555 Timer IC – Basics and Working principle explained


let’s start with a brief intro of the
IC. 555 timer IC is the most popular IC ever manufactured. it was introduced in 1972 by signetics corporation it is usually described as a
highly stable device for generation of accurate time delays and oscillations. some of its major applications include precision timing pulse generation time
delay generation and pulse width modulation it can be operated in one out
of the two modes morestable or astable understanding the working of the
internal circuit at transistor level will be very difficult so we will be
looking at the block diagram representation of the 555 timer
IC’s internal circuit. let’s start with the block diagram representation of the IC. The IC is a 8 pin IC with its 8th pin connected to the power
supply of the circuit. then we have three resisters connected between the VCC and
the ground pin ground. Ground is pin 1 of the IC. The value of the three resistors is
5KOhm each and this gives the IC it’s traditional name 555. 2 comparators are connected with the negative of first comparator connected
between the two resistors and positive taken out as threshold pin or pin number 6 of the IC. the second comparator’s positive pin is connected between the
two resistors and the negative pin is taken out as the trigger pin or pin
number 2 of the IC. The negative terminal of the first comparator is also
taken out of the IC as control pin which is pin number 5. The output of the two
comparators are connected to the input terminals of the RS flip-flop and the
reset pin of the flip-flop is taken out of the IC as pin number 4. the output of the flip-flop is taken out as pin 3 of the IC passing through an
output stage. The complementary output of the flip-flop is connected through a
100 ohm resistor to the base of transistor Q1. The emitter of the
transistor Q1 is connected to the ground and the
collector is taken out of the IC as discharge pin or pin number 7. the 3 resistors form a voltage divider and are used to set the reference
voltages for the two comparators. (2*VCC)/3 set as the reference voltage
for the first comparator and VCC/3 for the second comparator. Control
pin can also be used to externally set the reference voltage for the comparator 1
but it is generally not used so we short it to the ground using a 0.01uF capacitor. now let’s start with the working of the IC consider the
first case when the input to 555 such that the threshold voltage is
greater than (2*VCC)/3 and the trigger voltage is greater than VCC/3. input to the positive terminal is greater than the voltage reference set
at the negative terminal of the comparator therefore its output is logic
high. Similarly, the voltage at trigger pin is greater than the VCC/3
voltage set at the positive terminal of the comparator, thus the output is logic
low. Before moving on further first let’s look at the truth table of SR flip-flop
when s and R both the inputs are zero the output remains same as the previous
state. when the reset is 1 the output is reset when the set is 1 the output is
set when both the inputs are 1 then it reaches into a not defined state. the reset is 1 and set is 0 so it is this case where output is 0. So we have output
as logic 0 and Q Bar as 1. When Q Bar is one it sets the Q1 transistor into
saturation and thus leads to a short circuit between 7th pin and the ground
pin now let us look into the second case
when the threshold voltage is less than (2*VCC)/3 and the trigger voltage
is less than VCC/3. For this case the output of comparator one is logic
zero as a threshold voltage is lower than the reference voltage of (2*VCC)/3 and the output of comparator 2 is logic one as trigger voltage is lower
than VCC/ 3. 0 and 1 on the rs input leads to this case where the output is
logic 1 therefore the output of the 555 IC is logic 1 and the Q bar is
set to logic low. When Q Bar is 0 the Q 1 transistor is in cutoff and
this leads to an open circuit between the 7th pin and the ground pin. For the final case let us consider the threshold voltage to be less than (2*VCC)/3 and
the trigger voltage to be greater than VCC/3. for these two values the output
of the comparator 1 is logic 0 and the output of comparator 2 is also logic 0. When the input to the rs flip-flop are both logic 0 the output remains same
therefore the output of 555 IC is in memory state, I mean a state in which
the output remains same as the previous state. This completes part 1 of the
series in the next tutorial I will be talking about 555 in it’s Astable mode.

