Are You Building a Fanbase on YouTube? Subscriber Growth Tool: Conversion Rate | VideoAmigo Tutorial

Welcome back everybody, to another VideoAmigo tutorial video. And today we’re going to be talking about the So if you’re on YouTube and you’re a
content creator have you ever wondered if you’re actually building a fanbase or
not? Well, we actually have a stat for that and it’s called the “Conversion” tool.
So what the Conversion tool does that it basically looks at the amount of
subscribers you get for every 1 million views on your channel. It’s very easy to
use but it’s also a very powerful tool on VideoAmigo and even if you don’t
have a million views there is a formula which we’ll dive into in a
little bit… there is a formula where you can calculate and see how well your
channel is doing and you can look at the Conversion for any channel but it helps
a lot more and you get a lot more controls and a lot more flexibility if
you’re signed in on your specific channel. So if you haven’t already, sign
in to your VideoAmigo account which is free by the way and go ahead and start
looking at the Conversion tool on your channel. Anyways, let’s jump over to VideoAmigo real quick and I’ll show you guys how to use this tool. Alright, so now
we’re gonna go to and we’re going to go to the “Creator Tools Suite” tab at the top and then from there you’re gonna want to
click the “Analysis & Insights” tab on the side and it’s gonna drop down and
you’re gonna want to go right here to Conversion. And right here you can search for any YouTube channel’s Conversion if you want or if you’re signed in you can
pick whatever channel that you have signed in with your VideoAmigo account.
So we’re gonna do our channel, we’re gonna do Howdini. So let’s click “Go To
App.” So once you click that you wind up on this page and it says for every 1
million views you have the Conversion rate right here and then it’ll say how
many subscribers do you get. So again that’s one every 1 million subscribers — sorry every 1 million views — how many subscribers are you getting? And the
formula is right here and basically what the formula is, is you’re dividing the
views that you have on your channel by 1 million and then you’re dividing that
number by the amount of subscribers you have and then that’s gonna get you your
Conversion rate. And again if you don’t have a million views yet on your
channel you can just follow that formula and plug the numbers right in and you
should have your own Conversion rate. Alright so let’s go ahead and click “Got
It! Show Me.” Alright, so it now pulls up this page here there’s not a whole lot going
on it’s a pretty easy page to read but I’ll break it down for you guys. So, under
our Topics right now, we are under the “How Tos and Life Hacks Galore” and as you can see we have different Topics saved that we can compare our channel to. And
again VideoAmigo has categorized YouTube into over 10,000
nested Topics, and that’s one of the things that makes this tool so powerful. So you
can actually go in and look at your Conversion rate based on specific Topics. But again for Howdini we’re just going to look at the “How Tos and Life Hacks Galore” right now. So if you look here the
YouTube overall is 591. If you hover over that number and I’ll say YouTube’s
overall conversion rate is 591. This means that for every million views there
are 591 subscribers. So that’s the average of all YouTube channels that are
in the VideoAmigo database. And then for our specific Topic it’s actually 13,510. So again what that means for our specific Topic which in this case is the
“How Tos and Life Hacks Galore” it means that for every 1 million views on the
average channel 13,510 people subscribed. So we look here at the top
10% within the Topic the Conversion rate is only 4,412 which is a lot lower than the average. And that top 10% number
is based off of views so the best explanation that I can give for the
Conversion rate for the top 10% being lower is that those top channels
already have a lot of subscribers so naturally they’re not going to convert
as many subscribers over as the average because they already have a lot of
subscribers. So, in other words, there are fewer viewers to convert to subscribers.
This last number right here is Howdini’s Conversion rate. So it says for every
million views we are getting 1,582 subscribers. Now let’s say we wanted to
switch Topics and see how Howdini compares to another Topic. So let’s
go ahead and click Topics and let’s look at the “General Cooking” Topic. So, if you
look here, the first and last number aren’t really going to change much
because this 1,582 is the Conversion rate for Howdini’s channel as a whole, and
that first number, the 591, is the Conversion rate for all of YouTube so
those numbers are pretty much gonna stay the same for the most part and the two
numbers in the middle are the ones that really changed. So, the first one is the
average for the Topic… so the “General Cooking” Topic, the average video has a
Conversion rate of about 6,281 and in the top 10% have a Conversion rate of about 6,527. So let’s say you want to add a new Topic to compare your channel
with. So, what you would want to do is you would want to scroll up, you want to
click on that gear, then you want to click channel Categories, and then let’s say I want to do “Cat Training” videos as a
Topic… so let’s type in “Cat Training” and then let’s go ahead and click on that
and then click “Save.” And then now it says our Categories have updated successfully, so let’s go ahead and close out of that. And then from there what you’re gonna
want to do is you’re going to want to click on your Topics again and then
scroll down here to the “Cat Training & Tricks” Topic and then click that. And as
you can see here, the chart has updated. So this is a good way to kind of look at
your channel with other Topics and see how easy it would be to start making
videos on that specific Topic based on the Conversion rate. Also, like I said, if
you ever want to download any of this stuff to put in like a report to present
to a brand or a client or something, you can always just click this these little
three lines right here at the corner you click that you can download it in any
file format that you want. So let’s say for example I have a channel that has
not yet reached a million views so we actually have clients in Germany and
there are a few phrases and stuff that I want to learn in German so this is
really cool channel out there called “The German Professor” so let me type them in. And I know they don’t have that many subscribers they only have like 10,000.
Okay, so when I type in “The German Professor” that pops up, so let’s go ahead
and click on them, and then let’s click on “Got It! Show Me.” again and if you look here it has a little question mark above “The German Professor” so again that means that channel has not yet reached a million views and if your channel has
not yet reached a million total views you’re gonna get that little question
mark as well. And if you don’t have a Conversion rate because your channel
doesn’t yet have a million views it’s nothing to worry about just plug the
numbers into the Conversion rate formula at the top right here. So if we wanted to
figure out the Conversion rate for “The German Professor” we would take the total views the channel has which is So just to keep in mind I said
earlier in this tutorial that if you’re looking at a channel with this tool that
you’re not signed in as you can only look at the one primary Topic at a time. So because I’m not signed in as “The German Professor” it says right here that
the Topic is “Learning German” so that’s the main Topic that we are looking at
when looking at “The German Professor’s” Conversion rate and if I wanted to look at more Topics and kind of have more you know customization I
would have to sign in as that channel. So again just make sure that you sign in
with your specific YouTube channel when using this tool if you want to customize
and play around with it and look at your channel compared to different Topics. But
thank you guys very much for watching. If you found this video helpful please
leave a like on the video and write a comment let me know if you guys found
this stuff helpful and also be sure to subscribe for more VideoAmigo tutorials and YouTube tutorials and tips. Again… thank you guys for watching. I super appreciate
it and I hope you have an awesome day, Amigos

