10thirtysix | Exclusive | Officials Differ On Employing Black Milwaukeeans


(piano melody) – Like why are people not moving toward the jobs they already have? And why are companies not moving within a city lock of longterm unemployed? Those are both important questions that leaders and neighbors,
community activists, people who provide
education and healthcare should all be asking themselves. – And what did she say? She said why is that we have
all these unemployed people and they don’t move and
live by the employers, and why do we have all these employers that don’t wanna move by the workforce. You know why? ‘Cause we pay them a lot of money to move way out to the suburbs and way out to Sheboygan, Wisconsin, and Fond du Lac,
Wisconsin, and other areas. We pay them, that’s why,
Rebecca, we pay them to. You pay them to, we pay
them to, that’s what we do. That’s why they live out
there, it’s not complicated. (bright melody)

In Cambodia, sand mining is big business — but it comes at a price


JUDY WOODRUFF: Yet another growing environmental
threat is closer to shore: sand mining. It accounts for 85 percent of all mineral
extraction, much more than all fossil fuels combined. And that comes at a heavy cost. Special correspondent Fred de Sam Lazaro traveled
to Cambodia, where sand mining has become a big business and where it threatens people’s
way of life. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: From commerce to fishing,
transport and rice production, the mighty Mekong River is the lifeblood of Southeast
Asia. But, today, one of the biggest businesses
on the river in Cambodia Is dredging it for sand to make concrete, feeding one of the
biggest industries in the developing world, development. Nowhere has demand for sand been greater than
in Asia. Across this sprawling continent, tens of millions
of miles of new roads have been built connecting hundreds of millions of new homes. Construction has driven the large economies,
like China and India, and the smaller ones, like Cambodia, whose cities, like Phnom Penh,
have joined the building binge. Skyscrapers, malls and apartments crowd the
skyline, much of it investment from China, fueling an economy that’s grown at a healthy
7.5 percent each year since 2005. Monyrath Yos of the government ministry overseeing
mineral resources says sand mining plays an important role. MONYRATH YOS, Cambodian Ministry of Mines
and Energy (through translator): The sand mining industry in Cambodia provides economic
benefits to Cambodia both directly and indirectly. It deepens the river and makes transportation
easier. It also provides material and land for construction. And it contributes to the national revenue. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: It’s not that straightforward. LES KAUFMAN, Boston University: Sand is actually
a very finite resource, and people don’t realize it. You can run out. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: People often associate
sand with vast deserts like the Sahara, but Boston University biologist Les Kaufman says
inland sand is too fine-grained and not suited to make concrete. LES KAUFMAN: So there’s this big incentive
to mine it out of water, out of freshwater or the ocean. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Aside from construction,
glass and electronics, sand has found other uses on a massive scale in recent years, in
America to fracture rocks for oil and gas, in Singapore to make, well, more Singapore. The tiny prosperous city state has expanded
its land mass by about 25 percent in recent years. A lot of the sand for that came from Cambodia. It’s prompted concern about environmental
damage and accusations of corruption. VANNAK HUN, Mother Nature Cambodia (through
translator): The volume of imports recorded in Singapore shows a different figure from
exports recorded in Cambodia. So you can see this is a big issue, a lack
of transparency. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Exports of sand to Singapore,
which came from Cambodia’s coast, were banned in 2017, but environmentalist Vannak Hun,
who’s spent time in prison for his activism, says sand mining along the Mekong has continued
at a record pace. It’s not just the skyline of Phnom Penh, that’s
being transformed, he says, but the very surface of what was known as a city of lakes. Despite loud protests, Phnom Penh’s biggest
lake, Kak Boeung, was filled in with sand from the Mekong to create more land for construction. It was the largest of 12 lakes and wetlands
that have disappeared from the city. VANNAK HUN (through translator): The most
affected community are people who live along the river. When there is collapse, when people lose their
land, lose their house, there’s no compensation. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: He took us just outside
Phnom Penh to see what happens in sand mining’s wake. MOM MUT, Cambodia (through translator): We
woke up at 1:00 in the morning, and we found that it had all collapsed into the river. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Mom Mut is having concrete
pilings built to save what’s left of her home after part of it disappeared. MOM MUT (through translator): Only four months
after sand dredging started, we noticed the land was different. It kind of changed. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: She showed us paperwork
from the dredging company promising compensation if her property was damaged. Two years on, she’s received nothing and isn’t
optimistic that will change. MOM MUT (through translator): I hope to prevent
the rest of my house from collapsing. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: It’s cost her $22,000,
she says, more than five years worth of savings. And there’s a chance it won’t save her home. A neighbor just a mile away built a similar
underpinning, only to see the rear of her home collapse. SAROM THORN, Cambodia (through translator):
I was just walking over there. It got slippery and I fell. And then I broke my arm. And I also lost one of my eyes. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: It’s a story repeated
downriver near dredging platforms, including those in Vietnam, where sand mining has also
taken off. Cambodia’s government insists that dredging
companies are approved to operate only in limited and defined areas and after an environmental
impact assessment. MONYRATH YOS (through translator): Riverbank
erosion has taken place for millions of years, since the formation of the Earth. So in the area that has the riverbank erosion,
it’s a natural factor, a natural condition. We only allow the sand dredging in the shallow
areas. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: And the minerals ministry’s
Monyrath says people in affected areas have recourse. MONYRATH YOS (through translator): We have
a 24-hour hot line that operates seven days a week. Villagers who live along the river, they can
make a call to file a complaint for any irregularity that they have seen. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Villagers we spoke to
saw a different reality. Have you called a hot line? Have you called any of the authorities? SAROM THORN (through translator): I cannot
read. I cannot write. I don’t know how to do it. And, also, the village chief doesn’t even
come to see what is happening to the house. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: There’s another threat
that could have even wider consequences: Prices for fish are inching up. SREYNOCH SONG, Fish Seller (through translator):
The fisherman tell me it’s harder to catch fish now in the river. I don’t know why. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: How much has the price
gone up? SREYNOCH SONG (through translator): It’s increased
about 25 percent since last year. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: Several reasons could
account for rising market prices for fish. LES KAUFMAN: You’re taking a lot of sand out. There goes the fish habitat. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: But biologist Kaufman,
who studies several of critical Mekong species, says fish stocks are declining. He blames the combination of sand dredging
and dams built to meet soaring demand for power. They have wiped out spawning areas. LES KAUFMAN: People don’t realize, when they
are removing the sand, they’re taking food off plates. That’s the tradeoff. It’s not usually reckoned in. FRED DE SAM LAZARO: He says, for many who
live along the Mekong and most major Asian rivers, a day of reckoning seems much closer
at hand. For the “PBS NewsHour,” this is Fred de Sam
Lazaro in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Fred’s reporting is a partnership with the
Under-Told Stories Project at the University of St. Thomas in Minnesota.