How to Take a Nap at Work


How to Take a Nap at Work. Seinfeld’s George Costanza built a bed under
his desk, but we’ll tell you how to be a bit more subtle. You will need A spot to sleep An alarm And
20 uninterrupted minutes and big headphones (optional) (optional) (optional) (optional). Step 1. Find a place at work where you can sleep uninterrupted
for at least 20 minutes—your office or cubicle, the backseat of your car, an underused conference
room, the mailroom, under your boss’s desk when they’re away Major cities like New York
now have nap pods that you can rent for brief snoozes. Step 2. Consider options outside your workplace: a
department store with a nice lounge, the local library, a nearby park in nice weather. Just remember to keep your valuables under
wraps or you could wake to a lighter wallet. If you’re going to sleep at your desk, slap
on some big headphones and turn your chair away from visitors; people will be less likely
to interrupt if they think you’re listening to something. Step 3. Take your power nap between 1:00 and 3:00,
when energy levels are at their lowest. If you’re a light sleeper, try snoozing under
your desk. If you hear someone coming, just jump up and
say thank God you found your contact lens, earring, whatever. Remember to have the prop in your hand! Step 4. Set an alarm. You want to take a nap, not wake up when the
cleaning crew is vacuuming around your feet. Step 5. Check your appearance before you resume work
so you don’t arrive at a meeting with bed head and chin drool. Did you know NASA sleep researchers found
that a 26-minute nap boosts work performance by 34%.

Getting to the UFO Tree Hotel in SAS Business Class | Have Points Will Travel Episode 1


– I was sitting on 55,000 Amex points. I wanted to indulge a
bit on the trip to Sweden at the Tree Hotel. My name is Ian Agrimis, and
I’m obsessed with traveling on miles and points. My adventures have taken
me around the world in style and comfort, and I’ve learned you don’t have to be a
millionaire to travel like one. This is Have Points, Will Travel. Hit it! I transferred 55,000
Amex points to Aeroplan and booked a business class ticket to northern Sweden on SAS. If you’re lost right now, don’t worry. Although this is one of the most valuable redemptions I’ve made, earning these points
is easy with cards like the American Express Gold or Platinum which offer bonus points
on dining and air fare. Availability can be sparse
on the Aeroplan website, but with a bit of advance
planning and patience, your wallet will thank you. My ticket only cost me
$5.60 out of pocket. (upbeat music) Despite being in business class, I don’t expect to sleep a lot. It’s a pretty short flight. On flights like this, I like to skip some of the meal service
in favor of sleeping more, which helps me avoid jet lag. (upbeat music) So we’re well on our way here, and, for reference, I’m six five, and this seat is super spacious and sleek. It’s like a flying IKEA. (upbeat music) Airplane food does not have to suck. I like to change into comfortable clothes for the bulk of these flights. Well, you wouldn’t know it by
the way it looks out there, but it’s the morning. (upbeat music) That was a beautiful cabin. Kind of a bizarre meal
schedule, but good service, and impossible to beat for 55,000 miles. Anyways, wait till you
guys see where I’m staying. (mechanical hissing) Holy crap. Wow, all right. Well, I’m in northern
Sweden at Tree Hotel. That’s my room, a tree
house called the UFO. Since I got my ticket on points, I figured why not splurge
a bit on the room, so I’m guilty, it’s not a points hotel, but, guys, this place is amazing. Check this out. (upbeat music) First things’s first
is the control center. This shows everyone that’s
been abducted by this ship. And there’s a decent-sized bed. There’s even a closet. There’s a dining table. There’s even a bathroom with
a fully-functioning toilet and sink. But there’s no shower. For that, you need to leave the room. And they look like this. That’s the Tree Hotel. As the name suggests, it
is supported in a tree, so when I’m shake, I
can feel the whole room moving in the trees
which is kind of bizarre. Anyways, that’s it, it’s
just this circle here, so, pretty simple, but pretty cool. Enough about the room,
I’ve got something special planned for today. Well, initially when I came to Sweden, I wanted to see the Northern
Lights, but I figured horse-drawn skiing was
the next best thing. How’s it gonna go, good? Do you feel good? More confident now? I think this is gonna be good. All right, here we go. This is crazy, man. My balance is being tested. (upbeat music) What is this place? This place is crazy! It’s like the wild, wild west. Speed. Very fun. – [Man] Are you OK? – [Ian] That was a good one. (upbeat music) Oh, my god, my legs are killing me. Hurry up. (upbeat music) An amazing time. Skijoring, right? – [Man] Yeah, Skijoring. – Skijoring. – [Man] Yeah! – All right, thanks, man. (upbeat music) The sun is about to set. I know what it looks like here, but I think I’m gonna go to bed. If you’re thinking that
it seems way too early to be going to bed, well, it’s one p.m., but the sun already set,
so since I had a long day, I think I’m gonna call it. (upbeat music) (alert beep) Oh, turn! Oh, missed the bushes. Whoa! On the next episode of
Have Points, Will Travel I eat a sandwich in
Tokyo that costs far more than my first class ticket home. That would be amazing. (upbeat music)

