WHEN WE SWITCH FROM GOING TOWARDS GOVERNMENT, TOWARDS SOCIALISM, IN THE PREVIOUS ADMINISTRATION, BACK TOWARDS CAPITALISM, THE ECONOMY BOOMS. I MEAN, IT’S PRETTY CLEAR, DO YOU THINK AMERICANS GET IT NOW?>> I THINK AMERICANS UNDERSTAND IT, BECAUSE THEY LOOK AT THEIR STOCKS THEY LOOK AT THEIR SAVINGS, THINGS ARE GOING UP, RIGHT? WHEREAS A COUNTRY WE’RE GETTING RICHER AND GETTING MORE LEVERAGE BACK AND THESE THINGS ARE IMPORTANT AND I THINK TRUMP AND THE CURRENT ADMINISTRATION HAVE DONE A GREAT JOB OF MAKING SURE THE AVERAGE AMERICAN IN THE COUNTRY ACTUALLY SEALS THAT SO I THINK IT’S WORKING. DAVID: HE ALSO DID A GOOD JOB OF LINKING A LOT OF THESE SOCIALISTIC POLICIES AND CALLING THEM OUT, BY NAME, AS SOCIALISTIC POLICIES, BERNIE SANDERS OF COURSE CALLS HIMSELF A SOCIALISTIC. ELIZABETH WARREN THOUGH IS I THINK A LITTLE BIT SMARTER THAN BERNIE IN TERMS OF HER POLITICAL SAVVY. SHE CALLS HERSELF A CAPITALIST BUT BASICALLY HAS THE SAME SOCIALISTIC PROGRAM. DO YOU THINK AMERICANS ARE GOING TO UNDERSTAND THAT AND SEE THE ABSOLUTE CONTRADICTION?>> I THINK SO. PRIVATELY SHE CALLED HERSELF A SOCIALISTIC BUT ANY TIME THERE’S A CAMERA ON AND I’M THE CAPITALIST LIZ WARREN WHO MADE MILLIONS OF DOLLARS IN THE CAPITALIST SYSTEM BUT I THINK THE THING THAT STRIKES ME ABOUT ALL THESE FOLKS IS THEY ASSUME FOLKS OF MY GENERATION, 29- YEAR-OLDS THEY NEED THESE HAND-OUTS LIKE PEOPLE DON’T ACTUALLY WANT FREE COLLEGE EDUCATION. THEY WANT TO WORK FOR THINGS AND FEEL LIKE THEY’VE ACHIEVED SOMETHING AND GET THAT BUT WHAT THEY ARE DOING IS TRYING TO BUY VOTES WITH THESE POLICIES. DAVID: BUT THERE IS THE EDUCATION TO USE THE WORD VERY LOOSELY, ELEMENT GOING IN HERE, THAT IS YOUNG PEOPLE AND YOUR VIRGINIA TECH. YOU DID NOT GRADUATE THOUGH AND A LOT OF PEOPLE TOOK YOUR ADVICE AND DIDN’T GRADUATE FROM SOME VERY PRESTIGIOUS SCHOOLS BECAUSE THEY WERE BEING FED WITH THE HISTORY OF SOCIALISM WHICH THEY WEREN’T BEING TOLD THE TRUTH ABOUT VERSUS THE HISTORY OF CAPITALISM.>> CORRECT COLLEGES ARE IN THE DEBT BUSINESS WHICH IS WHY WE HAVE THE CRISIS WE HAVE TODAY. THEY’RE NOT IN THE EQUITY BUSINESS. IF THEY INVESTED IN THE EQUITY OF THEIR STUDENTS THEY WOULD PUT VALUE BEHIND THE DEGREES THEY ARE GIVING BUT THEY ARE DELIVERING DEGREES THAT DON’T HAVE VALUE IN TODAYS MARKETPLACE , I SAID I GOT TO DROPOUT LAUNCH MY OWN COMPANY AND NOW I COME ON YOUR SHOW AND THE BOOK IS ON THE BEST SELLER LIST SO YOU ARE HIT-MAKERS. DAVID: WE WANT YOU TO BE RICH, WE THINK IT’S GOOD TO BE RICH. PEOPLE COME HERE BY THE MILLIONS BECAUSE THEY WANT TO BE RICH AND THESE PEOPLE CONDEMN BEING RICH,

It’s very clear at this point that Trump likes tariffs: Jon Hilsenrath


>>REPORTER: .>>REPORTER: YES, EXACTLY. MARIA: JOINING US NOW, JOHN HILSENRATH. GOOD MORNING TO YOU. WHAT STRUCK AS FAR AS THE DEBATES LAST NIGHT OR HEADLINES COMING OUT OF OSAKA, WHAT’S STRIKING YOU THIS MORNING?>>I’M FOCUSED ON THE TALKS BETWEEN PRESIDENT TRUMP AND PRESIDENT XI OF CHINA. THERE’S A LOT AT STAKE. I THINK IT’S CLEAR AT THIS POINT THAT THE IDEA OF A BIG BREAKTHROUGH, A DEAL HAPPENING RIGHT NOW IS PRETTY LOW. IT’S STRIKING TO ME THAT GOING INTO THE MEETING, THE CHINESE ARE BASICALLY RAISING THEIR DEMANDS BY PUTTING HUAWEI ON THE TABLE AND SAYING THAT WE HAVE TO REMOVE OUR EXPORT BANS ON HUAWEI FOR THEM TO DO A DEAL. SO THEY’RE BASICALLY INCREASING THEIR DEMANDS GOING INTO THIS CONVERSATION. I THINK THE BEST THAT WE CAN EXPECT FOR THE TWO SIDES IS TO AGREE TO START TALKING AGAIN. THEY STOPPED TALKING IN APRIL WHEN THE U.S. FELT THAT THE CHINESE BALKED AT WHAT THEY AGREED ON. MAYBE THEY START TALKING AGAIN. MAYBE THEY SET A DEADLINE TO REACH A DEAL LATER IN THE YEAR. MARIA: THE PRESIDENT, WHEN HE JOINED ME EARLIER THIS WEEK, WAS NOT BACKING DOWN AT ALL. WHEN I SAID LOOK, DO YOU HAVE A PLAN B IF PLAN A DOESN’T WORK OUT IN TERMS OF A DEAL WITH CHINA. HE SAID YEAH, PLAN B IS PLAN A AND THAT IS TARIFFS. AND HE SAID BY THE WAY, IT DOESN’T HAVE TO BE 25%. HE THREW IN LET’S DO 10%. SO HE’S ALREADY THINKING ABOUT HOW HE’S GOING TO APPROACH THIS 32 $325 BILLION IN REMAINING GOODS COMING IN FROM CHINA AND SAYING LOOK, I NO PROBLEM WITH 10%.>>I THINK IT’S CLEAR AT THIS POINT THAT THIS PRESIDENT LIKES TARIFFS. HE THINKS IT HITS BACK AT AMERICA’S TRADE COMPETITORS. AND HE SEES IT AS A SOURCE OF REVENUE FOR THE U.S. GOVERNMENT. HE SAYS ALL THE TIME, THIS IS BRINGING IN TENS OF BILLIONS, HUNDREDS OF BILLIONS OF DOLLARS INTO THE U.S. TREASURY. I THINK THAT HIS POINT OF VIEW IS THAT HIS FALLBACK PLAN IS SOMETHING THAT HE LIKES, WHICH IS INCREASING TARIFFS. MARIA: I KNOW YOU DON’T LOVE THIS, DAGEN, BUT YOU KNOW, BOTTOM LINE IS THE PRESIDENT OF CHINA COMES IN LAST NIGHT WITH ALL OF THESE DEMANDS, LIFT THE BAN ON HUAWEI, TAKE AWAY PUNITIVE TARIFFS. I DIDN’T THINK THAT WAS GOING TO GO WELL WITH PRESIDENT TRUMP. DAGEN: THEY’RE USING HIS NEGOTIATING TACTICS. YOU TAKE THE HARDEST POSITION POSSIBLE. I SAID THIS YESTERDAY, IT SEEMS LIKE CHINA IS SAYING TO THE U.S., THIS IS SQUARE ONE. WE’RE STARTING ALL OVER AGAIN. JOHN, TO YOUR POINT, THE PRESIDENT LOVES TO BRAG ABOUT THE MONEY COMING INTO THE U.S. TREASURY. LET’S SAY WHAT THIS IS. IT’S A CONSUMPTION TAX OR VALUE-ADDED TAX THAT FALLS ON AMERICAN COMPANIES OR IMPORTERS HERE AND ON CONSUMERS. AFTER WATCHING THE DEBATE LAST NIGHT, THAT’S SOMETHING YOU WOULD EXPECT OUT OF THE MOUTHS OF A DEMOCRAT.