The Check In: Trump and Trucking


-President Trump was swept
into office in part because of his
supposed blue collar appeal. For example, he promised
that America’s truckers would prosper
under his administration. So how are they doing after
three years under Trump? This is “The Check In.”
[ Cheers and applause ] [ Bell dings ] Trucking is a huge American
industry, worth over $700 billion and employing over 7 million
Americans, which is why Trump pandered
so hard during an event with trucking industry
executives at the White House
a few years ago when he donned
an “I love trucks” button and then played inside of one. [ Crowd applauds ] [ Laughter ] [ Honking ] -Tell me how to get out of here. [ Laughter ] -Nothing says
“I’m a real blue-collar guy” like “How do you get me
down from a truck?” [ Laughter ] This looks like
a geriatric remake of “Smokey and the Bandit.” “Wait for me, Bandit.
Snowman’s gotta pee again. 10-4.”
[ Laughter ] When Trump later addressed
trucking CEOs and executives at the White House, even he had
to admit that he was full of it. -Through day and night
and all kinds of weather, truckers course the arteries
of our nation’s highways. You carry anything
and everything, the food that stocks
our shelves, the fuel that runs our cars, and the steel that
builds our cities. You think I wrote that?
It’s not bad. [ Laughter ] Save that.
I want to save that paragraph. -No one thinks you wrote that.
[ Laughter ] You read that like a kid
reciting a poem in class. “Two roads diverged
in yellow wood.” [ Laughter ] No one even thinks
you wrote this. [ Laughter ] Also, what did you mean
when you said, “I want to save that paragraph”? When will you ever have any
reason to use it again? [ Laughter ] “Happy Valentine’s Day, Melania. You carry anything
and everything. The food that stocks
my shelves.” Now, as Trump waxed poetic
about truck drivers and promised to
put American truckers first, drivers said he hasn’t
delivered. In fact, the Trump
Administration has actually made things worse for many
truckers by enacting policies that hurt
them financially. Take Trump’s tax law,
which he tried to sell as a huge tax break specifically
for truck drivers. And when he touted the plan in
front of hundreds of truckers and industry executives, it was the classic Trump
one-two punch — transparent pandering followed
by incoherent thoughts. -I want to tell you,
to the truckers in this room, which is a lot of people, you’re going to make more money, you’re going to do better
than ever before, more jobs, higher pay,
and lower taxes. This huge tax cut. [ Scattered booing ] Two words.
Huge and now rocket. Can you believe it?
I have ’em in the same — Rocket. You know what we’re talking
about, folks. Don’t worry about it. It will rocket fuel, and it will be rocket fuel
for our economy. -Now that I believe you wrote. [ Laughter and applause ] “It will be huge.” [ Cheering ] “And then rocket fuel, and it will be… rocket fuel.” [ Laughter ] So there you have it. Trump said truckers would
pay less and make more money than ever thanks
to his tax plan. So how did that go? -Do you feel like
this administration is listening to you as truckers?
-No, ma’am. -No, they’re not listening,
not at all. -They say some of their issues
affect all Americans, like the Republican-led
tax bill. How many of you,
by a show of hands, saw your taxes increase
this year? -They all went up, yeah. -One, two.
-Yeah, this year they went up. -One, two — all of you? So most of you saw
your taxes increase? The reason?
Something called a per diem. In the past, truckers could
deduct things like food and daily expenses
from their taxable income. Now, with Trump’s new tax bill,
they no longer can. -I have a young family at home
and with our per diem, they took the per diem out. That made an $8,000 difference. -$8,000?
-What I personally paid. -So what were you paying
in taxes last year? -Nothing.
-Amazing. So while the tax plan
lowered rates for trucking industry executives who make millions of dollars
a year, it only made things worse
for those actually doing the driving. In fact, because of
Trump’s tax law, accountants have had to tell
truck drivers that after years of being able to count on
receiving tax refunds, that they in fact would owe
thousands of dollars. As one small fleet owner put it,
they got screwed. It’s so bad, a lot of them can’t
even afford clothing for the women on their
mud flaps. [ Laughter ] And in this case, a lot
of the people getting screwed voted for Trump,
and they aren’t just worse off because of his tax law. Truckers are also hurting
because of Trump’s trade wars and tariffs, which, again,
is a direct contradiction to what he had promised. -America first means putting
American truckers first. When companies stay in America
and move to America, it’s our wonderful workers
who reap the rewards, including our great truckers
who will have more products to deliver
and more contracts to fill. That’s the way it happens. -Well, it turns out
that’s not the way it happens. In fact, the exact opposite is
what ended up happening. -Industry data shows the rates
trucking companies charge are down nearly as much as 17%. The reason? In part,
the President’s trade war. With fewer goods like steel
and electronics coming into U.S. ports, fewer trucks are
needed to move them. -These tariffs are having
real-life consequences on states that rely on,
for instance, trucking. These states, many of them voted
for President Trump. Some of America’s biggest
trucking companies are blaming the U.S./China
trade war along with new tariffs for hurting their bottom line. -That’s right.
Because of Trump’s trade war, trucks have less to haul. But Trump would probably say,
“If you think about it, that means they can drive
smaller trucks and then it’ll be easier
to get down from them.” [ Laughter ] “Because they’re very high
in the air.” So Trump’s tax law
and his trade wars have had a negative impact on truckers. In fact, one of the few policies
Trump enacted that trucking industry lobbyists
actually pushed for is one that arguably puts
everyone else on the road in danger. -The transportation department
is moving to relax federal regulations
on the number of hours that truckers can be
behind the wheel. -Highway safety advocates say
the contemplated changes would weaken the regulations
leading to driver fatigue, making roads
more dangerous. -They say truckers will put in
even longer days at a time when they say driver fatigue
is a serious problem. -For someone who loves trucks
so much, Trump doesn’t seem to care much about the condition
of the person behind the wheel. Maybe he doesn’t even realize
there are drivers. “I just assume the trucks
go all day and then at night
they turn back into giant robots and go to sleep.”
[ Laughter ] So thanks to Trump’s policies,
truckers are forced to work more for less pay in potentially
harmful conditions. And his ongoing trade wars could
put thousands of truck drivers out of work entirely. So the best we can hope
for is that truckers return the favor in 2020. This has been “The Check In.” ♪♪
[ Cheers and applause ] [ Bell dings ]