✔ Minecraft: How to make a Working Vending Machine


How to make a vending machine (calming music) Today I’ll make a working vending machine selling delicious cookies. As always, I’ve made a super simple design. Throwing in an item will give the buyer an item of your choice. With this design, I don’t think there’s a way to decide what the customer has to throw in. If I find a simple way to do that i’ll let you know, if your subscribed. As you can see, throwing an item in the hopper now activates the dispenser. Whatever you want to sell should be in the dispenser. Now, lets make it look like a vending machine. (Undertale “ruins” theme) You can of course choose the materials you want! :] An item frame or sign on top should make it clear what this has to offer! (more calming music) Let’s test it! Mmm.. Delicious! :] I hope you enjoyed this as well! feel free to click subscribe for more like this Thank you my patrons: – XxBonnie101xx, SuperMarioTube, Cheetoheadvideos, Eman Gaming you can now support me on patreon or support single videos for free by following the guide in the description.

✔ Minecraft: How to make a Working Electric Fence


How to make an How to make an Electric Fence Hi everyone! Today I got another idea! It’s really easy to build, but cool! This fence requires alot of splash potions of harming, it’s expensive. :I It will not be that practical, but you will have the coolest fence in town! This is the basics, it now works! Touching the wires give what seems like an electric shock! It, of course, looks nicer once you cover everything up and let the grass grow. :] The wires are really hard to see and you can still walk through. :I That’s why I’ve made a few more designs. This one is very modern looking! Maybe even a little futuristic… I haven’t used end rods much, but this is a cool way to do so! MagmaMusen… Really? MISTAKE ALERT! A few months later… My bad, it won’t happen again. Ohh, wait.. Ehh.. … Sorry, I’ll get it right this time. There we go (Yay!) There we go.. Feel free to high-5 me through your screen. (Don’t, you will probably break your screen!) This fence is like the first, though you can’t go through! 😀 Let the grass grow and test it! Shocks and blocks! If you’re going for something that fits a good ol’ field, this next design is for you. This one will also block intruders! (and pigs) This one will also block intruders! Again, let grow and (then) test (it). What do you thing of the consept? I hope you enjoyed watching! Subscribe if you want to see my next silly idea! :I Now look at stone! Original English subtitles by: Fredbear Fazbear See ya next episode!

IPFS: Interplanetary file storage!