>>IT’S INTERESTING, WATCHING THESE DEBATES AND LISTENING TO THIS TALK ABOUT — THE PRESIDENT TALKING ABOUT TRADE. THERE ISN’T A TOTALLY FREE MARKET CANDIDATE IN THIS 2020 ELECTION. AT LEAST WHEN YOU’RE LOOKING AT TRADE, THIS PRESIDENT IS NOT A FREE MARKET GUY. HE BODIES A AGREE WITH — HE WOULDDISAGREE WITH YOU ON THE QUESTION OF WHO WOULD GET TAXED WHEN TARIFFS ARE IMPOSED. HE WOULD SAY TARIFFS ARE HITTING THE CHINESE, THERE’S A LOT OF DISAGREEMENT ABOUT THAT AMONG ECONOMISTS. I THINK WHAT HAPPENS REALLY IS WHEN WE PUT TARIFFS ON, IT FEEDS LIEU THROUGH A ACROSS THE SUPPLY CHAIN. SOME OF IT MIGHT HIT CHINESE PRODUCERS. SOME OF IT DOES FEED INTO U.S. CONSUMERS. MARIA: I’VE GOT TO PUSH BACK ON THAT, TO SAY THAT THE PRESIDENT IS NOT A FREE MARKET GUY, YES, TARIFFS OR NO TARIFFS, HE HAS BEEN SHOWING REAL FREE MARKET POLICIES AND HE WANTS TO SEE COMPETITION AS WELL AS LOWER TAXES MOVE THROUGH THIS ECONOMY. SO, YES, YOU’RE RIGHT, HE LIKES TARIFFS BUT TO SAY HE’S NOT A FREE MARKET, I’VE GOT TO PUSH BACK ON THAT.>>ON TRADE, I DON’T THINK — ON TRADE, I DON’T SEE HOW YOU COULD ARGUE THAT, BECAUSE WE HAVE TAKEN A VERY AGGRESSIVE STANCE ON PUTTING UP BARRIERS FOR TRADE. DAGEN: THE PRESIDENT — HE’S ANXIOUS TO GO AFTER EUROPE NEXT. HE SAYS EUROPE IS WORSE THAN CHINA.>>I THINK WE’RE MISSING THE POINT. WHY DOES HE USE TARIFFS? IT’S THE ONLY TOOL HE HAS TO STOP THE UNFAIR TRADING PRACTICES. DAGEN: THAT’S NOT NECESSARILY TRUE. WE COULD ARGUE FOR DAYS AND WEEKS AND MONTHS AND YEARS ABOUT THAT, GOVERNOR.>>I THINK HE’S A FREE TRADER. I THINK HE BELIEVES THAT AMERICA HAS BEEN GETTING THE SHORTENED OF THE STICK AND HE’S GOING TO USE THE STICK AGAINST THE PEOPLE WHO CHEATED AND ROBBED US AND MADE IT HARD FOR US AND THEY’VE DONE NOTHING IN TERMS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS BUT WE’RE HAVING TO PAY THE PRICE. MARIA: WITH CHINA, HE COULD HAVE DONE SOMETHING TO ZTE AND MAYBE HUAWEI SOONER. DAGEN: YOU RAISED THIS ISSUE WITH HIM, YOU COULD HAVE STAYED IN THE TPP, COULD HAVE LOCKED ARMS WITH ALL OF YOUR OTHER ALLIES. MARIA: IT WOULD HAVE BEEN A DISASTER, HE SAID. DAGEN: EVEN SOME REPUBLICANS SAY IT WOULDN’T HAVE BEEN A DISASTER AND WOULD HAVE HELPED US TAKE ON CHINA WITH THE REST OF ASIA. IT WAS DESIGNED TO TAKE THE POWER AWAY FROM CHINA. JOHN, THE PRESIDENT, IF HE WANTS TO GET REELECTED NEXT YEAR, HE’S COUNTING ON A STRONG ECONOMY AND RIGHT NOW BASED ON A LOT OF MEASURES IT IS STILL INCREDIBLY L HEALTHY. BUT HE SEEMS TO BE COUNTING ON THE FEDERAL RESERVE TO, LIKE, STEP INTO THE FRAY AND HELP THE ECONOMY OUT WITH MONETARY STIMULUS AS HE FIGHTS THESE TRADE BATTLES.

What is Dropbox Business?


Work shouldn’t take a lot of work to get to. After all there’s no PhD in
retrieving the latest file or feedback from someone on your team and I’m
mastering the art of permissions management this weekend said no one ever. That’s why we created Dropbox Business, your team’s home for everything they
need to collaborate and stay focused. Since they probably already use Dropbox
it’ll be familiar and easy. They might even thank you for it. Everyone can
access what they need in the team space where shared files don’t take up room on
hard drives until you download what you need using Smart Sync. Nice! With file
preview your team can preview nearly any type of shared file so everyone can make
comments or annotations right on the work.
Goodbye printing out, marking up, and losing changes. And it’s always easy to
manage your team’s data. You can control who can see or edit what and share
entire projects with anyone or unshare them with a click so all the work stays
safe and secure. Planners get to plan, doers get to do,
teams get to focus on what matters and the work just flows

Why Business Is A Game of Margins, Not Volume – How To Sell High-Ticket Products & Services Ep. 1


(triumphant music) I don’t know if you can hear, but I’m actually quite sick. That’s why my voice is
not as optimal as usual. But, (audience laughter) I’m not going to let that
affect my performance. Okay, ’cause I’m here to deliver. Okay, so get ready to take notes. How to sell high ticket
products and services? How to sell high ticket
products and services? Questions number one, what would you consider
as high ticket for you? Just yell out the number. (audience speaking) – [Woman] Ten grand.
– Ten grand? – [Man] 100 grand.
– 100 grand! Okay. – [Second Man] 10, 20.
– 10 grand. Okay. – [Third Man] 5, 10.
– 5, 10? – [Fourth Man] 20k.
– 20 K, okay. – [Fifth Man] Ten thousand.
– Ten thousand. Ten thousand. – [Second Woman] Half a million – Half a million, yes. So, we’re talking anything
from, from anything, so depends on your comfort level, some people might say, “Oh, it’s three thousand, or
five thousand, or 10 thousand”. So, what I’m going to share with you today applies from as little
as three thousand dollars to as much as, it can be
half a million dollars, even a million dollar contract. A lot of the strategies and
the tactics that would apply, have sold everything in between as a $2,000 thing, $5,000 thing, $10,000 thing. Last year, my business
partner, we sold a contract to a pharmaceutical
company for $800,000 U.S. One sale. $800,000 U.S. So, it’s the same. What I’m sharing with you, it’s the same. It’s the same psychology,
the same ideas would apply. So don’t feel like, “Oh, Dan what you’re saying
may not exactly apply to me”, it’s the same, okay? So, let me go through the seven reasons why you want to sell high prize
products and services that you might not aware of,
you might not aware of. First reason, reason number one is, more profits and less what? Hassle, less hassle. When you sell a high ticket item, you make more, higher profit margins. Everybody knows that,
but here’s the thing. Within your marketplace,
most of your competitors, my guess is, they’re not comfortable, selling at a high price. Or they don’t know, how
to sell at a high price. So, very few companies, notice, yes, “Dan, there are companies that do well, selling, low margin
products, such as Walmart.” Right? It’s Walmart. But you notice, if you look at history, before
Walmart, there was Kmart. Where’s Kmart? – [Crowd] Gone. – Gone. Before that, there
was Sears? Where’s Sears? – [Crowd] Gone.