EVE Online – The Market [Tutorial]

Becoming a hotshot EVE Online financier might not be for everyone, but the primary tool for interacting with the game’s economy, the Regional Market interface, certainly is. Whether you need a new weapon for your ship, or plan on decimating your enemy’s bottom line, knowledge of the Market can reap huge dividends. You can bring up the Regional Market window via the Neocom, or by pressing ALT-R. If you know what you’re looking for – a Neutron Blaster for example, simply type in the Search window and it will hopefully be available close by. Alternatively, you can browse through the item categories until you find what you need. Selecting listed items will bring up all the active buy or sell orders, listed in order of price. You can also arrange it by jumps, which is the distance
you’ll have to travel to collect your purchases, the quantity available and the time until an order expires. You can get more information, such as how prices
compare to the regional average, by double clicking the order. In addition, you can right-click to ensure you’re not being sold
goods from dangerous locations. If you’re satisfied, enter the required quantity and hit Buy. Congratulations, you now know enough
about the Market to net a bargain, and, as soon as you’ve browsed enough market orders, you’ll quickly develop a trader’s sense
of what sells where and for how much. There are though some useful options to consider
that will reduce the number of hasty acquisitions borne of poor judgment. Clicking on the icon in the top-right of the Details panel, you may want to exclude all orders
from potentially dangerous low-sec systems. Or you can limit them by, say, those that are
proportionately below the average asking price. Just mouse over the filter options to see how they work. If your desired item isn’t available for a price that’s worth your while, click Place Buy Order and set your own parameters. If a sell order is then posted that fulfills them, the system will process the sale on your behalf. Before spamming the Market with cheap orders, it’s worth remembering that the number you can have active is limited, as is the distance over which you can automatically trade. Luckily, there are skillbooks to increase the range, volume
and frequency at which you can buy and sell, and others to reduce the fees and taxes
the New Eden market skims from every transaction. As we have an extra Trade skillbook in our Item Hanger,
let’s put it up for sale. Unfortunately, we’re in a solar system close to career agents, there’s no shortage of them on the market. Since it didn’t cost us anything, however,
we can afford to undercut everyone, even the NPC vendors. All we have to do is right-click on the item
in our Inventory and select Sell This Item. Once you enter a price, the system will tell you
how it compares to the regional average, and the length of time the item will stay on sale,
hit Sell and wait for the money to roll in. That’s pretty much the basics covered. Taking things a stage further and becoming a dedicated trader
will require you to level up your Trade skills, practice safe navigation, find established markets, and to keep one eye on the news and the other on the competition. For now though, there’s nothing stopping you getting what you want from anywhere across New Eden – assuming that the price is right, of course.