Today, the internet is such an important tool
in our everyday life. We use it to consume media, to communicate
with friends and colleagues, to learn, to handle our finances and much more… But the web as we know it has a problem: the
information on it is centralized. It’s all stored on big server farms like
this one and these are usually controlled by a single company. I mean have you ever wondered what would happen
if sites like YouTube or Wikipedia would go offline? How would you watch cat videos or spend hours
reading one Wikipedia page after the other? This centralization brings another problem
with it and that is censorship. Because content is hosted on just a few servers
it’s easy for governments to block access to them. In 2017 Turkey ordered internet provides to
block access to Wikipedia because the administration called it “a threat to national security”. So you get the idea: centralization of the
web isn’t a good thing. But then why do we keep using such a model? Well that’s because we have high expectations
when it comes to the web. We want pages, images and videos to load instantly
and we want them in high quality. Centralizing servers allows companies to have
complete control over how fast it can deliver all of this content. Another reason we use this model is that there
just isn’t a good and fast alternative. But that might be about to change! Meet IPFS, the Interplanetary file system. That’s a fancy name and they have ambitious
goals as well. They want to make the web completely distributed
by running it on a P2P network that works similarly to how BitTorrent works. Let’s take a look at how IPFS can accomplish
these goals but first you have to understand how we access content on the web right now. Let’s say you want to download a photo from
the internet. When you do that, you tell the computer exactly
where to find the photo. In this case the location of the photo is
the IP address or the domain name. This is called “location based” addressing. You tell the computer where to get the information
but if that location isn’t accessible, in other words the server is down, you won’t
get the photo. However there is a high chance that someone
else has downloaded that picture before and still has a copy of it and yet your computer
won’t be able to grab a copy from that person… To fix this, IPFS moves from “location based”
addressing to “content based” addressing. Instead of saying /where/ to find a resource,
you just say /what/ it is you want. But how this does this work? Well every file has a unique hash, which can
be compared to a fingerprint. When you want to download a certain file,
you ask the network: “who has the file with this hash?” and someone on the IPFS network
will provide it to you. Now you might think: hold on a minute, how
do I know that that person hasn’t tampered with the file? Well, because you used a hash to request the
file, you can verify what you have received. You request the file with a certain hash,
so when you receive the file you check if the hash matches with what you have received. Security built in! Another nice feature of using hashes to address
content is deduplication. When multiple people publish the same file
on IPFS, it will only be created once and that makes the network very efficient. Alright enough with this high level overview. Let’s take a look at how IPFS stores files
and makes them accessible to others. Files are stored inside IPFS objects and these
objects can store up to 256kb worth of data and can contain links to other IPFS objects. A simple “Hello World” text file, which
is very small, can be stored in a single IPFS object. But what about files larger than 256kb? Like an image or video for instance. Well those are split up into multiple IPFS
objects that are all 256kb in size and afterwards the system will create an empty IPFS object
that links to all the other pieces of the file. The data architecture of IPFS is very simple
and yet it can be very powerful. This architecture allows us to really use
it like a filesystem. Here’s a simple directory structure with
some files in it. We can translate this into IPFS objects as
well, creating an object for each file and directory. But that’s not all! You see because IPFS uses content based addressing,
once something is added, it cannot be changed anymore. It’s an immutable datastore much like a
blockchain. But then how do you change stuff on it? Well IPFS supports versioning of your files. Let’s say you’re working on an important
document that you want to share with everyone over IPFS. When you do that, IPFS will create a new “Commit
object” for you. This object is really basic: it just tells
IPFS which commit went before it and it links to the IPFS object of your file. Now let’s imagine that after a while you
want to update this file. Well, you just add your updated file to the
IPFS network and the software will create a new commit object for your file. This commit object now links to the previous
commit. This process can be repeated endlessly. IPFS will make sure that your file, plus it’s
entire history is accessible to the other nodes on the network. Pretty useful! This all sounds great but it’s not without
it’s limitations or drawbacks. The biggest problem that IPFS faces is keeping
files available. Every node on the network keeps a cache of
the files that it has downloaded and helps to share them if other people need them. But if a specific file is hosted by – let’s
say these 4 nodes – and those nodes go offline then that file becomes unavailable and no
one can grab a copy of it. A bit like BitTorrent swarms without seeders. There are two possible solutions for this
problem. Either we incentivize people to store files
and make them available or we can proactively distribute files and make sure that there
are always a certain number of copies available on the network. That’s exactly what Filecoin intends to
do. Filecoin is created by the same group of people
that have created IPFS. It’s basically a blockchain built on top
of IPFS that wants to create a decentralized market for storage. If you have some free space, you can rent
it out to others and make money of it in the process. Filecoin creates a strong incentive for nodes
to keep the files online for as long as possible because otherwise they won’t be rewarded. The system also makes sure that files are
replicated on many nodes so they cannot become unavailable. That’s a quick summary of Filecoin and how
it intends to built on top of IPFS to solve some of it’s issue’s. Leave a comment below if you want to learn
more about Filecoin in a future video. Last thing we’re going to take a look at
is how IPFS can be used. As I mentioned before, in 2017 the Turkish
government decided to block access to Wikipedia. The people behind IPFS responded by taking
the Turkish Wikipedia and putting a copy of it on IPFS. Because IPFS is distributed and there are
no central servers, the government can’t block it. Another nice application is DTube which is
basically a site like YouTube but entirely distributes and hosted on IPFS. Anyone can publish videos and anyone can help
to support the network. Pretty clever! By now you must be wondering: why is IPFS
called the Interplanetary filesystem? Is is suited to run across multiple planets? Well let’s assume that we have a base on
Mars. Communicating from Mars to Earth is quite
difficult. Depending on the position of the two planets,
a signal can take somewhere between 4 and 24 minutes to travel between them. Let’s take the best case scenario: you’re
on Mars, you open your laptop and request a copy of the Wikipedia page of planet Earth,
because you’ve forgotten what it’s like there. The request to Wikipedia travels 4 minutes
to earth and when it arrives there, it is send on the internet, to the Wikipedia servers
who respond in just a few a milliseconds. That response however still has to travel
4 minutes back to Mars. So on a good day, visiting a single webpage
will take you 8 minutes. On a bad day, 48 minutes… With IPFS it’s possible to cache large parts
of the internet on Mars. So if someone already requested a page that
you want to download, it can come straight from a node on Mars, making that page load
just as fast as it would on earth. So, yes, IPFS could be used to distribute
parts of the internet across multiple planets. So to summarize: IPFS is a very ambitious
project that could lead to a truly decentralized internet and now you know how it works. Make sure to hit the subscribe button if you
want more videos like this one and as always: thank you so much for watching!