– Gone. – [Man] Almost gone. – Almost gone, barely breathing. So, what happens is, when you are selling at a low price, when you’re in the commodity business, when you’re selling to the general public, the problem with low price is this, it’s not a sustainable
advantage, in business. Write this down. Competing on price, is not a sustainable
advantage in business. Because, it’s very, very
easy, for someone incoming, to your space, and say,
“I’ll charge you less. “You charge x, I’ll charge y.” So, your advantage of “Oh, we
guarantee the lowest price,” some morons, could come in and say, “We’ll sell 20% less than you.” Your advantage, it’s gone instantly. Okay, and they could maybe. How the hell do they do that? I mean I’m barely making a profit. Well, a lot of companies, they
go into marketplace knowing, they’re basically using
their capital, and say, “I’m gonna grab market share, “I’m gonna acquire these
customers at a loss. “Just to put you out of business. “Just to put you out of business.” They might know, “Well, you
probably won’t last six months, “we have enough cash to
last one year, you’re gone.” When you’re gone, then they become the
game in the marketplace, and then they jack up their price again. So, and also customer infrastructure, to serve more clients, at a low price, requires, bigger, more infrastructure, i.e. more customer service,
bigger office, more people, more shipping, handling,
everything, it’s more. So, it requires a more
complex infrastructure. Personally, and this is
my personal preference, I like to keep my business
lean, mean and simple. I’m not a big fan, and I know
people make a lot of money doing that, and that’s kudos to them, just my personal preference,
I like to keep my business, lean, and mean, and simple. If I can hit my goal, my financial goal, with 1,000 customers, versus 10,000 customers,
I prefer 1,000 customers. If I can hit my goal with a 100 customers, I prefer 100 customers,
than 1,000 customers. So, more profits, less hassle. But here’s the cool dollar help, business is a game of margins, not volume. In fact, repeat after me. Business. – [Crowd] Business. – Is a game of? – [Crowd] Margins. – Not Volume.
– [Crowd] Volume. – Some entrepreneurs say, “But Dan, I’ll make it up in volume. “And I’m doing half a million,
my margin is like this. “Oh, if I make three million,
then my margin would go up.” Don’t bet on that. Don’t bet on it. Do not bet on it. So, business is a game
of margins, not volume. I was watching, how
many have seen the show the Profit? If you guys have not seen
the show, watch the show. I don’t watch a lot of TV, but
that’s a great show to watch. It’s like a mix of, Kitchens Nightmare, combined
with Shark Tank, Dragon’s Den kinda, type show. So, the Profit, was watching
one of the episodes, so basically, Marcus, who
is the CEO of Camping World, he goes into these business,
and try to fix them, and help the business owner, he would put in the money, but he’ll also put in the time and effort,
and invest his expertise in turning around the company. One of the episodes I was watching, Marcus, went to this meat packing business. The business, the meat
business, has been around for many, many, many years, I
think if I remember correctly, 75 years, or something like that. They’re doing 50 million
dollars a year in sales. 50 million. Is that a little bit of money,
or is that lot of money? – [Crowd] Lot of money. – Right, 50 million sales, 400
grand in losses every year. “You might think, “How the
hell could a company do “50 million dollars a year in business, “and yet, lose 400 grand.” And also, they’re four
million dollars in debt. In debt. In loans, and everything else. And when Marcus looks, he
looks in that guy’s business, he has 30k, 30k, 30 grand, cash in the bank. To say that the business is in trouble, is an understatement, okay. So, if you think, “Wow, 50
million dollars in sales.” So, because business is
game of margins, not volume, it doesn’t mean anything. This business, is so close,
when Marcus looks at number, they’re weeks, weeks away from bankrupt. Weeks away. 75 years of history,
weeks away from bankrupt, so think about that. So guys. (crowd laughs) Do not believe what the ladies tell you, because size matters. Size matters, okay. I’m talking about transaction size, some of you are thinking
about something else. Transaction size matters, it does matter. So, let’s take a million
dollars as an example. So, to make a million bucks, you have a few ways you could do, let’s say, if you sell
a $25 dollar product, you get 40 thousand customers,
you make a million dollars. Yes.
– [Crowd] Yes. – Or you sell $50 product, you sell to 20,000 customers, you make a million dollars, okay. Or $100 products, 10,000
customers, a million dollars. Or, $1,000 product, 1,000
customers, a million dollars, or $10,000 product, only a 100
customers, a million dollars. Now, you might be thinking, “But Dan a $100 “versus $10,000, “does that mean, it takes
a hundred times for effort, “to make a $10,000 sale,
versus a $100 dollar sale.” What do you think? – [Woman] No. – No. No. Because, think of in terms
of to sell that $100 product, do you say you have to do marketing? There’s due cost involved. And to get that $10,000 customers, nowadays, costs money. I don’t care what you
sell. It costs money, to acquire the customers. $10,000 on the other hand. Well, I only get a 100
customers, to get to a million. And what if I don’t get a 100
customers, I get 80 customers, it’s still 800 grand.
Does that make sense? So, look at this numbers,
and look at them, from your business. Look at your business, where you’re at. “Huh, yeah man, I’m selling a $50 thing, “shit, I need 20 customers,
to make a million sales.” Revenue, not profit,
just to hit a million. Or if I wanna sell something, “What if I can increase the price, “if I can sell at a premium price, “how would that affect my business?” So let that thing sink in a little bit. – [Announcer] 10 times your finances. 10 times your business. 10 times your marketing. 10 times you life. Hit the subscribe button now.

Teaching a STUDENT How to Start a Business with $100!


– In this video, I’m gonna
teach my friend, Sam here, who is a broke college student how to start an online business
with just $100, stay tuned. What is up, guys? If you’re brand new to the
channel, my name is Odi. I go by ODi Productions. I just broke 36,000 subscribers. I am an entrepreneur and
I make business videos, I do little vlogs and
also tutorials, tips, and just basically
documenting my business, and also helping others and
young aspiring entrepreneurs with starting their businesses. And in this video I am teaching
a broke college student, my friend Sam, how to start
a business with just $100. Yeah, that’s one Benjamin Franklin. But let me give you guys
a little bit about me before we get into the video. Two years ago I dropped out
of UCLA with a three, five GPA in my senior year in order
to pursue entrepreneurship and online business. And just two years later I’m
basically living my dream life. I live here in my apartment
in downtown Chicago, if you guys wanna check it out, it is such a gorgeous,
gorgeous day today in downtown. You can guys can see it’s the
Chicago River right there. But it is a nice day. This is my apartment as
you guys can see here. It’s a really messy so
please don’t mind that. I was able to move in
here about a year ago from San Diego, California. As you guys can see I
got this little art work, that’s a little throwback to my hometown. Basically, I went all
in on entrepreneurship and everything seemed to work out. So my goal in this video
and with my channel is to inspire other young entrepreneurs or people who are just
wanting more from their life and help them get from A to B. So that’s basically what I’m here for. But now what we need to do
is we need to go pick up Sam. We’re gonna go hop in the car,
which is a Porsche 911 Turbo. We’re gonna go pick up Sam right now, and then we’re gonna introduce her and then we’re gonna figure out how to get this business started for just $100. Let’s go. Alright, I’m here in the parking garage, that’s to hop in the whip. There she is. (engine revving) Alright guys, so we are here
in my Porsche 911 Turbo. For anyone who is new to the channel you haven’t seen my car
before, yeah, this is it. It’s a custom 911 Turbo. I did a vehicle wrap, it’s got exhaust, it’s got new HRE wheels on
them, wrapped in some Michelin, pallet super sports. But basically that’s
just car talk for anyone who is into cars. Yeah, picked up this turbo a few months ago in San Francisco. Picked it up off the showroom floor. I actually have a video on my channel if anyone wants to see that. But basically I was able
to modify it, customize it all the way to my liking, and now it is just much perfect,
the way she sits right now. But we are driving over
to go pick up Samantha. Gonna pick her up, gonna get some lunch and then we’re gonna head
back here to my apartment, so that we can start this
business with just $100. Alright guys, stay tuned. Hi Sam.
– Hi. – Alright, you ready to do this? – Yeah. – Alright, let’s go, hop in. Alright, so we are here on the
sky lounge of my apartment. We’re gonna get to know
Sam a little bit better, and I’m gonna explain to her
the different business models and the business model
which we’re going to try to replicate today. Alright, so your name is Sam.
– Yes. You are in college, correct? – Yeah, I’m a junior. – You’re a junior, so you’re
a third year in college. Where do you study? – Loyola University of Chicago. – Okay, cool, and what’s your major? – Right now, I’m business undeclared. – Business, alright, perfect. We’re creating a business today. She studies business, so it all works out. So let the people know,
do you have any experience with online business at all? – No, none. – You’ve never done Amazon FBA
– No. you’ve never done
dropshipping with Shopify, affiliate marketing?