How a DNS Server (Domain Name System) works.

In the world of networking, computers
don’t go by names like humans do, they go by numbers, because that’s how computers
and other similar devices talk and identify with each other over a network,
which is by using numbers such as IP addresses. Humans on the other hand are
accustomed to using names instead of numbers, whether is talking directly to another
person or identifying a country, place, or thing, humans identify with
names instead of numbers. So in order to bridge the communication gap between
computers and humans and make the communication of a lot easier networking engineers developed DNS, and
DNS stands for a domain name system. And DNS resolves names to numbers, to be more
specific it resolves domain names to IP addresses.
So if you type in a web address in your web browser, DNS will resolve the name to
a number because the only thing computers know are numbers. So for
example if you wanted to go to a certain website you would open up your web
browser and type in the domain name of that website, so for example let’s use Now technically you really don’t have to type in to
retrieve the Yahoo web page, you can just type in the IP address instead if you
already knew what the IP address was, but since we are not accustomed to
memorizing and dealing with numbers, especially when there are millions of
websites on the internet, we can just type in the domain name instead and let
DNS convert it to an IP address for us. So back to our example, when you typing your web browser the DNS server with search through its
database to find a matching IP address for that domain name, and when it finds
it it will resolve that domain name to the IP address of the Yahoo web site, and
once that is done then your computer is able to communicate with a Yahoo web
server and retrieve the webpage. So DNS basically works like a phone book, when
you want to find a number, you don’t look up the number first, you look up the name
first then it will give you the number. So to break this down into further
detail let’s examine the steps that DNS takes. So when you type in in
your web browser and if your web browser or operating system can’t find the IP
address in its own cache memory, it will send the query to the next level to what
is called the resolver server to resolver server is basically your ISP or
Internet service provider, so when the resolver receives the query, it will check
its own cache memory to find an IP address for, and if it can’t
find it it will send the query to the next level which is the root server. The root servers are the top or the root
of a DNS hierarchy. There are 13 sets of these root servers and they are
strategically placed around the world, and they are operated by 12 different
organizations and each set of these root servers has their own unique IP address.
So when the root server receives the query for the IP address for,
the root server is not going to know what the IP address is, but the root
server does know where to send the resolver to help it find the IP address.
So the root server will direct the resolver to the TLD or top-level domain
server for the dot-com domain. So the resolver will now ask the TLD server for the
IP address for The top level domain server stores the
address information for a top-level domains, such dot org and
so on. This particular TLD server manages the dot-com domain which is a
part of. So when a TLD server receives the query
for the IP address for, the TLD server is not going to know
what the IP addresses for So the TLD will direct the resolver to the
next and final level, which are the authoritative name servers. So once again the resolver will now ask
the authoritative name server for the IP address for The authoritative name server or servers
are responsible for knowing everything about the domain which includes the IP
address. They are the final authority. So when the authoritative name server
receives the query from the resolver, the name server will respond with the IP
address for And finally the resolver will tell your computer the IP
address for and then your computer can now retrieve the Yahoo web
page. It’s important to note that once the
resolver receives the IP address, it will store it in its cache memory in case it
receives another query for so it doesn’t have to go through all those
steps again.