how to deal with a bad day ✨a makeup tutorial + tips \\ [english] Jim Reno


wake up hey wake up everything is going to be okay I promised today’s one of those days work I feel like the whole world is against me and nothing I do just turns the way I want to so rule number one is don’t stay in bed even if you really really want to you have to you have to get out of bed I know it seems so easy to say and hard to do but as the truth so those are things they do are well dealing with a bad day or just like a bad episode in your life [Music] so taking my makeup off it’s quite therapeutic because it’s like taking all the rest of dirt away I don’t know so I’m using this stock cleanser which is kind of amazing I just rubbed onto my face and yeah it leaves like a very very smooth base of chill all right and in the shower I love the shower because I feel like I can just like I can like cleaning all my problems away for some reason I don’t know don’t be too hard on yourself your body is beautiful the way it is and your rewards of being happy and being loft don’t forget that [Music] it’s important to organize the space your atticus that kind of is a reflection of your mind space and I’m very messy so I need to clean it up in order to function do my makeup is also therapeutic to me I really enjoy the process of doing it for some reason so yeah you guys have seen me doing my babies so many times I’m skipping that for now and I’m gonna use my NYX IRA marker of course for my freckles I’m using benefit rockateur because it gives me like this instant healthiness shot and I look ten times better after using it and for my eyes I’m gonna do like my usual burgundy color that’s how I feel like the most of myself and yeah sometimes I feel like I do lose myself in some situations where I can’t control and right now it’s just I feel like I’m all over the place because right now I’m actually moving out so everything just gets more complicated when you’re not feeling like you have a home or that you belong somewhere um but I know things take time so little by little so yeah I’m basically this broken do makeovers making me feel more like myself which is kind of really think about a bit that I guess that’s the power of makeup I don’t know I’m also going to do some glitter freckles because I thought you know what why not what birthday to do then today when I’m feeling like so this is a glitter from in your dreams I believe and yeah I’m just putting it like under my eyes and on my where I previously put my natural brown freckles basically none of using these house with lashes lashes in iconic and holy moly they make they put the entire look together I’m not gonna pre-washing but these ones are so good oh my god and then I’m using this really gorgeous dark lipstick by Jeffery star and it’s in designer blood I believe I wanted to get the unicorn blood but he’s always sold out so I have to use this one and then I’m gonna be using the chill spray which is basically my um everyday setting spray and it works really really good it gives you like every dewy finish which I love and I feel my hair oh my god I’m so lazy when it comes to here I never know what to do it’s always tangled and it’s so thin that nothing stays so I’m just brushing it a little bit and I’m using to power things behind it and that’s about it something that really really helps me it’s writing down my feelings and why I feel like this um doesn’t have any solution or is it up to me to change it and I think that shows me a little bit of the big picture and just tells me that I don’t need to worry about certain things because they’re not absently to be changed pretty much in every office one its surround yourself with friends I think that’s very very important to feel oft I don’t know it’s really really important to me was to be with the people that I thought I loved if it wasn’t for for them I think Los Angeles or anybody in the world would be a much worse place to be um anyway and this is just me dancing to the music that I was playing I’m gonna leave a playlist here in the description box so you guys can check it out because it’s a place that I always used to I don’t edit or just get inspired so hope you guys enjoy it and always separates out of a video but I just wanted to let go of these feelings and yeah I hope hope you enjoyed it anyway look like if you liked it and see you guys very very soon bye [Music]