– No. Perfect, alright, so we
are literally talking to a day one beginner who
has no previous experience with online business, no
skills in terms of like you’ve never made a website before? – No. – Okay, perfect. Alright, this is absolutely perfect. So this is just to show you guys that even if you don’t have any
skills you can follow along with this video and we can
really start creating a business for just $100 today. So I’m going to explain
to Sam the business model which we are going to go
after today with the business that we’re gonna start. So this business model is
called affiliate marketing. So Sam, have you ever heard
about affiliate marketing? – No. – Alright, so you know nothing
about affiliate marketing. Well, luckily I’m the affiliate
marketing expert, and mentor so I can teach you what
affiliate marketing is right now. So basically the way that
affiliate marketing works is it’s just referrals. So with a lot of companies such as Amazon, they have their own affiliate program called Amazon Associates,
which is the largest affiliate program on the planet. If you’ve watched any YouTube
videos or tech reviews where they have Amazon
links in the description, usually those are Amazon Associates links. And what happens is every
time you click those links, if you order anything within 24 hours, the person whose link you clicked actually receives a percentage
of the products price as their commission. And the commission varies
based on product categories, which we’ll look into once
we get on the computer. But basically we are going to create an affiliate marketing
business and we are going to refer products on Amazon
in order to get clicks and ultimately get a commission. So the reason why we’re going
with affiliate marketing is because of some really big benefits, especially for beginners
and broke college students who don’t have a lot of
investment to put up front, but instead are looking for
something that’s a little bit more low risk, but the same time has a really high earning potential which I’ll explain to
you later in this video. But one of the biggest
benefits of affiliate marketing is you don’t actually have
your own products or services, you’re only referring
people through links. So it’s all digital and it
doesn’t cost you anything to promote these products,
because you don’t actually have to own or have the products in hand, unlike Amazon FBA or
dropshipping where you actually have to pay for the products. With affiliate marketing
you’re simply referring people to the advertiser, and if
they order those products through the company, then
you get that commission, completely 100% passive income. So really like what you
need to do is create like a content, like a piece of content like a video, or a blog post or a review and you put your affiliate
links in that piece of content. And if anyone clicks and
purchases through that, then you will receive
commission basically for months if not years to come. So that sounds pretty good, right? Passive income, low risk. I mean, what’s not to love
about affiliate marketing? Alright guys, so we’re
about to begin working on our business. Now the first step of creating
any affiliate marketing business is to choose a niche or industry. So right now I’m gonna ask
Sam a series of questions to see if we can figure
out the right niche for her so that we can pursue this business, and that not only will it be profitable, but it’ll also be fun for her. So let’s start with the first question. Sam, what are some of your passions? What are you passionate about in life? (Sam laughs) Sorry I put you on the spot here, but … – Is it weird if I say dogs? – No, wait, that’s really good. First of all, we could do
a whole website on that. I mean who doesn’t love dogs, right? Let’s see, dogs, you got any other ones? – Music. – Music, okay, music is good. Music too as well. Dogs is probably a little
better for affiliate marketing but let’s, you got any more? – Um, nice makeup. – Makeup, so makeup is
actually a really big market and honestly, makeup is pretty favorable because they have high
commission rates on Amazon which I’ll show you when
we get into the computer. Now I’ve looked at makeup before, not for me personally. But like, I’ve look at the industry and it’s a booming industry. I mean there are people who make millions just off of YouTube makeup tutorials. And the thing is, I personally, obviously I can’t get into it ’cause I personally don’t wear makeup. But perfect for you,
you’re passionate about it and this is something
which you can pursue, that this is something that we should definitely capitalize on. So guys choosing a niche
that you’re passionate about is really important. Now there’s two schools
of thought on this. Some people say forget your passion, choose something that makes money. But honestly, when you’re
just getting started, let’s say this is your first business. And you don’t have a
lot of money to invest and also like, you don’t
really have all the skills yet, it’s important to choose
something you’re passionate about to begin with, because
you can gain those skills and stay dedicated and keep working on it instead of getting bored. And then once you have
those skills you can move on to more profitable niches in the future. But lucky for Sam here, makeup is actually a really profitable niche to begin with. So we could hit a home
run on this first try, so yeah, that’s pretty good. Alright, this second part
we are about to actually start creating the business,
creating the brand. So we’re gonna hop back into my apartment and get on the computer
so we can show you guys step-by-step, click by
click, how we get this done. Alright, so we hopped
back in my apartment. We are about to hop on
the computer right there. I am gonna let Sam actually
take the driver’s seat and she’s actually going to do
all this while I direct her. I’m gonna basically be over her shoulder, so just take a seat Sam. There we go, perfect. So as you guys can see
she is on the computer, we’ve got the WebCam going too, so we can get a few different angles. I’m gonna set this camera down right here, and then you guys can see this. Alright Sam, so the first
step that we’re gonna do is we need to come up with a website name. And your website name,
this is called a domain. And what we’re gonna do
with that website name is create a website known
as an authority website. So it’s a niche authority website, I’ve created some of them. My first niche authority
website is actually right here, it is recordingnow.com, so maybe if you go to recordingnow.com real quick so we can show the people an example of what a niche authority website is and what we’re trying to
do with Sam’s brand here. So as you guys can see, lemme
just take over real quick. This is my first affiliate website. It’s basically a niche authority website in home recording niche. As you guys can see here,
I do reviews of headphones and if you guys have
seen my YouTube channel, I have a lot of headphone reviews. Some of them have 100,000,
200,000, over 300,000 views. So if I just look at
one of them right now, let’s just go with the M50X which is a very popular headphone. As you guys can see here,
you got my video review right here at the top and
then you got the review as well as the YouTube review, including this Amazon link
which I discussed earlier. So basically this is
what we’re trying to do except we’re gonna try
and do the same thing but with makeup. So with your website
we’re gonna create a brand because brands are very powerful, and honestly some of the most
successful affiliate websites are brands/personal blogs. We’re gonna make it official. We’re gonna actually make
it look like a real company despite you just being a broke
college student or whatever. Once we get that brand
name, we get a logo done, create a full legit website, then it can be very powerful. So let’s start by doing that. Let’s start by coming up with
a name, just brainstorming. One important thing that I
like to do when coming up with a brand, is also looking up to see if the website domain is available, because that’s really
important for SEO purposes which is search engine optimization. It’s important to come
up with a good brand name and to get that .com because
it will help you rank up higher and just have more credibility online. So the first step that
we’re gonna do when creating this website and also
coming up with a name is I want you to go to bluehost.com. Bluehost is the number one
WordPress recommended web host and on Bluehost basically
you can look up domains. So you can purchase website
names but you can also purchase something called web hosting. Now web hosting is what allows people to have websites online. And web hosting is like
actually really inexpensive. It only starts at around I
think $2.95 to $4.95 per month. And basically through web hosting is where we get to host our website. So at the price of just 4.95 per month, that’s less than five bucks a month. We went to Starbucks today
where we probably spent like almost close to that. So basically you can have a
website for the price of coffee every single month. So anyways, let’s just go
on to Bluehost right here. We’re gonna look at hosting. We’re just gonna go look at shared hosting and when we get on this page, it allows us to choose a plan. So as you guys can see, it starts at 2.95. If you guys wanna follow along,
the website is going to be in the description where you can actually get exclusive discounts to Bluehost. But we’re actually gonna just
start with the basic plan here ’cause you’re
broke, you’re on budget, you only have $100, right? So let’s start with that 2.95 plan, it’s less than three bucks a month. I mean that’s really nothing in terms of investing in a business. So we’re gonna choose a basic plan. And so I’m gonna let you
choose the basic plan, I’ll let you take control. So we’re gonna choose
basic and here’s where we actually get to come
up with the website name which is the domain. So we’re gonna choose a new domain, and we’re just gonna brainstorm right now and we’re gonna think