One Net Business – Konferenzen mit MyRoom | #businesshilfe

Sie können MyRoom Meeting Einladungen an
Personen schicken, mit denen Sie zusammenarbeiten möchten.möchten. Und zwar auch dann, wenn diese nicht in Ihrem Unternehmen sind oder kein One Net Business nutzen. Öffnen Sie zuerst die OneNet-App. Wählen Sie das MYROOM-SYMBOL aus. Sie möchten Personen aus Ihrer Kontaktliste
in Ihren MyRoom einladen? Dann können Sie diese per Drag-and-Drop in
das MyRoom-Fenster ziehen. Möchten Sie Personen per E-Mail in Ihrem
MyRoom einladen, wählen Sie das MAIL-SYMBOL aus. aus. Ihr Standard E-Mail-Programm öffnet sich
mit einer E-Mail Vorlage. Und die können Sie an die gewünschten Personen
schicken. Möchten Sie dem MyRoom eines Kontaktes beitreten,
wählen Sie links das KONTAKT-SYMBOL aus. Suchen Sie nach der Person, die Sie kontaktieren wollen. Rechtsklicken Sie auf den Namen des Kontakts, an dessen MyRoom-Konferenz Sie teilnehmenwollen. Wählen Sie MYROOM BEITRETEN aus. Nachdem Sie einer Konferenz beigetreten sind, oder mit dem VIDEO-SYMBOL die Videofunktion. Als Eigentümer einer MyRoom-Konferenz sehen
Sie, welcher Teilnehmer gerade spricht. Sie können einzelne Teilnehmer stumm schalten
oder deren Stummschaltung aufheben. Sie können auch einzelne Teilnehmer aus der
Konferenz verweisen. So schalten Sie einen einzelnen Teilnehmer
stumm: auf das Mikrofon-Symbol beim Teilnehmer. So heben Sie die Stummschaltung auf: Klicken Sie wieder auf das Mikrofon-Symbol beim Teilnehmer. So schalten Sie alle Teilnehmer stumm. Klicken Sie rechts neben der Teilnehmeranzahl
auf die 3 Punkte. Wählen Sie ALLE STUMMSCHALTEN aus. So heben Sie die Stummschaltung für alle
Teilnehmer wieder auf: Klicken Sie auf die 3 Punkte neben der Teilnehmeranzahl. Wählen Sie STUMMSCHALTUNG FÜR ALLE AUFHEBEN
aus. So verweisen Sie einzelne Teilnehmer aus der
Konferenz: Klicken Sie in der Teilnehmerliste auf die
3 Punkte des Teilnehmers. Wählen Sie ENTFERNEN aus. So entfernen Sie alle Teilnehmer aus der Konferenz: auf die 3 Punkte. Wählen Sie ALLE TEILNEHMER ENTFERNEN aus. So nehmen Sie als Gast mit Ihrem Telefon an
einer Telefonkonferenz teil: Wählen Sie die Telefonnummer aus der E-Mail-Einladung. Und geben Sie bei Aufforderung die Konferenz-ID
aus der Einladung ein. Klicken Sie auf den Beitrittslink aus der
Einladungs-E-Mail. Es öffnet sich Ihr Browser. Geben Sie Ihren Namen in die Eingabefelder
ein und klicken Sie auf RAUM BEITRETEN. Nachdem der MyRoom-Besitzer Ihre Beitrittsanfrage
bestätigt hat, betreten Sie den MyRoom. Abhängig von Ihrem verwendeten Browser können Sie jetzt mit den Teilnehmern chatten, den geteilten Bildschirm sehen, Audio oder Video einsetzen und Ihren Bildschirm teilen.


[Music] hi guys and welcome back so today I’m gonna show you guys three more super super easy ways to do your own hair and if you’re new welcome I am Tina you should subscribe so let’s get started so for this first simple 1/2 up we’re going to leave out our bangs I would say about four fingers wide and tease the back of her crown and make sure you’re setting it with some hairspray so your pouf stays longer than five minutes and my favorite hairspray is the shaper by Sebastian I’ve been using this on and off for ten years it’s literally one of the best hairspray for updos next I’m gonna gather my crown and tie it with an elastic then toughen the crowd to create more texture and to create more volume and then I’m gonna take these side and pull it through the crown nearly elastic before tying this section to the main ponytail I’m living right here now and not a bottom what life’s all about the world is calling man I’m see ya miss me and then just do the same on the other side come on let’s go for a ride I finally open my eyes and I can see it so candy so killed [Music] and lastly I’m gonna wrap a strand of hair around the elastic band pull on the crown and the twist to make it look more voluminous and fancy and if you guys want the back to be more poofy you can pin it up to create that look and that’s it [Music] I cannot begin to tell you guys how much I love this ponytail because it looks like a very fancy French to its ponytail but it’s really not it’s very simple top to tell divide our hair in half [Music] and make you pop details okay so now with the top Topsy tail we’re going to pull it through the bottom ponytails very simple right then we’re gonna top on the sides to make it look poufy okay so make sure you actually do this part because if you don’t do it it just gonna look like a really raggedy looking – ponytail top dude health and we don’t want that okay so make sure you pull on it and then you finish this off by gathering the top and pinning it close as if this is a French twist look okay and that [Music] ridiculously easy but fancy looking you won’t even believe how easy is so for this one we’re gonna take some pair from our crown and tie into a ponytail but make sure you’re not taking the whole crown you’re simply taking small sections from each side of your head okay [Music] and we’re gonna drag this down until you get to the top of your ears [Music] now we’re gonna simply take the hair from each side and loop it through giving right you now and not a bottom Massoud is what life’s all about the world is calling and I’m sing we’re gonna go all the way down toward Phoenix I feel freedom inside come on let’s go my eyes and I can see it so clearly so killed [Music] life is [Music] these are little and when you get to the nape we’re going to gather all the hair together twist it around into a bun shape [Music] homicides pin it down and that’s it [Music] you guys like all the hairstyles and today as you guys try it out if you liked it be sure to thumbs up and if you’re new subscribe and click on the notification belt and I’ll see you guys again next Saturday I love you guys I love beautiful hair day everyone bye [Music]