Working In The Theatre: Immersive Theatre


Immersive fear is performance in which
the audience really finds themselves within a world in which they are able to
navigate one in which they have agency. The landscape that you find yourself in
whether it is a literal landscape for a more psychic landscape you fall into
it as might fall into a body of water and it it is all around you.>It’s the most powerful and visceral experience that you can have in the theatre and
there are no lines between the actor in the audience and that everything is
blurred and the whole experience is blurred. I love cinema where you feel Macbeth mean you see Macbeth on the stage and
it’s you know you’re like oh this is pretty scary must be scary for the
actors on stage but when you’re standing in the space with Macbeth running
through the room covered with blood I mean that’s thrilling. Immersive theater which I think is the
most exciting and interesting kind of theater happening is a complete
environment or an attempt at a complete environment and I believe that the
moment you buy your ticket the experience of going to the theater
starts so the process that you took to get the ticket what the ticket looks
like whether you get on a train or a subway or a bus or a taxi or how you get
to the theater what the theater or the room looks like when you show up how it
the entire thing is designed it’s all curated to create a certain kind of
response and experience for you. I have a larger version of what a
theatrical experiences is than I think many people do, I go to a professional
wrestling match and I get caught up in the emotion of the wrestling match
that’s great theater to me. If I go to a football game and it’s exciting… what’s
difficult in so much of traditional theater and it’s again speaks to some
strange psychological makeup that I have is that the basic structure the audience
sitting in the dark, the performers are in the light, something happens, a bunch
of characters talk about it, they go on stage they go offstage, at the end the
curtain comes down that seems all very- it strikes me very much the same.
Whether the plots happy or sad or the writing is good or bad it’s all within a certain
box. There’s a part of me that I think I start to process it, I start to worry I’m
ahead of the plot, I just I just don’t enjoy it in the way where I put into an
experience where I don’t know any of the rules and once I don’t know any of the
rules the least little thing is endowed with such curiosity and such sort of
heightened theatricality you are entering that world, you’re not sitting
outside it watching it happen you know through the fourth wall, you’re putting
yourself into it and you really feel like you’re a tourist in a strange land.
It’s so fun to even just figure out the rules and you’re sort of lost and
confused like the way you’re a tourist and you you know drop in Paris and
you’ve never been in Paris in your life and suddenly everything seems so much
more interesting that it does in New York even though it’s basically the same
also but just by switching the context you know the little things of life like
how the street cleaners dress how the milk comes in different kind of cartons
all these things are just surprising and make you think about your own life in a
different way. With immersive theater you’re not trying to give them the
feeling that would be X Y or Z you’re giving them that feeling. Or the
attempting really and truly giving them that feeling and you use real tools and
real materials and real smells and real things at your disposal to create that.
How do we make the audience completely believe that they’re in this experience or
having this experience fully? If they were really cooking the food on the
stove or if they were really being trapped in this room and you started
talking about what would that feeling be what would it look like
sound like it smell like and taste like and so if you want to have an experience
where you lock someone in a room there’s the version of it where you push go on a
sound cue when you hear a chain lock and then there’s the other version where you
actually take out the chain and wrap it around the bars of the door and you lock it. We’re creating worlds where you can’t
see the edges of. The audience really finds themselves
within a world, one in which they are not simply passive observers but that they
have the ability to explore and also opportunities for them to have intimate
encounters with performers and may in fact find themselves interacting with
the performer be that having a drink with a performer or brushing their hair
or in some cases having a conversation in which the audience themselves are
participating in the creation of this narrative.>It’s been exciting actually to
develop an audience like I feel like from doing this as many years as I have
I’ll meet people who have been going to my shows for you know 15 years just
looking for well what’s what’s a new relationship we can have to a show to
theater. Then She Fell is is almost a little bit
of a Rorschach in that you as an audience member you come in and you see
these characters and you see these scenes and you participate in all of
these different ways and there is a narrative thread and there is an
aesthetic arc that develops and unfolds but walking out of it I think that every
audience member has created their own narrative that is resonant to them that
is about their experience and people ask me what the story is or if audience members see the same story and the answer because of that is
no. There is no central story, there is no single story if we have had
you know some thousand number of audience members come through there are
that number of thousands of stories. There is something that is fundamentally
I think playful about a lot of this work and certainly a lot of programs work. you I perform the doctor role who is one of
the first characters that you meet upon entering Kingsland ward who sort of
oversees your visit here throughout the course of your evening and I also play
the Hatter role. We were drawn to Alice in Wonderland and Through the
Looking-Glass and the relationship between Lewis Carroll and the real Alice,
Alice Little. Then She Fell has now been running for almost a year. When we
launched this project we had envisioned a six-week run. All of our work is really
a fusion of forms we call ourselves a multidisciplinary company because almost
every piece is some combination of dance and theater and music and singing. It’s very interesting casting for immersive theater because what you’re taught often
as an actor is how to project an emotion across the divide of a proscenium
theater if you’re doing a scene like this with someone it’s a completely
different style of acting from doing a scene where you’re you know facing 1,200
people through the proscenium. There’s such completely different techniques
involved and you know what seems real on stage to 1,200 people doesn’t feel real
when you’re one-on-one and then you have to find people who are actors because
they have to be able to speak text and connect to emotions but they have to be
able to drop so much of what they’ve learned, the actors themselves have to
want to try something different. All performers they want to touch an
audience and there’s something when you’re doing an immersive show in you
are literally physically able to touch them I think for some performers that is
a little too much. They don’t really want to be that close but for other
performers that’s their dream. It’s not safe. Guess what we’ve created, an
environment with really things can go wrong and when you’re safely on your own
side the audience is here and the performers there that’s one thing but
when you’re right on top of each other you know
anything can happen and that audience member who doesn’t understand the rules
can get too involved in a scene and a performer can get frustrated if an
audience members in their way. When there are no lines between the
actor in the audience and that everything is blurred and the whole
experience is blurred it just makes you attached to the material and so much
more powerful way. I get to imagine whole world’s that
really are the shell and the envelope that the play will take place in.
Here are some images of Here Lies Love during the show it really was not just making
the scenery, or making the scenic design, or the environment of the play, it was
creating the entire infrastructure of the theater from scratch.
This is representative of a six-foot person this is this upper balcony here of where the
audience would look down into the world and then all that black area down there
is inhabited by both actors and audiences
you know what the experience of this person is from up on top looking down as
opposed to his or her friend who decided to let go down and be part of the whole
world and it’s very very different. You eventually want to take off these pins
and pop the walls of the theater off so you can get down and look in from all
the different angles. I do a lot of my work through conversations. I find most often
that writers and directors and composers actually kind of know what they want
even if they say that they don’t you sort of if I pull that piano out of the
swamp it’s like a long and drawn-out often experience where I ask questions I
sort of I liken my job to therapy really I sit one-on-one with people and ask
questions about the feeling and about the emotional content and the background
of why they wrote it or why they they got to this idea or what they’re really
kind of trying to unearth at this idea what they’re exploring and then sooner
or later they say oh my gosh I know that it’s a living room or I know that it’s
the room I grew up in or something in this kind of aha moment and then I kind
of just filtered through my own artistic sensibility. After I have all these
conversations or while I’m doing these conversations I start with a ground plan
a sort of top-down view of what the space will look like because it’s all
about how people move through space. Many years ago I did a show a face on
Midsummer Night’s Dream they had this really this flash I was like if this
were in a nightclub where young people go and it feels like this dangerous
forest in a place where they can be away from their parents how can I even
increase the excitement let’s put it in an actual nightclub let’s have the
audience for the show be the other clubgoers.
There’s a theater you sell tickets you have a bar maybe you sell some
drinks during intermission really it doesn’t have to work like that it could
be that you’re selling drinks during the entire experience and I’ve done you know
immersive theater in my living room I’ve done immersive theater in a garage I’ve
done like I said immersive theater and nightclubs and you know old hotels but
when we’re doing things our own way we don’t have to buy ads because sometimes
ads mess up actually the creative of an experience. Maybe you want it to be
part of the experience that it does feel secret the only aspects of the show that
you’ll ever learn are what happens to you when you’re actually physically at
the show. This is a friend of mine from college was like you know Randy you’ve
been doing immersive theater forever I was like really no like yeah you used to
do shows in your like dorm room and you would do secret shows where you take
over a museum and do a performance in the middle of the night there because it
didn’t even have a name then I was just doing things whatever seemed interesting
to me to do and somehow I’ve been able to cobble together a life which never
would have dawned on me when I was a pre-medical student. Every single project
I do I am afraid of everything because you’re doing something where there’s
just you don’t even really get to rehearse these projects that I create
when they’re immersive until there’s an audience so you do this thing and it
looks great and then almost an audience comes in and everything is completely
different and it’s not like okay you’re doing a show on a stage and audience
comes in and things are different suddenly like a line that didn’t seem
funny is funny or vice versa it’s like the actors can’t move you know
everything’s just completely thrown off because the actors are dealing with the
audience who are the set so without the set I mean who knows even what you have
so it’s really like you’re really just jumping off and just hoping for the best
and certainly in some cases I’ve expected one thing it’s gone completely
in a different direction and sometimes that different direction was much
greater than anything I could have ever imagined.
In fact really I can admit mostly that’s the case. We were creating this type of
work before we knew the term immersive it was sort of a very logical
progression in terms of our interests and so found ourselves making this work
and then all of a sudden everyone was like oh immersive theater is hot and
we’re like oh is that what it’s called? Great. With another show we built this
wooden box that the entire audience sat in the New York Times reviewer that came
and saw it she thought that the theater that we had worked in had done a big
renovation she called the fact-check and our press agent said no you know that
was a set and she was so freaked out that she was sitting in there and she
thought like she couldn’t believe it that she just decided to do a story on
us and the immersive theater that we were doing. I think an immersive theater
has really come into its own I thought I used to call it immersive theaters 15 years ago
like why wasn’t right you know no one knew what immersive theater was.
>I feel like we all walk around all day long with these iPhones and iPods and iPads
and all these screens and so much of our life is spent like this walking down the
street and looking at these screens that I think the reason why immersive theater
has become so prevalent now is because the pendulum is swinging during the day
you’re looking at these screens and you’ll pay any amount of money to have a
real and true experience where you’re essentially paying to have a human to
human contact and to shut your phone off. To really detach from that technological
world and to really invest in these really special completely unique totally
manufactured yet completely real feeling experiences.>I really hate my cell phone.
I was every day I wish I could just throw it out because it doesn’t feel to
me the part of myself where I wish I could be spending most of my life so I
think any opportunity I have to get away from technology is so exciting. The ability to experience something for the first time is extraordinary and I
think it’s what this this forum affords and so and so it is important to sort of
keep that protected. We I think as a society and as a culture are spending so
much of our time and so much of our communication and interaction with other
human beings in this very mediated way. We crave those sensory experiences, we
crave tactile experiences, we crave intimacy. I can’t even tell what’s real
anymore not to get really weird and matrix-y about this but like I don’t
know where reality starts but I know the place that I want to be and it’s just
exciting to be in a room with someone to see how they respond when you speak to
them to see their gestures to see how their facial muscle muscles tick I mean
all these sort of things are what I really enjoy the subtleties of real
face-to-face human connection.>Not every piece is made to like make you feel good
and incredible, in fact are a lot of pieces especially with immersive theater
that are made to make you feel some other kind of way uneasy contemplative
whatever it is and I think that’s kind of the best theater, stuff that is really
pushing you to think and contemplate your relationship to it but also your
relationship to the world.