different names for Sam’s brand and her website, and then
we’ll see if it’s available. If it is we’ll go ahead
and purchase the domain along with the web hosting. Alright, so we did some brainstorming and we came up with the website/brand name of Samsmakeupreview.com. Very simple but it contains
the words makeup review which is actually really
good for SEO purposes because our goal is to get
as many hits as possible, to get as much traffic as possible. So ranking on the first page
of Google is going to be our end goal with any sort of website, any sort of piece of
content that we create. So let’s just add in the domain name, Sam’s Makeup Review. You can just type in to
the new domain right there. It’s perfect, and then just click next. Alright, so the checkout process, you’re just gonna fill out
your account information. But let’s scroll down here
to the package information because this is where you
actually decide what services you want to add on, or what
services you don’t want including the length of the term. Obviously we only have $100 to work with. So far we haven’t spent any of it, but we don’t want to
blow our entire budget on just buying the web hosting,
’cause there’s a couple of other things we want to buy. But with that said, let’s look
at this package information. You can see at the top
here it says account plan, 36 months for 2.95 month. So the way it works is
if you actually hit this, basically the price goes up
the shorter of a term you do. And unfortunately, to get
that low price of 2.95, you actually have to sign
up for at least three years. But we can’t afford that
because we’ll be over budget, so we’re actually gonna do just 12 months. And as you guys can see,
it’s drops down drastically to just $59.40, and that’s including some of these services right here. Well, that’s in the total. So we just want the hosting,
and I also recommend if you’re gonna choose
one of these services to do the domain privacy protection. So if we take off these extra services and we just do the basic
hosting for 12 months, so basically you’re getting
a whole year of your domain, your web hosting. So you’re getting a website for a year. That’s basically what’s happening here. You’re getting a whole website for a year for about $59.40. I recommended that you add
the domain privacy protection because this basically protects
your who is information so that when you sign up for a domain, and someone looks up that domain, they can’t see your actual
name, address, or whatever because that’s actually required by law to include your contact information when you create a domain. So we’re gonna do the
domain privacy protection ’cause we don’t want people
to see that snooping around. But other than that,
that’s the only service that we really need, other
than the web hosting. So as you can see, our
total comes to $71.28 which is an awesome deal. I mean we’re gonna have a
website for a whole year for about 70 bucks. So that’s perfect, we’re
gonna fill out the rest of this checkout information,
and then we are going to sign up with Bluehost,
log in and start creating that website, alright, let’s go. Alright, so after signing
up with our web hosting, we’re gonna create our website. But before we do any of that, one thing that I absolutely
do with every single one of the affiliate marketing
businesses that I start is I always create a professional logo. Having a logo, it does so
much for brand credibility. When you have a logo,
whether it’s on your website, on your YouTube Channel, or
whatever social media you use, it really tells people and shows people sort of this professional
image and you want to have that at all times, because if we’re
gonna be selling stuff online we want to build credibility and trust. These are like two of the most
important qualities to have when you are selling any
sort of products online, is you want people to trust you. Because they won’t buy from
you if they don’t trust you. And that is the cornerstone of any sort of affiliate marketing
business is you have to be trustworthy or else, if people, if they think you’re scamming them, if they don’t think you’re legit, then they’re not gonna purchase from you. So what we’re gonna do is
I’m actually gonna refer Sam to my logo maker who is on Fiverr. If you guys have never heard of Fiverr, why don’t you, mind visiting
Fiverr on the computer, which is F-I-V-E-R-R.com. Perfect. So this is Fiverr. Fiverr is one of my
favorite websites online, because it’s basically
a freelance marketplace where you can get people
to do graphic design, people to create logos for you, to do stuff like video
editing, audio editing, and all sorts of other
things as you can see on this homepage. And all the services
start at just five bucks, so that’s perfect for us,
broke college students. Not much budget, we’ve already spent $71 on web hosting and a domain for you. A $5 logo sounds pretty
good right about now. So what we’re gonna to
do is we’re going to look for a logo maker. So you can just type
into the search bar logo. There we go, logo design, let’s try that. And then we’ll just see what we got here. Alright, so we looked up logo design and as you guys can see here, if we scroll down, actually
you can see some of these are starting at quite a bit more than $5, but I’m pretty sure
that if we keep looking, we’ll be able to find something a little bit more inexpensive. Okay, 2400, jeez. – There’s a five. – Perfect. Alright, so we actually
found a legit $5 job listing for logo design, so we’re
gonna click this right there. So as you guys can see
here, pretty good reviews. 844 five-star reviews. You can also if you want,
you can actually check out the different logos. So if you wanna click on these. You can actually see some of the logos which they made in the past. And if you guys look at these, I mean they’re pretty legit company logos. So five bucks, I mean
it’s not gonna get much better than this, unless
you are a graphic designer. But neither of us are, so
we’re gonna just hire someone else to do it, we’re gonna
outsource it for five bucks, so that we can create
our logo for our website and our brand. We’re gonna sign up, we’re gonna ask them to create our logo, and
then we’ll get that logo within a day, which we can start putting all of our branded materials
such as our website, whether we create a YouTube
channel or whatever. We’re just gonna place this order. It’s gonna be delivered in three days, little bit longer, but again, five bucks, there is not much to complain about. So after you submit the payment, it’s gonna ask you some
questions about your logo, how do you want it made,
what colors you wanna use. So for me, I prefer to
make badges type logos. Badge type logos are like recording now which I should get right here, just to show you guys one more time. So with this, Sam you can
look at the other side of the headphones while
I show the audience. So this is a badge type logo. So as you guys can see, it has outlines. Basically one of the benefits
of having a badge type logo is you can actually place
this on any sort of website or social media or whatever,
and it doesn’t really, it will always stick out because
it has different contrast between the borders and the outlines. So this a badge right here,
and I personally love it. It also includes some meters right here because it’s recording. They take the freedom
of designing your thing based on your industry. So luckily for us, we
chose beauty and makeup and fashion or whatever. And that will allow to
give it sort of that flair that is (mumbles) the
makeup or beauty brands in the industry. So for you, what kind of
colors are you thinking about to have for your logo and for
your general websites theme that you think would be nice
for you and your audience? – Color red. – Red. – Is that too intense? – It is intense but I mean, let’s do it. Red and white, let’s go
with red and white, yeah. That will be good. Red is lipstick, you know what I mean? – Yeah. So that’s pretty cool,
red and white, perfect. So scroll down. So we will check the box there and we will start order, and voila. Order is started, we will receive that in just three days. So we’ll wait for that and
this is what we’re gonna use for all of our website stuff but yeah. That’s how easy it is to
order a professional logo and it literally costs us a total of $6. So you can’t beat that,
we’re up to a total of about $77 now that we’ve invested. But now we are about to create
a full professional website. We have a professional logo,
we have a custom domain name so we’re really getting
ahead of the game right here. So yeah, let’s move onto the next step which is creating the full website. Alright guys, so we just ordered our logo but we are back on Bluehost. We signed up with Bluehost earlier. So after you guys sign up with Bluehost, you’re gonna be hit with this screen. It’s gonna say welcome to
Bluehost, congratulations. It’s gonna ask you to create
a password so just click that and we’re gonna make a
password for your account so we can start making the website. So just do any password you
want, I’ll let you type that. Alright, so we just signed up for Bluehost and immediately after you
guys complete the sign up and you log in and you create a password, it’s gonna take you to this page which is the Bluehost portal. So one thing that Bluehost started to do that web host did not offer
before is they actually, immediately installed
WordPress onto your web host. So WordPress was actually the platform that we’re gonna use
to create our website. Now before you used to
have to actually manually install it yourself,
doing WordPress install and then having to create some credentials and then plugging those in. But one cool thing is, Bluehost
actually made the process a lot easier, so if you sign up with them, it immediately installs
WordPress like instantly after you sign up. So it’s a lot easier and
one thing that’s really cool is it starts off with you can
actually choose your theme. So let’s scroll through
these and pick a theme that you think would match your brand and makeup, fashion, beauty, whatever. Pick a theme that kind of reflects that or one that you like. You can always change