How to Start Affiliate Marketing in India – A Beginner’s Guide

Have you ever thought you could make money by referring people to Flipkart or Amazon? I’m Shyam from and in this video I’m going to show you How you can make money using Affiliate Marketing I don’t know if you have noticed this But if you take a look at all the E-commerce sites in India like Flipkart, Amazon or Snapdeal You’ll find a link called “Become an affiliate” or “Make Money with Us” at the end of the page For example Let’s say: You become an Affiliate for Amazon And you bring a person to their site Now if that person makes a purchase You will get a Commission When you signup as an Affiliate for Amazon You willl get an Affiliate link You need to promote this link So that you get paid when people buy from it This is How it Works A person visits your site and clicks on your Affiliate link This will take him to Amazon Once he buys the product you will get the commission The best part about this is even if that person buys some other product you will still get the commission He or she just has to make a purchase within 24 hours To do that First go to and click ‘Shop by Category’ Now, select a category which you’re most interested in This is very important because what you choose here Is going to be the topic of your website in the next step You can also take a look at the commission rates of all products by going to this link Once you’ve created your site You can go to the next step which is to To do that Go to Scroll down to the bottom of the page and click “Become an Affiliate” Click this button & complete the Signup process Once you’re done, you will see this page Your Amazon associate account is now ready To do that First go to Google and search for Amazon India Bestsellers Now, click the first link And select your category from the left side This will show you the top selling products in that category Now choose a product which has at least 4 star rating or higher Take a look at the features and read the user reviews to get an idea about the product If you like it! Go to the next step First, go to the wordpress site you have created Click new & post Now, start writing an article about the product you’ve chosen I’m going to write about the Best Running Shoe Make sure you’ve read all the user reviews & the product features So that you can list down its pros & cons. Next, add an image of the product Now comes the important part adding your Affiliate link To add your affiliate link First find a “Buy” button from Google images Then add it to your article Now, go to the product page on Amazon And Click “Link to this page” Right click here and copy the link address Then go to the article Click the buy button and click edit Select link to Custom URL and paste your affiliate link Also check “Open link in a new tab” Click update and click publish to post the article Now you can see that, clicking this button, allows the user to buy the product using your affiliate link So, once you’re logged in You’ll see the total earnings for the month here To see the items you’ve sold, click this link These are the products people have bought using your Affiliate link For example, here someone has purchased a Dell laptop for 17,000 rupees and Amazon has paid a commission of 5% which is Rs.894 So, this is how you make money using Affiliate Marketing Also the steps I’ve showed you now can be used on any E-commerce site you want Now to see How to Create a Website, click this box and If you want to learn How to bring traffic to your site, click here So, that’s it guys! I hope you enjoyed this video Make sure you hit the ‘like’ button & share this video with your friends Also, if you want to watch more Quick Tutorials like this one Subscribe to FastRupee

Proof-of-Stake (vs proof-of-work)