Behind the Art: The Path to Becoming A Working Artist with Lisa Congdon | CreativeLive


even though I knew I was gonna be broke
for a while and you know but nobody knew who I was this was gonna be really hard
I had to do this thing well Fredo say hello in school I
actually thought of myself as being a really crappy harness I was a liberal
arts major and I had zero idea what I wanted to do with the rest of my life
got some random jobs and that eventually was like I need a real job so I went
back to school to become a teacher I sort of found my way into this school
change social justice work while I was doing that work which I really loved it
felt really passionately about I also felt like there was part of me that was
sort of lacking something but it wasn’t like I want to be an artist I was like I
just want to do creative things and so I was kind of exploring a bunch of
different things not with the intention to sort of go do something with my life
professionally but just to sort of feed that part of me that felt like it was
missing something I started sharing images of the stuff I was making again
with zero intention of having a professional career was more like hey
look what I made today I made this sketchbook that’s awfully in three
colors this one is in four well start it off in four colors I got bored and added
black it’s really important for people to have some moment or a series of
moments where they see possibility I mean there are a lot of negative things
associated with being an artist like you don’t make any money and it’s really
hard and what little I knew about being an artist was actually pretty negative
or at least a working artist but at some point I began to see that it was
possible if I just worked hard enough and did enough of the right things and
sort of figured out the systems around being an artist I could make a living at
it like I took a very pragmatic approach right here is the beginning of my eraser
collection the best erasers are inscribed in some kind of foreign
language I collect bags paper bags from stores Scandinavian enamelware old books
I don’t even know if I’m remembering everything that I’d like this is the old
I think it’s a German bread bag or something Europeans make really good
bags I came into the world of art like sort of like as somebody who is going to
a foreign country for the first time and like doesn’t necessarily or maybe
definitely doesn’t speak the language or know the cultural norms that’s sort of
how I felt people understood things and things were just were the way they were
and I was like but why if you were an artist you had a gallerist or agent to
promote your work and then it wasn’t your responsibility but I kind of
understood on a basic level that if I was gonna be successful especially as an
outsider that I was gonna have to pin for myself basically I just remember
thinking every day I thought I was like tweeting like head to my blog to look at
what I made today look what I made today and I just felt like it felt gross at
first somehow miraculously I got really used to it and now I love promoting my
work the only people who are gonna follow you down that path or the people
who enjoy what you do and other people don’t have to follow you so you don’t
you can just pimp away right a woman just messaged me the other day on
Instagram and she lives in Germany and she has
just happens to have a bunch of vintage German erasers and did I want them it’s
like sure here’s my address oh here’s some more colder books and
this is actually a prized possession I love carita Kent she’s one of my
favorite artists can notice like there’s really bright bold colors people are
like looks like your work and I said that’s not a coincidence
Oh favorite poster by Carson Ellis is a friend and an amazing illustrator now as
an artist I get to use my art to talk about stuff that matters to me
not just education but human rights and social justice and truth and all the
things that that are important in the world right now and and so that feels
also like a way that I can use my work to give back at the end of the day even
the days when I’m not making very much art because I’m working on all those
other things are still way better than to me sitting in an office at a desk my
name is Lisa Condon and I am a fine artist illustrator and author you