your theme in the future, so don’t worry about picking
the right theme just yet. Just pick something you like
and you can always customize it and then choose a different
theme if you don’t like it down the line. – That ocean. – Yeah, for sure. Alright, so just click use this theme and as you can see Bluehost is setting WordPress up automatically. We literally signed up minutes ago and we’re already installing
and creating our website. Perfect, alright. So now that Bluehost has
finished setting up WordPress, just click start building and we will hop right into our WordPress dashboard. Alright, awesome, so this is WordPress. This is basically the
platform that we’ll be used to create our website. So one cool thing about
WordPress is that you don’t have to do any coding, and it’s
basically just a bunch of, it’s drag and drop and it’s known as a what you see is what you get editor so you can literally just create websites without having to touch a line of code. One cool thing is
WordPress actually runs 26% of the internet right now. So 26% of the websites
that are being visited are actually run on
the WordPress platform. So these include websites
like (audio distorts), Beyonce’s blog, a bunch of other blogs, the Star War’s blog. I mean like big brands
are using WordPress. And that’s more than you
can say for other simple web editors such as (mumbles)
and none of them boast 26% of the entire internet. So I love WordPress, it’s
got so much functionality for beginners and for advanced
people and businesses alike. But basically we’re in the dashboard so welcome to WordPress. What we’re gonna do is
we’re actually going to, I’m gonna guide you to
this so we don’t have to, you can just click I don’t need help. And so basically, the first
thing that we wanna do is we’ve already chosen our theme but if you do wanna change your theme, you can go to appearance
which is on the left hand side bar right here. You can go to appearance and then themes and yeah, you can click that. And so when you look at themes, you can actually scroll through. Let’s go back up and then
click on WordPress.org themes. So from here, you guys can
see maybe, click popular. So you can see we got over
2000 themes if you want to scroll down and just
start looking at them. We have over 2000 themes
that you can choose from now. Most of these are completely
free to start using. However, many of them
follow a premium model so some of them may cost
anywhere from $40 to $50 to get the full version which
you can customize fully. But as you guys can see,
there’s literally hundreds if not thousands of themes
that you can choose from. I mean it’s very easy to
find something to fit you and your theme, your brand. And the thing is, before, like you say, five, 10 years ago, if
you would have websites that look like this, it
would literally cost you thousands of dollars but
we were able to create our website for just 70
bucks for an entire year. So pretty awesome, if you
want to change your theme. But we’re gonna just stick
with this one for now, and then we’re just gonna
start actually creating content so that we can start promoting products and start getting those
affiliate sales and commission. So the first thing you wanna
do is we are going to create our first post, so you
can just go to posts on left hand side bar and
actually just click add new. So we create a new post,
this is like a blog post. You have your title, you
have the body right here and you can even add an
image if you scroll down a little bit. On the right hand side, you
can add a featured image. But let’s scroll back up. Let’s create a title for this. We are going to create a review for one one of your makeup products, and then after we create the review, we can include the Amazon link, so that we can earn that commission if anyone purchases from your website. Aright, so we hopped out
of the computer real quick so we can just look at
some of the products which we are going to be
promoting on the website. So Sam has actually
brought a lot of her makeup from her dorm, and we are
just looking through it as you guys can see. We got this brand Nyx here, but we’re gonna just look
through these makeup products to see which ones are actually
offered on Amazon Associates. And then we can actually do
reviews and create content around those products and
then earn those commissions. So sound good? Alright, so we’ve chosen
three products right here which Sam really likes to use. What is this? It’s a brush. – Yes, it’s a Kabuki brush. – It’s a Kabuki brush,
it’s like Japanese, right? – I don’t know (laughs) – Okay, and we got,
this is eyeliner, right? – Yes. – Okay, we got eyeliner and we have, what is this right here? – That’s finishing powder. – Okay, so we got this finishing powder. So we got the Kabuki brush, that finishing powder and eyeliner. So what we’re gonna do
right now is we’re gonna go in Amazon Associates to see
if any of these are available and if they are, we can
actually get the links and promote them in our review. Alright, hop in back in the computer and we are going to look
at Amazon Associates. I’ll explain what it is and
also we will look to see if these products are available to promote on Amazon Associates. Alright, perfect, so
now we are going to look at Amazon Associates, which
is Amazon’s affiliate program and it’s actually the largest
affiliate program in the world because Amazon is one of the
largest companies in the world. So I want you to just search
up Amazon Associates on Google. So guys, for anyone who is not familiar, again, this is Amazon Associates. It says earn up to 10% advertising fees with a trusted e-commerce leader. This is the affiliate
program that we’re gonna use to look for these products,
and if they’re available, we are going to get links from here and then you can promote
those on your website which in turn, if anyone
clicks and purchases anything within 24 hours, you will actually receive
commission based on the category. So if you want to know what
kind of commissions you earn, you can actually open
up a new tab right now and then let’s look up
Amazon Associates rates. Right there, perfect. So right here, we have a table. You guys can actually look at this. If you wanna pause this or something, you can see all of the
different product categories for products on Amazon including the fixed standard program fee rates. This just means your commission. So as you guys can see, for me, I review stuff like headphones, I would receive 6% commission. Now we’re doing makeup. And the makeup we’re looking
at is actually going to be categorized under luxury
beauty for the most part. And luckily for Sam here, the commission is actually the highest of
any of the product categories. It’s actually 10%. So that’s awesome, because
as you guys can see, it can be as low as zero to
1%, 2% for TVs and stuff. Those are high ticket
items so it makes sense but luckily we had the highest commission, 10% all across the board. So that’s really helpful for us in terms of maximizing our profit. Anyways, let’s go back to this
tab for Amazon Associates. If you haven’t signed
up, you should sign up with Amazon Associates. It’s completely free to join. However, just know that you may be denied if you do not have an actual
platform such as a website, or a YouTube Channel. Luckily for us, we just created a website. We have a legit website
with a custom domain name, and a logo, all this costed
us less than 80 bucks. So that right there is enough to get into the Amazon Associates program. So sign up for that and
then we’re gonna hop in and we’re gonna look for these products to see if we can promote them. Alright guys, so we have
hopped into Amazon Associates. So after you get into the program, you can immediately start
searching out products. So what we’re gonna try and
do is search up these products by going to product
linking and product links. So right here you can type in any keyword, it could be a brand, it
could be the actual model of the products. So we’re gonna start
searching for these products to see if they’re available. And if they are, we could
start getting those links and promoting them on our website. So what do we got up first? – The Nyx HD Studio finishing powder. – Alright, let’s try typing that in. The brand is called Nyx and
it is the finishing powder. So you can just do Nyx finishing powder and we’ll see what pops up. Hopefully, it’s available. Alright, scroll down, let’s see. So we got a few, few items here. Actually quite a few results. Do any of these look like that product? – Yeah, the first one. – First one, perfect, that was easy. Alright, cool. So as you guys can see,
this product is 9.99. So it’s not the most
expensive product obviously but a 10% commission rate. So for each of these you
would actually earn close to a dollar. And that may not seem
like a lot to some people. But everything adds up
especially with makeup because you can bundle
other items together to increase that overall cart ordered. And if you’re getting 10% of all of it, then if you add a few things in there then one dollar could turn to two or three or four or five dollars real quick. If you want to get the link that has your tracking code in it, all you need to do is go right here, but instead of clicking get link, click this little arrow that points down. And it’s gonna have your text link but you want to click
shorten URL with Amazon.to and you’re gonna get
a much shortened link. Now these links, they are
a lot more attractive, and it’s a lot more attractive for people who are gonna
be clicking your links to have something short like this that’s not so conspicuous, you know what I mean? So we’re gonna just copy this, so just click that and then
we’re just gonna copy that to our clipboard. Let’s hop back into our
WordPress account back here. So new post. What you can do is for
now you can just paste in that link into the text, perfect. One thing we want to do
is maybe highlight that and then hyperlink it right there by clicking that.