Hi there! My name is Xavier and you might have read
articles online saying that cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin uses enormous amounts of energy
to secure their networks. But why is that – and more importantly – what
are the alternatives? Mining new coins takes a lot of computing
power because of the proof-of-work algorithm. The idea was first introduced in 1993 to combat
spam emails and was formally called “proof-of-work” in 1997. However the technique went largely unused
until Satoshi Nakamoto created Bitcoin in 2009. He realized that this mechanism could be used
to reach consensus between many nodes on a network and he used it as a way to secure
the Bitcoin blockchain. However, the proof-of-work algorithm works
by having all nodes solve a cryptographic puzzle. This puzzle is solved by miners and the first
one to find the solution gets the miner reward. This has led to a situation where people are
building larger and larger mining farms like this one. According to Digiconomist, Bitcoin miners
alone uses about 54 TWh of electricity, enough to power 5 million households in the US or
even power the entire country of New Zealand or Hungary. But it doesn’t stop there. Proof-of-work gives more rewards to people
with better and more equipment. The higher your hash rate is, the higher the
chance that you’ll get to create the next block and receive the mining reward. To increase chances even further, miners have
come together in what’s called “mining pools”. They combine their hashing power and distribute
the reward evenly across everyone in the pool. So to sum it up: proof-of-work is causing
miners to use massive amounts of energy and it encourages the use of mining pools which
makes the blockchain more centralized as opposed to decentralized. So to solve these issue’s we have to find
a new consensus algorithm that is as effective or better then proof-of-work. In 2011 a Bitcointalk forum user called QuantumMechanic
proposed a technique that he called “proof-of-stake”. The basic idea is that letting everyone compete
against each other with mining is wasteful. So instead proof-of-stake uses an election
process in which 1 node is randomly chosen to validate the next block. Oh yeah, small difference in terminology there. Proof-of-stake has no miners but instead has
“validators” and it doesn’t let people “mine” blocks but instead “mint” or
“forge” blocks. Validators aren’t chosen completely randomly. To become a validator, a node has to deposit
a certain amount of coins into the network as stake. You can think of this as a security deposit. The size of the stake determines the chances
of a validator to be chosen to forge the next block. It’s a linear correlation. Let’s say Bob deposits $100 dollars into
the network while Alice deposits $1000. Alice now has a 10 times higher chance of
being chosen to forge the next block. This might not seem fair because it favors
the rich, but in reality it’s more fair compared to proof-of-work. With proof-of-work rich people can enjoy the
power of economies at scale. The price they pay for mining equipment and
electricity doesn’t go up in a linear fashion. Instead the more they buy, the better prices
they can get. Economies at scale! But back to proof-of-stake. If a node is chosen to validate the next block,
he’ll check if all the transactions within it are indeed valid. If everything checks out, the node signs off
on the block and adds it to the blockchain. As a reward the node receives the fees that
are associated with each transaction. Okay but how can we trust other validators
on the network? Well that’s where the stake comes in. Validators will lose a part of their stake
if they approve fraudulent transactions. As long as the stake is higher then what the
validator gets from the transaction fees, we can trust them to correctly do their job. Because if not, they lose more money then
they gain. It’s a financial motivator and holds up
as long as the stake is higher then the sum of all the transaction fees. If a node stops being a validator, his stake
plus all the transaction fees that he got will be released after a certain period of
time. Not straight away because the network still
needs to be able to punish you, should they discover that some of your blocks where fraudulent. So the differences between Proof-of-work and
Proof-of-stake are quite significant. Proof-of-stake doesn’t let everyone mine
for new blocks and therefore uses considerably less energy. It’s also more decentralized. How is that? Well in proof-of-work we have something called
mining pools. Those are people who are teaming up to increase
their chances of mining a new block and thus collecting the reward. However these pools now control large portions
of the bitcoin blockchain. They centralize the mining process and that’s
dangerous. If the three biggest mining pools would merge
together, they would have a majority stake in the network and could start approving fraudulent
transactions. Another important advantage is that setting
up a node for a proof-of-stake based blockchain is a lot less expensive compared to a proof-of-work
based one. You don’t need expensive mining equipment
and thus proof-of-stake encourages more people to set up a node, making the network more
decentralized and also more secure. But even proof-of-stake isn’t perfect and
it also has some flaws. You might think: “hold on a minute! If I buy a majority stake in the network,
I can effectively control it and approve fake transactions” and you would be correct. This is called the 51% attack and was first
discussed as a weak point of the proof-of-work algorithm. If a single miner or group of miners can obtain
51% of the hashing power, they can effectively control the blockchain. Proof-of-stake on the other hand makes this
attack very impractical, depending on the value of a cryptocurrency. If Bitcoin would be converted to proof-of-stake,
acquiring 51% of all the coins would set you back a whopping 79 billion dollars. So the 51% attack is actually less likely
to happen with proof-of-stake. But that’s not the only risk. Proof-of-stake algorithms also have to be
careful how they select the next validators. It can’t be completely random because the
size of the stake has to be factored in. But at the same time the stake alone isn’t
enough because that will favor rich people, who will get chosen more frequently, will
collect more transaction fees, become even richer and thus increase their chances of
being chosen as validator even further. There are a number of proposals to fix this
like coin age based selection. Another potential problem is when the network
choses the next validator but he doesn’t turn up to do his job. This could easily be solved by choosing a
large number of backup validators as a fallback. In short: proof-of-stake brings additional
risks when compared to proof-of-work and a lot of research is needed to understand these
risks and to mitigate them. Alright so now that we know what proof-of-stake
is, what benefits it has and what risks are involved, let’s look at real world usage. A few examples of coins that use it right
now are Peercoin, Lisk and Nxt but more cryptocurrencies are likely to follow in the future. Ethereum for instance is working on implementing
a proof-of-stake system which they call Casper. It’s currently deployed on the Ethereum
testnet and is actively being developed. And also the Cardano project has long been
working on creating the a provable secure proof-of-stake algorithm that they call Ouroboros. More about that in this video right here. So that was it for this video. If you liked it, give it a thumbs up and consider
getting subscribed. Thank you very much for watching and I’ll
see you in the next video!