Chris Urmson: How a driverless car sees the road


So in 1885, Karl Benz
invented the automobile. Later that year, he took it out
for the first public test drive, and — true story —
crashed into a wall. For the last 130 years, we’ve been working around that least
reliable part of the car, the driver. We’ve made the car stronger. We’ve added seat belts,
we’ve added air bags, and in the last decade, we’ve actually
started trying to make the car smarter to fix that bug, the driver. Now, today I’m going to talk to you
a little bit about the difference between patching around the problem
with driver assistance systems and actually having fully
self-driving cars and what they can do for the world. I’m also going to talk to you
a little bit about our car and allow you to see how it sees the world
and how it reacts and what it does, but first I’m going to talk
a little bit about the problem. And it’s a big problem: 1.2 million people are killed
on the world’s roads every year. In America alone, 33,000 people
are killed each year. To put that in perspective, that’s the same as a 737
falling out of the sky every working day. It’s kind of unbelievable. Cars are sold to us like this, but really, this is what driving’s like. Right? It’s not sunny, it’s rainy, and you want to do anything
other than drive. And the reason why is this: Traffic is getting worse. In America, between 1990 and 2010, the vehicle miles traveled
increased by 38 percent. We grew by six percent of roads, so it’s not in your brains. Traffic really is substantially worse
than it was not very long ago. And all of this has a very human cost. So if you take the average commute time
in America, which is about 50 minutes, you multiply that by the 120 million
workers we have, that turns out to be
about six billion minutes wasted in commuting every day. Now, that’s a big number,
so let’s put it in perspective. You take that six billion minutes and you divide it by the average
life expectancy of a person, that turns out to be 162 lifetimes spent every day, wasted, just getting from A to B. It’s unbelievable. And then, there are those of us
who don’t have the privilege of sitting in traffic. So this is Steve. He’s an incredibly capable guy, but he just happens to be blind, and that means instead of a 30-minute
drive to work in the morning, it’s a two-hour ordeal
of piecing together bits of public transit or asking friends and family for a ride. He doesn’t have that same freedom
that you and I have to get around. We should do something about that. Now, conventional wisdom would say that we’ll just take
these driver assistance systems and we’ll kind of push them
and incrementally improve them, and over time, they’ll turn
into self-driving cars. Well, I’m here to tell you
that’s like me saying that if I work really hard at jumping,
one day I’ll be able to fly. We actually need to do
something a little different. And so I’m going to talk to you
about three different ways that self-driving systems are different
than driver assistance systems. And I’m going to start
with some of our own experience. So back in 2013, we had the first test
of a self-driving car where we let regular people use it. Well, almost regular —
they were 100 Googlers, but they weren’t working on the project. And we gave them the car and we allowed
them to use it in their daily lives. But unlike a real self-driving car,
this one had a big asterisk with it: They had to pay attention, because this was an experimental vehicle. We tested it a lot,
but it could still fail. And so we gave them two hours of training, we put them in the car,
we let them use it, and what we heard back
was something awesome, as someone trying
to bring a product into the world. Every one of them told us they loved it. In fact, we had a Porsche driver
who came in and told us on the first day, “This is completely stupid.
What are we thinking?” But at the end of it, he said,
“Not only should I have it, everyone else should have it,
because people are terrible drivers.” So this was music to our ears, but then we started to look at what
the people inside the car were doing, and this was eye-opening. Now, my favorite story is this gentleman who looks down at his phone
and realizes the battery is low, so he turns around like this in the car
and digs around in his backpack, pulls out his laptop, puts it on the seat, goes in the back again, digs around, pulls out
the charging cable for his phone, futzes around, puts it into the laptop,
puts it on the phone. Sure enough, the phone is charging. All the time he’s been doing
65 miles per hour down the freeway. Right? Unbelievable. So we thought about this and we said,
it’s kind of obvious, right? The better the technology gets, the less reliable
the driver is going to get. So by just making the cars
incrementally smarter, we’re probably not going to see
the wins we really need. Let me talk about something
a little technical for a moment here. So we’re looking at this graph,
and along the bottom is how often does the car
apply the brakes when it shouldn’t. You can ignore most of that axis, because if you’re driving around town,
and the car starts stopping randomly, you’re never going to buy that car. And the vertical axis is how often
the car is going to apply the brakes when it’s supposed to
to help you avoid an accident. Now, if we look at
the bottom left corner here, this is your classic car. It doesn’t apply the brakes for you,
it doesn’t do anything goofy, but it also doesn’t get you
out of an accident. Now, if we want to bring
a driver assistance system into a car, say with collision mitigation braking, we’re going to put some package
of technology on there, and that’s this curve, and it’s going
to have some operating properties, but it’s never going to avoid
all of the accidents, because it doesn’t have that capability. But we’ll pick some place
along the curve here, and maybe it avoids half of accidents
that the human driver misses, and that’s amazing, right? We just reduced accidents on our roads
by a factor of two. There are now 17,000 less people
dying every year in America. But if we want a self-driving car, we need a technology curve
that looks like this. We’re going to have to put
more sensors in the vehicle, and we’ll pick some
operating point up here where it basically never
gets into a crash. They’ll happen, but very low frequency. Now you and I could look at this
and we could argue about whether it’s incremental, and
I could say something like “80-20 rule,” and it’s really hard to move up
to that new curve. But let’s look at it
from a different direction for a moment. So let’s look at how often
the technology has to do the right thing. And so this green dot up here
is a driver assistance system. It turns out that human drivers make mistakes that lead
to traffic accidents about once every 100,000 miles in America. In contrast, a self-driving system
is probably making decisions about 10 times per second, so order of magnitude, that’s about 1,000 times per mile. So if you compare the distance
between these two, it’s about 10 to the eighth, right? Eight orders of magnitude. That’s like comparing how fast I run to the speed of light. It doesn’t matter how hard I train,
I’m never actually going to get there. So there’s a pretty big gap there. And then finally, there’s how
the system can handle uncertainty. So this pedestrian here might be
stepping into the road, might not be. I can’t tell,
nor can any of our algorithms, but in the case of
a driver assistance system, that means it can’t take action,
because again, if it presses the brakes unexpectedly,
that’s completely unacceptable. Whereas a self-driving system
can look at that pedestrian and say, I don’t know what they’re about to do, slow down, take a better look,
and then react appropriately after that. So it can be much safer than
a driver assistance system can ever be. So that’s enough about
the differences between the two. Let’s spend some time talking about
how the car sees the world. So this is our vehicle. It starts by understanding
where it is in the world, by taking a map and its sensor data
and aligning the two, and then we layer on top of that
what it sees in the moment. So here, all the purple boxes you can see
are other vehicles on the road, and the red thing on the side
over there is a cyclist, and up in the distance,
if you look really closely, you can see some cones. Then we know where the car
is in the moment, but we have to do better than that:
we have to predict what’s going to happen. So here the pickup truck in top right
is about to make a left lane change because the road in front of it is closed, so it needs to get out of the way. Knowing that one pickup truck is great, but we really need to know
what everybody’s thinking, so it becomes quite a complicated problem. And then given that, we can figure out
how the car should respond in the moment, so what trajectory it should follow, how
quickly it should slow down or speed up. And then that all turns into
just following a path: turning the steering wheel left or right,
pressing the brake or gas. It’s really just two numbers
at the end of the day. So how hard can it really be? Back when we started in 2009, this is what our system looked like. So you can see our car in the middle
and the other boxes on the road, driving down the highway. The car needs to understand where it is
and roughly where the other vehicles are. It’s really a geometric
understanding of the world. Once we started driving
on neighborhood and city streets, the problem becomes a whole
new level of difficulty. You see pedestrians crossing in front
of us, cars crossing in front of us, going every which way, the traffic lights, crosswalks. It’s an incredibly complicated
problem by comparison. And then once you have
that problem solved, the vehicle has to be able
to deal with construction. So here are the cones on the left
forcing it to drive to the right, but not just construction
in isolation, of course. It has to deal with other people moving
through that construction zone as well. And of course, if anyone’s
breaking the rules, the police are there and the car has to understand that
that flashing light on the top of the car means that it’s not just a car,
it’s actually a police officer. Similarly, the orange box
on the side here, it’s a school bus, and we have to treat that
differently as well. When we’re out on the road,
other people have expectations: So, when a cyclist puts up their arm, it means they’re expecting the car
to yield to them and make room for them to make a lane change. And when a police officer
stood in the road, our vehicle should understand
that this means stop, and when they signal to go,
we should continue. Now, the way we accomplish this
is by sharing data between the vehicles. The first, most crude model of this is when one vehicle
sees a construction zone, having another know about it
so it can be in the correct lane to avoid some of the difficulty. But we actually have a much
deeper understanding of this. We could take all of the data
that the cars have seen over time, the hundreds of thousands
of pedestrians, cyclists, and vehicles that have been out there and understand what they look like and use that to infer
what other vehicles should look like and other pedestrians should look like. And then, even more importantly,
we could take from that a model of how we expect them
to move through the world. So here the yellow box is a pedestrian
crossing in front of us. Here the blue box is a cyclist
and we anticipate that they’re going to nudge out
and around the car to the right. Here there’s a cyclist
coming down the road and we know they’re going to continue
to drive down the shape of the road. Here somebody makes a right turn, and in a moment here, somebody’s
going to make a U-turn in front of us, and we can anticipate that behavior
and respond safely. Now, that’s all well and good
for things that we’ve seen, but of course, you encounter
lots of things that you haven’t seen in the world before. And so just a couple of months ago, our vehicles were driving
through Mountain View, and this is what we encountered. This is a woman in an electric wheelchair chasing a duck in circles on the road.
(Laughter) Now it turns out, there is nowhere
in the DMV handbook that tells you how to deal with that, but our vehicles were able
to encounter that, slow down, and drive safely. Now, we don’t have to deal
with just ducks. Watch this bird fly across in front of us.
The car reacts to that. Here we’re dealing with a cyclist that you would never expect to see
anywhere other than Mountain View. And of course, we have
to deal with drivers, even the very small ones. Watch to the right as someone
jumps out of this truck at us. And now, watch the left as the car
with the green box decides he needs to make a right turn
at the last possible moment. Here, as we make a lane change,
the car to our left decides it wants to as well. And here, we watch a car
blow through a red light and yield to it. And similarly, here, a cyclist
blowing through that light as well. And of course,
the vehicle responds safely. And of course, we have people
who do I don’t know what sometimes on the road, like this guy
pulling out between two self-driving cars. You have to ask, “What are you thinking?” (Laughter) Now, I just fire-hosed you
with a lot of stuff there, so I’m going to break one of these
down pretty quickly. So what we’re looking at is the scene
with the cyclist again, and you might notice in the bottom,
we can’t actually see the cyclist yet, but the car can: it’s that little
blue box up there, and that comes from the laser data. And that’s not actually
really easy to understand, so what I’m going to do is I’m going
to turn that laser data and look at it, and if you’re really good at looking
at laser data, you can see a few dots on the curve there, right there, and that blue box
is that cyclist. Now as our light is red, the cyclist’s light
has turned yellow already, and if you squint, you can see that
in the imagery. But the cyclist, we see, is going
to proceed through the intersection. Our light has now turned green,
his is solidly red, and we now anticipate that this bike
is going to come all the way across. Unfortunately the other drivers next to us
were not paying as much attention. They started to pull forward,
and fortunately for everyone, this cyclists reacts, avoids, and makes it through the intersection. And off we go. Now, as you can see, we’ve made
some pretty exciting progress, and at this point we’re pretty convinced this technology is going
to come to market. We do three million miles of testing
in our simulators every single day, so you can imagine the experience
that our vehicles have. We are looking forward to having
this technology on the road, and we think the right path
is to go through the self-driving rather than driver assistance approach because the urgency is so large. In the time I have given this talk today, 34 people have died on America’s roads. How soon can we bring it out? Well, it’s hard to say because
it’s a really complicated problem, but these are my two boys. My oldest son is 11, and that means
in four and a half years, he’s going to be able
to get his driver’s license. My team and I are committed
to making sure that doesn’t happen. Thank you. (Laughter) (Applause) Chris Anderson: Chris,
I’ve got a question for you. Chris Urmson: Sure. CA: So certainly, the mind of your cars
is pretty mind-boggling. On this debate between
driver-assisted and fully driverless — I mean, there’s a real debate
going on out there right now. So some of the companies,
for example, Tesla, are going the driver-assisted route. What you’re saying is that
that’s kind of going to be a dead end because you can’t just keep improving
that route and get to fully driverless at some point, and then a driver
is going to say, “This feels safe,” and climb into the back,
and something ugly will happen. CU: Right. No, that’s exactly right,
and it’s not to say that the driver assistance systems
aren’t going to be incredibly valuable. They can save a lot of lives
in the interim, but to see the transformative opportunity
to help someone like Steve get around, to really get to the end case in safety, to have the opportunity
to change our cities and move parking out and get rid of
these urban craters we call parking lots, it’s the only way to go. CA: We will be tracking your progress
with huge interest. Thanks so much, Chris.
CU: Thank you. (Applause)