– This? Mm-hmm, boom, and then you can
just click that blue arrow. Nice, so we have just
added our affiliate link to our new post. So this post is gonna be a review. We’re gonna review that product. So for the title, you can
just do the actual name of the product, and then just add review. But make sure that you
include like the full names, so like the brand, the name of
the item, anything specific. Just so anyone who’s searching it up can really find it on Google. There we go, yeah. And then just add at the end, review. Perfect, so our title, very simple. You have the product name, and then you just include review. But that’s what people
are gonna be searching up on Google, so you want to
basically match that keyword or that search term as close as possible. So basically we got the
tile, let’s scroll down. And basically here in
the text body editor, this is where you can
actually include your review. Now my advice when you’re
creating these articles or making these reviews
is you want to include as many characters, as
many words as possible because the longer your content is, the higher it tends to rank on Google. My guess is because
engagement tends to be higher. Because if you’re a, if
there’s a 2000 word article or a review, and you have
to read the whole thing, it’s gonna take you longer
than reading a 200-word review. So we’re gonna get to
work, brainstorm on this, on how we can write this review. Now here’s a little hack
for some of you guys. If you’re lazy, if you
don’t wanna do this, you can actually hop back on Fiverr which we have still open up right here. So let’s go back to
Fiverr and then you can go up to find services and you can actually
get people to just write these articles for you. Actually, we can just go
to writing and translation. And if you guys look right
here, you got everything from creative writing,
articles and blog posts. So basically, you could hire
someone else technically, to write this for you,
if you’re that lazy. And if you wanna spend five bucks, five, 10 bucks or whatever it costs, then we still have the budget for that. But we’re just gonna
write ourselves because we want it to be genuine. So we’re just gonna brainstorm,
we’re just gonna draft it up we’re gonna write it. Let’s go back to WordPress, and we’re just gonna include it in here. So yeah, we’re gonna do that
real quick and then come back. Alright guys, so we
just finished writing up the review article, as
you guys can see here. So I’m just gonna give you guys some tips when you’re writing these reviews or creating this content,
on how you can not only maximize your profits, but
also increase your clicks, increase hopefully your conversions for your affiliate sales. So as you guys can see here
we have quite a few links. We have the Amazon
Associates links which we got and basically we linked
the product at the top. But one thing that we made
sure to do is we linked the product throughout
the article as well. So we have at the top, we
have it here at the bottom as a call to action, and we also have it when we mentioned Amazon,
we actually included the amazon link which
links to that product. So one thing that we
did, which is something that you guys should do
regardless of your industry is basically you wanna try
and bundle products together as much as possible. So with Sam here, she
had this finishing powder but she also had this brush which you use in conjunction with the powder. So this brush, we actually
looked it up on Amazon. It’s an Elf Kabuki brush,
and we found it for 5.99. So she made sure to
mention how she applies the finishing powder
using the Kabuki brush, and we made sure to link that as well, as you guys can see
here, Elf Kabuki brush. But basically, if it’s 10%
commission and one product is 9.99 and then the Elf
Kabuki brush is 5.99, you’re basically increasing your profits if people order both
products versus just one, you’re increasing your profits
by basically 60% almost. So as you guys can see here,
bundling is such a powerful and effective tool, but the thing is, most people buy stuff in
bundles to begin with. So don’t feel guilty or anything like that including a lot of products
that may work well together, because if anything that’s
how customers usually shop. And Amazon knows this. Every time you shop on
Amazon they always have stuff that’s like best when
purchased together or bundles or stuff like that. So basically just copy
what Amazon is recommending or if you think of any products
that would go good together with your product and
just bundle them together to increase those profits. So that’s basically it. When you’re done, all
you have to do is click this blue publish button. Hit that right there and then your article will be published and we
can see what that looks like on the website. So after you publish it,
just click view post. And we can see the first article
as you guys can see here. Boom, made that in just a few minutes. Obviously there’s no pictures. Pictures would really spice things up if you guys want to include that. But basically that’s how
simple it is to start reviewing products, adding in
those Amazon affiliate links and potentially start to earn money once you start getting
traffic to your website and people clicking your links
and purchasing your products. So that’s the basic process right there. It’s very simple, but you can
get a lot more complicated with it, you can get a lot more complex and more advanced and really
kind of flesh things out if you have more time. Alright, so right now we
are just taking pictures of those products which we’re reviewing to make our article look a lot cooler. So we are just using a basic iPhone as you guys can see right here. Just taking some basic
pictures, how does that look? Alright, not bad. (laughs) Alright, just take a few more. I’ll take one of you using the product, how does that sound? So here, take the brush and then like just pretend you’re like using it. And just smile or something. Done, okay, cool. We got, I’ll just show
you guys what I got. Cool, perfect, we’re gonna
throw this on the website, and yeah, let’s go. Alright, so we actually took the liberty to take a couple of
pictures using the iPhone. Real simple, but honestly pictures make such a huge difference
when making these sort of review articles and content. So basically, we’re
just gonna add those in. So let’s start with adding in
our first image at the top, so we can just make a little break maybe before this whole thing. So let’s go right then and just enter. – Here? – Yeah, hit enter, and
then let’s go up top and then let’s add some media. Yeah, basically, yeah,
we got our images in. Yeah, the lasting thing to do
is to add a featured image, which is your thumbnail. So right here on that right-hand side, just click set featured image. And you can choose any of those. Maybe we’ll just do the product image. That might be a simple one to do. Yeah, that should work pretty well. And then let’s set that
as a featured image. Boom, check it out, right there. And then you can scroll
up and then click update. So now let’s see what
our article looks like with all the brand-new images placed in to see if it looks any better
than just with the text. Alright, so check it out guys. Article looks a lot more lively, it looks a lot more professional now that we have the images in. One trick that you guys can do, this will increase your clicks
and hopefully your sales is, let’s just go back real quick. And what I want you to do is I want you to copy this Amazon link. Perfect, click this image
and we’re gonna edit it by clicking the pencil. What we’re gonna do is we’re
actually gonna link this. And we’re gonna link to, custom URL, make that your Amazon link. Just copy and paste that, and then update. So you’re gonna do this
for all of your images. We’re not gonna do right
now, but we’re gonna do for all the images. Make sure you click update,
just save the progress but let’s actually go
back to the view post and if we scroll down to that image and you hover over, you can
see it has the Amazon link. If you click it, so try
clicking that real quick. Boom, takes you right to the product. So that right there is
a nice little ninja tip that you guys can use
to increase your clicks and hopefully get more sales,
because at the end of the day, you’re trying to get
your customers to Amazon. Because once they’re there,
Amazon does all the selling. And you earn commission
on anything they buy. It doesn’t have to be
this product specifically. It could literally be anything else and you would receive the commission. So the goal is to get them on
Amazon by any means necessary, as long as it’s ethical and
it’s relevant to your product. So yeah, let’s back to our website. Well, okay, let’s just go back. But yeah, so as you guys can see here. I mean this pretty much concludes what we’re doing for
today which is we create a custom website, we had
a professional logo made which we will include once we receive it, and we created our first review article, which includes a bunch
of Amazon affiliate links that hopefully in turn
will result in sales. So that pretty much wraps up this video. I mean it was a pretty simple
straightforward process. But we’ve done a lot today guys, we’ve really created a foundation for something that could be a
legit business in the future. So basically, that wraps
up the website portion. Hope you guys enjoyed that. We’re going to conclude
this video by hopping out of the computer and then
just talking on some options that you guys can do after
you set up the website and get things going. Alright guys, we have just
finished with creating the website, creating the
brand, doing the review post and posting the affiliate links. So that basically is a very,
very, very basic foundation for what an affiliate website looks like. But these are the same
websites which do turn into full on affiliate businesses. But we were basically
able to get that done and I mean Sam here is
a complete beginner, and we only spent about $77 today. So we actually didn’t even
use our whole entire budget which is really good. But basically I hope you
guys enjoyed that video. If you guys enjoyed it
and if you guys want me to make this a series, if
you wanna see more videos and watch us expand
this business even more, then make sure to thumbs up
the video and leave a comment below letting me know. And then if we get enough
traction, we get enough people who are liking the videos, commenting, then we for sure will make
a part two, part three and keep the series going. And you guys can maybe watch a
full business bloom from this but anyways, that wraps up this video. Hope you guys enjoyed it. Give a big thumbs up to
Sam for being a trooper throughout all this. I did not pay her a
single penny to do this. Did I pay you anything?