Marketing-Mix – Grundbegriffe der Wirtschaft ● Gehe auf SIMPLECLUB.DE/GO

Ihr wisst ja, einen guten Cocktail macht der perfekte Mix aus. Schmeißt ihr 6 Erdbeeren mit ein paar Eiswürfel in den Mixer packt danach 4cl Weißen Rum und je 2cl Limettensaft und Erdbeerlikör dazu dann wird das Ganze zu einem lecker fruchtigen Strawberry Daiquiri Top für den Sommer! Wenn ihr grad aber eher wissen wollt, was man für den Marketing­Mix in den Mixer schmeißt dann bleibt dran! Auch beim Marketing­Mix geht es um das perfekte Zusammenspiel der einzelnen Komponenten. Jedoch sprechen wir hier über keine alkoholische Angelegenheit. Der Marketing­Mix bezeichnet die optimale Kombination an Marketing Instrumenten, um ein Produkt oder Unternehmen bestmöglich am Markt zu positionieren. Die Vermarktung steht hier also im Mittelpunkt
Ab zu den entscheidenden Komponenten für unseren Marketing-
Mix. Bei dem Marketing Instrumenten geht’s nicht um Gitarre, Geige und Co. Die Rede ist von den 4 P’s Product, Price, Place und Promotion. Im Deutschen sprechen wir von Produktpolitik, dabei geht es um die Definition und Gestaltung der Eigenschaften eines Produktes. Bei der Preispolitik ist ein Preis zu finden, der am Markt wettbewerbsfähig ist und die eigenen Kosten deckt. Place steht für die Distributionspolitik. Dazu zählt der Vertriebsweg vom Anbieter zum Endverbraucher. und die Kommunikationspolitik beinhaltet alles, was die Kunden auf das Produkt aufmerksam macht. Werbung, Sponsoring, Messen usw. Und diese zu kontrollierenden Variablen müssen richtig Kombiniert werden, um den Absatz des Produkts zu maximieren! Die Hang Loose Company stellt mega starke Surfbretter her! Die Fachzeitschrift „Surfguru“ hat diese im Test mit „sehr gut“ bewertet! Aber nur eine gutes Produkt allein bring auch nichts. Zu Beginn wurden noch Flyer in irgendwelchen Dörfern verteilt. Aber Flyer für Surfboards im Seniorenheim zu verteilen hatte nur mäßig Erfolg. Mit dem neuen Hang Loose Mitarbeiter, Mr. R Gaucho wurden die 4 Instrumente noch einmal überarbeitet. Das Surfbrett ist weiterhin top und wird mit dem Testergebnis beworben, dazu wurde ein Preis ausgeschrieben, der am Markt bestehen kann und zudem gute Gewinne einfährt. Es wurde in der Distributionspolitik entschieden, das Brett nur an coolen Surf Locations zu verkaufen. Und die Abteilung für Kommunikationspolitik hat entschieden keine Flyer mehr zu verteilen. Es werden nun nur noch Newsletter an Leute aus der Surf­Community geschickt und die Stars der Szene mit Hang Loose Boards gesponsert. So wurde eine optimale Kombination gefunden und mehr und mehr Surfer setzen nun auf die Hang Loose Bretter. Wenn ihr jetzt genauso bockt auf Surfen habt wie ich, dann ab in den nächsten Flieger. Wenn ihr das zurzeit nicht schafft, dann schaut euch doch das Video zum Franchising an. Dabei bekommt ihr maximal Hunger – Wieso das? Seht doch selbst! Und zuvor noch ein Abo und Daumen
nach oben da. Wir sehen uns beim nächsten Video, bis dahin
und Ciao.