Flewber makes private flights as easy as hailing an Uber


DAVID: WELL RG DAVID: WELL,RG DAVID: WELL, RIGHT NOW WE ARE GOING TO TALK TO A COMPANY THAT IS DISRUPTING AIR TRAVEL. THEY WANT TO MAKE BOOKING A PRIVATE — IT SAYS JET HERE BUT IT’S A PLANE, AS EASY AS HAILING A RIDE FROM UBER. JOINING US IS THE CEO OF FLUBER. I SEE WHAT YOU DID THERE. IT SAID PRIVATE JET. THESE ARE SMALL PROP PLANES, RIGHT, THAT HAVE SERVICE ABOUT FIVE PASSENGERS, IS THAT RIGHT?>>RIGHT. DAVID: AND YOU CAN GET AN UBER TO COME PICK YOU UP, FLY YOU RIGHT OR DRIVE YOU RIGHT TO THE AIRPORT. CAN YOU AVOID ALL THE LONG TSA LINES?>>ABSOLUTELY. FIRST OF ALL, THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME ON. DAVID: OF COURSE. IT’S A PLEASURE TO HAVE YOU.>>LOGISTICALLY, WE ALL KNOW THE LOGISTICAL NIGHTMARES WE GO THROUGH AT THE AIRPORT, THE LINES. I USED TO IN MY PAST CAREER, FOR AN 11:00 MEETING I USED TO HAVE TO TAKE AN 8:00 FLIGHT, WAKE UP AT 5:00 IN THE MORNING, GET TO THE AIRPORT AN HOUR AND A HALF IN ADVANCE. IT’S LOGISTICALLY JUST A NIGHTMARE. DAVID: IT GETS WORSE AND WORSE. I JUST FLEW TO EUROPE AND HONESTLY, IT MAKES YOU NOT WANT TO DO IT AGAIN.>>JUST IMAGINE GETTING TO THE AIRPORT 15 MINUTES BEFORE YOUR FLIGHT, HAVING A LATTE, READING A NEWSPAPER OF YOUR CHOICE AND BEING AT YOUR DESTINATION WITHIN 45 MINUTES. DAVID: USUALLY IT TAKES THOUSANDS AND THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS TO DO SOMETHING LIKE THAT. HOW MUCH — OKAY. FROM NEW YORK TO BOSTON, THAT’S ONE OF YOUR ROUTES, HOW MUCH?>>ALL OF OUR ROUTES, WE HAVE THIS MODEL THAT WE BELIEVE IS VERY UNIQUE IN THE MARKETPLACE. WE GOT A PRICE POINT DOWN FROM A ONE-WAY FARE AT $349 AND ROUND TRIP FARE AT $599. DAVID: 600 BUCKS ROUND TRIP FROM NEW YORK AND BOSTON. THAT’S ONE NORTHEAST ROUTE. HOW MANY OTHERS DO YOU HAVE AND HOW WILL IT EXPAND?>>TODAY WE HAVE EAST HAMPTON AND NANTUCKET AND WILL BE EXPANDING TO PHILLY AND D.C. VERY SHORTLY. DAVID: PHILLY AND D.C. AGAIN, SIMILAR COSTS INVOLVED?>>SIMILAR MODEL. SIMILAR COSTS. ACTUALLY, OUR GOAL IS TO MAKE IT THE SAME COST ACROSS THE BOARD. DAVID: OKAY. IF I GO BY MYSELF, I WILL UNDOUBTEDLY BE WITH STRANGERS AS WELL, RIGHT?>>YOU WILL BE. DAVID: IF YOU DON’T BOOK THE FULL PLANE, IF YOU ONLY BOOK ONE PASSENGER, IT STILL FLIES?>>WILL FLY. DAVID: IT’S A GUARANTEED FLIGHT. ASHLEY: THAT’S GOOD. SUSAN: THERE IS COMPETITION. YOU HAVE OTHER UBER TYPE –>>RIGHT. THE DIFFERENCE WITH US IS THERE ARE NO ANNUAL FEES. YOU CAN BOOK AN HOUR IN ADVANCE OR A MONTH IN ADVANCE. THE PRICE STAYS THE SAME. WITH OUR COMPETITION, YOU KNOW, THERE’S GOT TO BE A CERTAIN NUMBER OF PASSENGERS, YOU’VE GOT TO HAVE THIS MEMBERSHIP FEE THAT YOU PAY IN ADVANCE. WE DON’T HAVE ANY ANNUAL FEES. IT’S A SIMPLE, YOU KNOW, BOOK A MINUTE IN ADVANCE — SORRY, AN HOUR IN ADVANCE, A MONTH IN ADVANCE AND ACTUALLY, WITHIN OUR APP, YOU CAN DOWNLOAD OUR APP, BOOK A FLIGHT WITHIN 30 SECONDS. DAVID: SAFETY. THE QUALIFICATIONS OF THE PILOTS.>>QUALIFICATIONS, ALL OF OUR PILOTS ARE COMMERCIAL GRADE PILOTS. DAVID: REALLY.>>THEY ALL FLY LARGE AIRCRAFT. AND YOU KNOW, WE TAKE SAFETY IS OUR NUMBER ONE CONCERN. WE TAKE THAT VERY SERIOUSLY. SUSAN: YOU FLY FROM SMALLER AIRPORTS LIKE TETERBORO SO I DON’T HAVE TO GO TO THE MASSES. THAT’S IMPORTANT.>>THERE ARE OVER 20,000 AIRPORTS IN THE U.S. THE GOVERNMENT IS TRYING TO DRIVE TRAFFIC AWAY FROM THE MAJOR AIRPORTS, WE CAN UNDERSTAND WHY, AND THEY ARE DRIVING IT TO THE TIER TWO AIRPORTS. WE ARE OPERATING OUT OF FARMINGDALE, WHITE PLAINS, WE ARE OPERATING OUT OF THE SMALL AIRPORTS SO YOU DON’T HAVE TO HAVE THAT TWO HOUR IN ADVANCE EXPERIENCE. DAVID: AGAIN, YOU ARE GOING TO EXPAND BEYOND THE NORTHEAST. YOU ARE GOING TO GO TO THE MIDWEST OR WEST COAST OR WHERE?>>OUR TWO-YEAR PLAN IS WE PLAN ON TAKING THIS MODEL, REPLICATING IT IN FLORIDA, TEXAS, CALIFORNIA, WASHINGTON STATE AND CHICAGO. AND YOU KNOW, WE WILL BE THERE THE NEXT TWO YEARS. DAVID: THE NAME OF THE COMPANY IS FLEWBER, F-L-E-W-B-E-R. BEST OF LUCK TO YOU.