– No. Okay, didn’t pay her anything. She just did this for fun and I’m really thankful that
she wanted to come onboard to do this project. So hope you guys enjoyed it. Catch you guys on the next one, peace. Hey, so one last thing guys. I just got done editing the entire video. It took me a few hours
and I’m really happy with the results, so I really hope that you guys enjoyed that. But one last thing I wanna
show you guys is actually, a couple of days after
we got done filming, we actually received the
finished logo right here which you guys can check out. Look how awesome that turned
out for just $5, guys. $6 with the $1 fee but I
mean Sam’s Makeup Review. We got the little icons right there. I mean this is really awesome, something that you can
throw onto the website, you can throw on any
sort of like social media or anything like that. So really happy with the result of that. I wanna leave you guys
with one last thing. So if you guys are still
watching this video, then it’s pretty obvious
that you’re really interested in business, in entrepreneurship, and possibly in affiliate marketing. So if you guys haven’t
seen any of my other videos I definitely suggest you
guys go check those out. I have videos where I share
how I’ve made over $45,000 with a 96% profit margin
using affiliate marketing. So I have that video on my channel if you guys wanna look at it. I’m gonna link it somewhere
here on this screen so definitely watch my other videos because in those videos, I
actually go really in depth and I go in deep with affiliate marketing, more so than in this video, which is more of a primer for beginners. So if you’re really
interested in this stuff, then definitely check out
that other, those other videos because some of the numbers,
they are pretty crazy. Now this video, it’s for beginners. It was basically a primer on
how you can start a business with very low investment upfront
using affiliate marketing so you can promote products and services of other businesses. Now, I myself I’m an affiliate
marketing expert and mentor and for anyone who is serious about this, and you really want to
use affiliate marketing as your vehicle to wealth, then you definitely have
to check out my course and mentorship program which has been out for about a month now and
it’s just been so great. I have been really connecting
with all my students, and if you’re interested
in learning about that, let me just give you guys
a quick quick run through on the lessons I teach and what’s included with this program. Alright guys, so here’s
affiliatemarketingchamp.com. Make sure to click the
link in the description if you want to visit this. So this is basically my
video course on everything that you need to get started and succeed with affiliate marketing. So this includes mentorship from me, which means 24/7 direct
messaging assistance. So you can message me anytime of the day and I will answer any and
all of affiliate marketing questions that you have. But let me just give you
guys a quick run through of some the lessons I go through. So in this video, I explain
what affiliate marketing is. But I actually show a
step-by-step plan on how to start a successful affiliate marketing business. So this is actually my
proven step-by-step plan that I’ve used for every single one of my affiliate marketing businesses that have generated well
over $1000 a day profit for well over a year now. So I give the exact step-by-step for how I do affiliate
marketing and it is really in my opinion a proprietary and
unique and innovative method that isn’t really taught
by any other courses or instructors out there. And that’s based on my
students who have taken other courses, they’ve
told me that directly. So let’s just go back in to lesson plans. I actually share with you
the most profitable niches in affiliate marketing, which
is a complete game changer. So I explained earlier in this video, when Sam was using makeup, how makeup is actually a very profitable niche because it has high commission rates, there is a lot of money in it. Now, choosing your niche
is literally the difference between making $1000 a
month and $10,000 a month, and I’m not exaggerating that guys. Choosing your niche is extremely important and you want to choose a niche
where there’s a lot of money to be made. Next, I teach you how to
rank on the first page of YouTube and Google. So this right here, my
students have told me that this is worth the
price of the course alone. Because if you know how
to rank your content and you can get that
massive organic traffic for months if not years to come, 50x which is one of the most
popular headphones out there by Audio-Technica, if you
just scroll down here, you guys will see my
video, ODi Productions is on the first page of Google, right? And I’m actually ranking,
I’m outranking websites Like Guitar Center,
BestBuy.com, BHphotovideo.com. Now that’s insane, because
my YouTube channel, although it’s pretty decent,
it doesn’t have hundreds of thousands, it doesn’t
have millions of subscribers. So you must be wondering,
how am I able to rank on the first page of Google, as some of the top results on YouTube? Well, it’s because I am an expert in SEO and (mumbles) optimization
which has allowed me to do this. So that is included in the
course, and my students have literally said that that is worth the price of the course alone. There is actually a video
review you guys can watch where one of my student says that he would have paid the entire price of the course just for that 23-minute video. So let’s (mic cuts out) right here. So I teach you how to rank, I
teach you paid traffic guys. So the secret to how to get traffic when you don’t have a
following is to invest in paid traffic, and right here, showing you how to use
this paid traffic source along with Facebook ads,
you can get massive, massive traffic to your website
for not that much money, if you follow these timelines. However, if you don’t know how
to use paid traffic correctly you could easily be
wasting your money as well. So other than that, I
teach you how to create affiliate marketing website
from scratch in just an hour. So exactly like in this video and exactly like recordingnow.com which is my first affiliate marketing website. Last but not least, I teach you how to use the number one tool
for affiliate marketers and internet marketers alike,
click funnels which you guys may have heard of before,
and last but not least, I share my top five mistakes
with affiliate marketing that I wish I knew when I got started. It would have saved me months
if not years of frustration and headaches and failure. Alright, so that’s a quick
run through the course. Also included with my course is 24/7 direct messaging assistance. So this means if you message
me at any time of the day, asking any sort of affiliate
marketing questions, I will answer that in full in depth detail and I don’t know many other
affiliate marketing mentors who are willing to do that, especially mentors who make
four figures, five figure days with affiliate marketing. And last but not least, one
thing I want to tell you guys is right now, I’m actually
running a promotion on the course for a limited time. So if you want to access this discount, then definitely click the
link in the description, and do it soon because
I’m actually uploading over an hour of brand-new
lessons this week, and once those lessons get in there, the price of the course
is going to be increasing. Alright guys, I already
increased the price of the course one time when
I uploaded a couple of hours of lessons, but I’m gonna
be adding in more lessons this week, and once I do that, the price of the course
is going to increase for the second time and it may
keep increasing in the future as the spots and the
students continue to fill up. So just let you guys know that. If you want to get in on the course, the best value is to sign up today, honestly before the new lessons come in. Because if you sign up today, you actually get all updates for life. So you get lifetime access and updates, so you’ll get the new lessons as well, but for the price right
now, which is a fraction of the full price of the course. Alright, so if you guys
are interested in that you can reach out to me, you
can ask me any questions. I’m happy to help as always but I hope you guys enjoyed this video, and definitely check out my other videos and have a good one, peace guys.

Lesko on IG’s FISA abuse report: how was Obama, Clinton involved?


MAHER. ELIZABETH: REPUBLICAN SENATOR LINDSEY GRAHAM SPOKE TO SEAN HANNITY OF FOX NEWS LAST NIGHT ABOUT THE UPCOMING REPORT JUSTICE PROBE.>>I THINK IT WILL BE REALLY DAMNING AND UGLY. PEOPLE DID SOME BAD THINGS THAT ARE DANGEROUS FOR THE COUNTRY. YOU WILL ONLY FIND IT ON FOX. YOU MAY FIND IS A LITTLE BIT IN THE PAPER. HERE IS WHAT I PREDICT, 10% OF COVERAGE OF THE MUELLER REPORT GOT, THAT IS A SHAME, KEEP DOING WHAT YOU ARE DOING. HERE IS THE QUESTION, IT IS NOT WHAT DID OBAMA KNOW AND WHEN HE KNEW IT, WHO TOLD HIM AND WHAT DID HE DO ONCE HE WAS TOLD? WHAT IS YOUR REACTION?>>LINDSEY GRAHAM, HE IS SPOT ON. HE IS REALLY STRONG PROPONENT FOR GETTING TO THE BOTTOM OF THIS. I AM WITH HIM. HOUSE JUDICIARY COMMITTEE CHAIRMAN NADLER IS CERTAINLY NOT GOING TO INVESTIGATE THIS. SHE TOO BUSY TRY — HE IS TOO BUSY TRYING TO UNDER MINE PRESIDENT TRUMP. ELIZABETH: RUSSIAN MEDDLING WRONG. THIS IS ABOUT USING U.S. INTELLIGENCE COMMUNITY SOURCES AND ASSETS TO SPY ON A OPPOSITION CAMPAIGN. THE PRESIDENT SAID LAST YEAR, HE WOULD ORDER THE RELEASE OF CLASSIFIED DOCUMENTS. WHAT DOCUMENTS WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE? WE HEAR AN OCTOBER 2016 FBI E-MAIL CHAIN, THAT MAY INDICATE THAT STEELE WAS A WEAK, NOT REALLY CREDIBLE SOURCE.>>I WOULD LIKE TO SEE ALMOST ALL OF THE DOCUMENTS UNCLASSIFIED. SO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE, INCLUDING MYSELF, CAN READ WHAT HAPPENED. AND HOW WAS PRESIDENT OBAMA INVOLVED? HOW WERE THE CLINTONS INVOLVED? AFTER TWO YEARS AFTER FOING AFTER DONALD TRUMP. — GOING AFTER DONALD TRUMP, WE NOW GET THE REST WAS STORY, A LOT OF THINGS SEEM SUSPICIOUS TO ME. I AM LOOKING FORWARD TO THE INSPECTOR GENERAL’S REPORT AND AG BARR’S REPORT.>>WE’RE HEARING THAT THE INSPECTOR GENERAL HAD TO GO BACK AND REINTERVIEW CERTAIN PLAYERS BECAUSE THEY WERE CONTRADICTING EACH OTHER, YOUR TAKE ON THAT?>>I WAS ABLE TO TALK IN A GROUP SETTING WITH THE INSPECTOR GENERAL, HE DID NOT GIVE US ANY INSIDE INFORMATION. WE ARE HEARING IT WILL PROBABLY BE IN SEPTEMBER THAT HE WILL RELEASE HIS REPORT. I THINK IT IS GOOD THAT IF HE HAD TO TAKE EXTRA TIME AND GO BACK. WE JUST WANT A THOROUGH REPORT, TO BE ACCURATE SO AMERICAN PEOPLE KNOW ABOUT IT, I TOO TOO THINK THAT — DO THINK THAT LINDSEY GRAHAM IS CORRECT. THE MEDIA WILL NOT COVER IT, THEY ONLY WANT TO COVER THINGS THAT ARE AGAINST DONALD TRUMP. I AM GLAD YOU ARE COVERING IT. ELIZABETH: IT IS ABOUT HOW WEAK