The Economics of Uber


This video is sponsored by Skillshare. The first 200 people to use the link in the
description get their first two months free. Uber is the highest-valued private company
in the world, More than Airbnb, SpaceX, and Lyft combined. Every day, 15 million rides are taken across
600 cities in 78 countries – Everywhere from the Southern Tip of Africa
to the tiny town of Gridley, California – home of the Red Suspenders Festival, I’m sure
you’re familiar. Uber is so successful because it’s so convenient. Open the app and choose a ride – standard,
or luxury, or, in India, rickshaw. Soon, even flying taxi. Afterwards, you rate the driver, and they
rate you. 1 through 4 stars being the worst experience
of your life. And five stars, anywhere from Mostly Tolerable
to Absolutely amazing. I’m only slightly kidding: a 4.6 average
can get a driver deactivated. Still better than Netflix’s thumbs up or
down, which is 80% sure I’ll like The Emoji Movie, To which, I say: Finally, Uber calculates the price, it’s
really very simple: Start with the regular base fare, add the
per minute rate multiplied by time spent in car, plus distance times the per mile rate,
all of which depend on the city. A $40 ride in Tokyo costs $1.62 in Cairo. Then add the booking fee, and possibly airport,
toll, cancellation, cleaning, and lost item fees. UNLESS there are too many riders and not enough
drivers, in which case multiply by a surge price, 2, 3, or, on New Years Eve Two-Thousand-Eleven,
seven times the normal price. And as YoutUBERs have shown, algorithms can
be manipulated: If drivers log out at the same time, they
create a shortage and trigger a surge. Oh, it also uses machine learning to predict
how much you’re willing to pay based on route, so maybe don’t call an Uber from the Burj
Khalifa to The Bellagio, besides the fact that you… can’t. Even despite this, Uber is almost always cheaper,
faster, and easier. It took the most outdated, inefficient industry, sprinkled in something called “Technology” and completely reinvented the wheel. Oh, come on, you should know by now, there’s
always a twist… In the 1930’s, The Great Depression… happened. It wasn’t great, but it was depressing. Every fourth American was unemployed and desperate
for work. Especially low-skill, low barrier-to-entry
jobs, But, YouTube hadn’t been invented, so, they
drove taxis – lots and lots of taxis. Meanwhile, fewer people could afford a ride. And, as I was taught by a monopoly educating
me about the danger of monopolies, When this line goes up, and this ones goes down, prices
fall and drivers get angry. Like, violent protests in the street angry. So New York City wrote the Haas Act. Now, to legally operate a taxi, you’d need
one of 17,000 licenses called medallions. But 81 years later, with a million more people,
it’s only 13,000. You can see the problem. The number of medallions issued is more political
than it is practical. Before, extreme competition made prices unsustainably
low. Good for riders, bad for drivers. And then, the pendulum reversed – too little
competition made taxis expensive and inefficient – bad for riders, good for drivers. One medallion, the right to operate a single
taxi, was once worth over a million dollars. But advice like this hasn’t aged so well. Because: Uber happened. Its drivers flood the market by not requiring
medallions, draining their value. High competition, low prices, and angry calls
for regulation – Sound familiar? This time, we aren’t in an economic depression,
but many households are, which means lots of drivers. For you and I, Uber is revolutionary – the
low prices of last century plus the magic of these things. And for drivers, well, yes and no… If you ask Uber what the average driver makes
an hour, they point you to this study: $19.19. Another says 21. Not too bad – unless, you look under the hood. What they don’t include are the car, its
depreciation, maintenance, gas, and some of the insurance. Adjust for these and things aren’t so rosy
– This study estimates the median hourly profit
is eight fifty five before taxes, less than minimum wage for 54% of drivers. 8% actually lose money. You might say: But Uber is supplementary – a
quick way to make extra cash between jobs. And, that’s mostly true, about 60% have
another primary income. Plus, unlike taxis, who are even legally required
to wear black socks in LA, with Uber, you have some freedom. But the reason people don’t drive more might
only be they can’t. Because Uber considers its drivers not employees,
but independent contractors. Employees are entitled to minimum wage, gas
reimbursement, overtime, breaks, collective bargaining, paid leave, and health insurance, Which would cost the company about 4 billion
dollars a year. So they’re extremely careful to call drivers
“partners”, and itself, not a transportation company, but a “platform” – Simply connecting riders to drivers, who decide
when to work, what to wear, and so on. But, Uber controls the prices. And that’s the catch – if drivers are just
independent businesses, Uber setting their fares could be considered price fixing. So, which are they? That depends on who you ask and when, and
the answer will shape the future of the industry. But something doesn’t add up, The golden
age for drivers came from regulating competition, the same regulation Uber spends millions of
dollars fighting. Going back to the days of high competition
and low prices. But …why? If Uber takes a cut from drivers, their interests
should be the same. Regulation, of course, slows its growth, but
there’s also another reason: Drivers compete – but Uber makes the same
commission regardless of who picks you up. Uber makes more money with more drivers. But drivers want the opposite – less competition. They look like other platform-vendor relationships
– Amazon and its sellers, Apple and app developers, Both of which need their vendors – if YouTube
leaves the app store, Apple can’t replace it. But drivers are drivers – Uber needs them
– but no one in particular; they’re disposable. Something like 96% stop driving for the company
in their first year. The two seem economically intertwined, but
as long as Uber can find more drivers, they can keep fares unsustainably competitive with
rivals. The real winners of the Haas Act weren’t
cabdrivers, who couldn’t afford million dollar medallions, but their owners. Instead of drivers giving away their first
$100 a day to rent a medallion, now it’s 25% all day. For many drivers, it’s still a very welcome
and useful opportunity, but it isn’t quite the groundbreaking revolution promised. And it may not last… On paper, Uber has the perfect business model: Its huge network of drivers dominate the globe, but it need not buy a single car or gallon
of fuel. All perk, and no work. Something thousands of startups desperately
try to emulate. Most of which belong on Flopstarter, with
products like the TIMELESS watch, which… doesn’t tell the time. So how did Uber lose four and a half billion
dollars last year? That’s 12 million dollars a day! Many startups sacrifice profit for growth,
But Uber is nine years old. Facebook made money after two. The company’s biggest problem may not be
its legality, or controversy although there’s plenty of that, but basic holes in its business
model. The magic of so many companies is the network
effect. Every new customer makes it that much easier
to get another. You join Facebook because Steve is on it,
Kim joins Facebook because you are, and so on. For Uber though, this is only regional. More drivers in New York does nothing for
Beijing. In fact, it failed in all of China. Every city is a new chicken-and-egg problem: Drivers need riders before they’ll drive,
and riders need drivers before they’ll ride, I do not like them, Sam-I-Am. I do not like green eggs and – oh. This helps keep prices low, and profits, nonexistent. It’s inescapable and leaves only one path
for Uber: self-driving cars. Remove the driver, remove the money-eating
machine. But it means competing with the technology
of Google and the auto-expertise of GM. Either it’ll transform into one of the biggest
transportation companies in the world, or, it’ll be the end of the road. It plans to go public next year. which’ll be fascinating to watch, doubly
so if you understand the basics of the stock market. A great way to learn is with Skillshare. This course explains investing, starting with
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#TransitTrends Episode 7: Uber and Lyft Leave Austin, one of America’s Biggest Tech Cities


hey there and welcome to episode 7 of transit trends I’m Erica Brennus thanks so much for watching please subscribe to our YouTube channel if you haven’t done so already we released a new episode of transit trends about every month and definitely comment with what you think about today’s topic and like and share so more people get involved ok so I’m based out of move ins office in Austin and I figured it was time we talked about what was happening in Austin so we don’t have goober or lift operating within the city limits so the two companies actually left back in May after voters voted for a proposition that implemented harsher and stricter operational guidelines for transportation networking companies which included fingerprint-based criminal background checks and additional fees for TNCs several companies have launched since those two companies left to try and fill the gap but is it working joining me now from San Francisco is Jeff would the man behind the overhead wire Jeff what did you think when Oberon lift left austin i was kind of two minds i have friends and obviously people that ride uber and lyft in austin so that was kind of a blow for them people that depend on uber for income lift for income and also friends who depend on it to get home after a long night out or even just to get around the city when their car is not accessible on the other side I felt like uber was being an and lift for that matter we’re being a little bit like a big bullies they were sending too many mailers too many fliers robo calls and people on my facebook feed were getting really annoyed with it so I think they were kind of acting like the evil empire that everybody thinks they are we met up with the co-founder of ride austin which is a non-profit TNC that launched after uber and lyft left so right now said is actually kind of an interesting story in that my co-founder and I Julie my we actually fought pretty hard to keep Oberon left here you know we’re really pushing hard to try to come up with some type of compromise to really keep them here because Joe doesn’t have a car I don’t have a car so that ride shirts very important to us and we also know that there’s 10,000 people in the Austin community that drive and rely on that as a source of income so we push hard to try to keep it here we lost right and we were sitting around literally that Sunday after prop one saying all right well now what do we do right we could either complain and try to change the rules but it was a vote so it wasn’t just like hey go to City Council and say hey you know change your mind it was the people voted so we said hey well let’s why don’t we actually create something great for the city Austin when we pull the the community together and have a bunch of people chip in a various engineering sort of resources to two attorneys to marketing and let’s build something for the community to get you know these ten thousand drivers back up and going and let’s pull in the local charities and other things like that and we wanted to really just create something for the community and it’s fortunately kind of taken off pretty well right Austin is trying hard to fill the gap left by uber and lyft so as fair fasten get me even arcade City Austin a Facebook page with more than 40,000 members uber and lyft argued these new guidelines would discourage people from signing up to drive it certainly doesn’t make the process easier right I mean it we think that fingerprinting is important but it absolutely adds friction to the driver signup process and therefore you get a lot of people that that don’t complete the process right Austin complies with the city requirements and conducts in-person vehicle inspections and interviews over Labor Day weekend they gave 12,000 rides but had 2,500 ride requests they were unable to fill due to a lack of drivers I like driving for them I like the access that me and other drivers the axis we have to the leadership to make change requests that make the service better for us as drivers and also for the passengers we took a ride with right Austin driver Jerry you’ll see a sticker on his windshield the City of Austin gives it to drivers who meet their requirements at the end of the day fingerprinting only proves one thing I’ve never been called that’s all the proof it doesn’t make you a nice person I can pass the test than I did there’s my sticker but that doesn’t make me a nice person so but that doesn’t mean you don’t take whatever available measures there are to try to make the platform is safe for you know the people of Austin Jeff during my interview with Andy he actually brought up a TNCs being regulated at the state level instead of city by city which might seem like that would be easier so they don’t have to set those regulations for each particular city in a state like Texas but what are your thoughts about that well I think that’s a good idea because basically if you set regulations at the lower lowest common denominator you’re going to have 50 bajillion different different regulations so that’s probably a good idea that it goes to a higher power I would say though that it would be nice actually if they did at the federal level at the highest level because then every city would be the same and it’d be easier for each of the companies to adjust to just one regulation instead of 50 so the big question is though is can these alternative companies survive once uber and lyft come back assuming they do the companies that popped up since uber and lyft left can still stay I think if they provide a really good service and people are you know impressed by what they’re doing and feel like they can get a ride in a quick enough time I think people will use them the problem is the economies of scale I think the economies of scale that lyft and uber had created in Austin were huge and so if they’re not up to snuff on trying to get to people in a certain amount of time five minutes was I think the general average now we know uber and lyft aren’t going anywhere both companies are talking about what the future looks like especially when it comes to driverless cars and the interesting thing is that uber is actually starting to tests self-driving cars in Pittsburgh because that’s where Carnegie Mellon is and that’s where they poached a whole bunch engineers from the robotics or the robotics Department there at Carnegie Mellon in Pittsburgh so it’ll be interesting to see what happens when they start to get going a little bit more and try to try to put something together that actually works alright that wraps up episode 7 of transit trends again thanks for watching don’t forget to subscribe comment like and share and we’ll see you next month Oh

Self-driving delivery trucks are on the road


REFI BUSINESS TODAY.>>>DRIVERLESS TRUCKS, YES, THEY ARE ON THE ROAD, MAKING DELIVERIES, THIS IS IN TEXAS. KODIAK ROBOTICS IS THE COMPANY THAT BUILDS THEM. DON BURNETT IS THE CEO. DON JOINS US NOW. FIRST OF ALL, DON, I DIDN’T KNOW YOU’RE ACTUALLY IN BUSINESS, THAT YOU HAVE GOT THESE TRUCKS ON THE ROAD, MAKING DELIVERIES. CONFIRM THAT, PLEASE.>>MORNING, STUART. SO, WE ARE, WE’RE LIVE IN TEXAS AND WE HAVE BEEN MAKING DELIVERIES NOW FROM DALLAS TO HOUSTON. OUR TRUCKS ARE OUT ON THE ROAD, THEY’RE IN THE PUBLIC VIEW. YOU CAN SEE THEM ON THE HIGHWAYS OF TEXAS. AND SO THAT IS THE BEST WAY TO CONFIRM. STUART: HAVE YOU A REAL DRIVER IN THE PASSENGER SEAT?>>SO, FOR NOW THIS TECHNOLOGY IS IN TESTING DEVELOPMENT PHASE AND FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE, UNTIL IT IS ABSOLUTELY SAFE, WE’LL ALWAYS HAVE A SAFETY DRIVER IN THE PASSENGER SEAT, I’M SORRY IN THE DRIVER’S SEAT. STUART: HAVE YOU DEALT WITH LIABILITY? IF ONE OF THESE TRUCKS GETS INTO AN ACCIDENT, NO DRIVER IS BEHIND THE WHEEL WHO IS LIABLE?>>FOR NOW THE TRUCKS ARE OWNED AND OPERATED BY KODIAK ROBOTICS. ULTIMATELY THE BUCK STOPS WITH US. RELIABILITY RESTS WITH US. WE TAKE SAFETY AS OUR ABSOLUTE TOP PRIORITY. SO AT THE END OF THE DAY OUR SAFETY DRIVERS ARE PROFESSIONALLY TRAINED, EXTREMELY EXPERIENCED TRUCK DRIVERS. WE TAKE EXTRA PRECAUTIONS SO NOTHING HAPPENS ON THE ROAD WITH OUR TECHNOLOGY. ULTIMATELY THE LIABILITY RESTED ON KODIAK. STUART: WE HAVE SOME VIDEO THERE THE TRUCK IS ON A VERY WIDE ROAD WITH VERY LITTLE TRAFFIC. THE ROAD IS PRETTY STRAIGHT. WHEN WILL YOU BE ABLE TO GET THIS THING GOING TO THE POINT WHERE YOU GO AROUND MORE CORNERS, GET INTO MORE CONGESTED AREAS OR EVEN URBAN AREAS? HOW FAR AWAY?>>THAT’S A GREAT OBSERVATION. SO THAT IS ACTUALLY, THAT IS SPECIFIC TO OUR APPROACH. WE WANTED TO DEVELOP THIS TECHNOLOGY IN PLACES THAT ARE LESS CHALLENGING TECHNICALLY, THAN THE URBAN ENVIRONMENTS THAT YOU’RE DESCRIBING. THERE IS A LOT OF COMPANIES WORKING ON THIS TECHNOLOGY ACROSS LOTS OF DIFFICULT OPERATIONAL DOMAINS. AND, WE HAVE BEEN WORKING ON THIS AS AN INDUSTRY FOR MANY, MANY YEARS. THE TECHNOLOGY IS DEVELOPING RELATIVELY SLOWLY. THAT IS WHY AT KODIAK, WE DECIDED TO FOCUS SPECIFICALLY ON WHAT WE CALL THE MIDDLE MILE, FOR FREIGHT DELIVERY. THAT IS ON-RAMP, HIGHWAY, OFF-RAMP USE CASES ON LONG, STRAIGHT, WIDE OPEN ROADS. THAT IS WHERE WE THINK WE CAN DEVELOP THE TECHNOLOGY AND DELIVER ON THAT REALITY SOONER. STUART: DON BURNETT, KODIAK ROBOTICS.

Driverless trucks headed to Florida roads


CRYPTO. IT ACTUALLY ARRIVES TOMORROW.>>>NOW THIS, ROBOTICS, THEY ARE GOING TO PUT A DRIVERLESS BIG-RIG OR TWO ON THE ROADS IN FLORIDA, VERY SOON. IT IS COMING TO FLORIDA. JOINING US NOW IS THE CEO AN FOUNDER OF STARSKY, THAT WOULD BE STEFAN. GREAT NAME. WELCOME TO THE SHOW. GOOD TO SEE YOU, SIR.>>THANKS FOR HAVING ME. STUART: I HAVE A COUPLE OF RAPID FIRE QUESTIONS.>>GIVE THEM TO ME. STUART: WILL THERE BE ANY HUMANS IN THE CABS OF THESE TRUCKS.>>WE’VE BEEN TESTING ON FLORIDA ROADS WITH PEOPLE IN THE CAB FOR COUPLE OF YEARS. WE’RE NOW GEARING UP TO TAKE THE PERSON COMPLETELY OUT OF THE CAB ON PUBLIC ROADS IN THE STATE OF FLORIDA. STUART: OKAY. NOW WILL THERE BE ANY WARNING FOR MOTORISTS MIGHT BE PASSING THOSE TRUCKS OR FOLLOWING THOSE TRUCKS? IS THERE A BIG SIGN SAYING THERE AIN’T NO DRIVER IN THIS HERE TRUCK?>>THAT IS KIND OF AN OPEN QUESTION. THE ISSUE IS, THIS IS THE THING WE’VE SEEN IN REGULAR TESTS WITH A PERSON IN THE CAB, WE’LL HAVE A LOT OF PEOPLE DRIVING NEXT TO US, SEE THERE IS BUNCH OF CAMERAS, START DRIVING LIKE THIS WHILE TRYING TO DRIVE. IT SEEMS LIKE IF WE HAD TOO MANY SIGNS THAT ITSELF MIGHT CAUSE AN ISSUE. STUART: ARE YOU GOING TO BE JUST DRIVING THE TRUCKS OR WILL THEY BE DRIVEN ON BIG OPEN HIGHWAYS OR WILL THEY ACTUALLY GET INTO SOME TRAFFIC IN THE CITIES?>>SO WHAT IS INTERESTING ABOUT LONG HAUL TRUCKS IS FREQUENTLY THEY JUST DRIVE BETWEEN DIFFERENT DISTRIBUTION CENTERS WHICH THEMSELVES ARE IN INDUSTRIAL AREAS. THAT IS WHERE WE’RE FOCUSING ON. WE’RE NOT DRIVING IN DOWNTOWN MIAMI. WE’RE NOT DRIVING IN MIDTOWN MANHATTAN. MORE DRIVING IN PLACES THAT ARE SLIGHTLY MORE RURAL, BETWEEN WAREHOUSES ARE THAT IMMEDIATELY NEXT TO THE HIGHWAY. STUART: I HAVE TO BE HONEST. I’M NEARLY 71 YEARS OLD. THAT IS AGING RAPIDLY. I DON’T DRIVE AT NIGHT VERY WELL.>>YEAH. STUART: FLORIDA IS FULL OF PEOPLE LIKE ME. ARE YOU, YOU KNOW WHERE I’M COMING, ARE YOU RUNNING THESE TRUCKS DOWN THE HIGHWAY AT NIGHT IN THE DARK?>>WE’RE STARTING OFF IN THE EASIEST CONDITIONS, IN GOOD WEATHER, IN GOOD LIGHTING. IN TIME WE’LL START DRIVING IN LIGHT RAIN. WE’LL START DRIVING AT NIGHT. ALL THESE CONDITIONS ARE OPERATIONAL DESIGN DOMAINS. SEE DIFFERENT AREAS, DIFFERENT THINGS THAT ARE HARD, DIFFERENT THINGS THAT ARE EASY, START OFF WE’LL BE FOCUSING ON DAY TIME. STUART: YOU’VE BEEN VERY OPEN AND HONEST ABOUT IT, STEFAN. THAT IS ALL GOOD STUFF.>>OF COURSE. STUART: WHO ARE THE TARGET COMPANIES TO WHOM YOU WILL SELL THESE DRIVERLESS TRUCKS?>>WE ACTUALLY OPERATE AS A CARRIER OURSELVES. IF YOU THINK ABOUT UBER, WE’RE NOT BUILDING UBER OR LYFT. WE’RE NOT BUILDING TOYOTA PRIUSES, WE’RE BUILDING UBER DRIVERS. ON THE UBER AND LYFT SIDE WE’RE WORKING WITH C.H. ROBINSON AND SCHNEIDER, SELLING OUR CAPACITY TO SHIPPERS. SO IF YOU CAN THINK OF A LARGE CPG, WE PROBABLY HAUL FREIGHT FOR THEM. STUART: BASICALLY YOU’RE A SOFTWARE OPERATION, THAT IS WHAT IS GOING ON HERE?>>WE’RE BUILDING SOFTWARE BUT ALSO OPERATING TRUCKS OURSELVES. STUART: OKAY. THESE TRUCKS ARRIVE. STUART: WE HAVE A LOT OF VIEWERS IN FLORIDA, THEY WANT TO KNOW, JULY THE 1st THEY APPEAR?>>WE’LL BE DOING BROADER ROLLOUTS NEXT YEAR. WE’LL START DOING INITIAL PUBLIC ROAD UNMANNED TESTS LATER THIS YEAR. WILL YOU TEST US WHICH ROADS YOU WILL DRIVE ON IN ADVANCE?>>WE’LL MAKE SURE THE LOCAL AUTHORITIES KNOW. THEN WE’LL LET THE PUBLIC KNOW AFTERWARDS. STUART: STEFAN, I’M NOT GOING TO SAY YOU’RE A GOOD SPORT, ANSWERED QUESTIONS DIRECTLY IN THE WAY MOST PEOPLE DO NOT. IT WAS NOT LIKE PULLING TEETH. WHICH IT IS OFTEN THAT IS. STEFAN, YOU’RE ALL RIGHT. DID I GET THE PRONUNCIATION RIGHT?>>RIGHT ENOUGH. STUART: TELL ME HOW YOU DO IT.>>STEFAN WITH STARSKY ROBOTICS. STUART: YOU’RE A GREAT GUEST.