Controlling Mechanical 7-Segment Displays?! How RS-485 and UART works! || EB#43

Recently, I received those mechanical seven-segment displays which, like the name implies do not use LEDs to highlight each one of their segments but, instead, they use a small piece of white plastic that moves around. To find out how exactly this display works, I opened one up and found out that each plastic segment has a magnet connected to it, which can either get pushed away or attracted by another magnet. In the case of the commercial display, the required seven magnets are electromagnets, who, by alternatingly hooking them up to 12 volts DC reverse their magnetic polarity and thus control each segments. And, best of all, all the electromagnets keep their magnetic polarity even when current is no longer flowing, meaning that as soon as you are done displaying a number it will stay there without requiring any more electrical energy. As you would expect, though, controlling just four of those displays would either require lots of microcontroller pins and simple code or a more sophisticated microcontroller circuit with complex code. which, in both cases, can be a very time-consuming task. Thankfully, the company, AlfaZeta, which produces those seven-segment displays and sent them to me also sent me a big module with ten of them which are attached to a pretty promising-looking control circuit. So, in this video I will try to find out how this circuit works, how we can tell it what to display through the Arduino’s UART and the RS-485 interface and, finally, I will use it in combination with an ESP8266 to build a subscriber counter for my YouTube channel. Let’s get started! This video is sponsored by AlfaZeta First off, in order to properly examine the control circuit, I removed its two mounting screws and then, lifted it off the seven-segment display PCB. And, judging by the number of used IC’s, I was afraid that this circuit will not be an easy reverse-engineering subject. But, never-the-less, I started searching for all the datasheets of the IC’s, as well as finding out how each component is connected to one another through the help of the continuity function of my multimeter. As it turns out, the head of the operation is the ATmega32A microcontroller which, through the help of of high-voltage source driver IC’s and Darlington transistor array IC’s controls all the electromagnets. As far as I figured it out, it seems like one side of all the electromagnets of one display are connected to one source while the other displays all use different source pins. The other sides of the electromagnets are individually connected to a Darlington transistor array pin. While this time all electromagnets with the same segment control function are connected together. Now, if you watched my video about multiplexing, you should by now understand how the microcontroller can control all the displays. If not, then let me tell you that the source IC only powers one display at a time. And, by activating the [unsure] of transistors we power the required segments to form a number. Then the source IC powers the next output, and we can once again set the fitting transistors to form the next number. This process repeats until all numbers are successfully created This is, of course, only my theory but, since the practical testing of the displays later on revealed that they cannot change numbers simultaneously but, instead, have to change numbers one-by-one I was pretty sure that my theory has to be correct. The only question remaining is, how can we tell the microcontroller to display a specific number? For such communication tasks, the PCB comes with two RJ11 female connectors which, according to the manufacturer feature this pinout. But, what exactly does RS485 mean? Well, RS485 aka TIA485 or EIA485 is an industry standard for asynchronous serial data transfer. And, speaking of data transfer, I already talked about the SPI and I2C communication protocols in previous videos which I will use as a comparison example. Both of them use the clock line which basically tells the receiver when to read the data on the data line. This is called a synchronous communication. The RS485, however, is asynchronous which means there’s no clock line, only data lines. That means when an RS485 transmitter starts sending serial data consisting of 1’s and 0’s to a receiver the receiver has to synchronize itself by recognizing the first voltage edge and then using its own clock and set baud rate in order to sample the sent data at the correct time. The transmitter of course also has to use its clock with the exact same baud rate in order to generate the serial data. Otherwise, both of the components will not understand each other. It is also very important to note that, unlike SPI or I2C, which are proper protocols the RS485 only defines the electrical properties of the communication signals. It is not a protocol, nor does it define connection plug arrangements. That is why when you work with RS485 you have to get the proper communication protocol and hardware pinout from the manufacturer which mine kindly provided. Before testing the code, however, I want to name the most important electrical properties of the system. It typically uses one twisted pair of wires where one carries the non-inverted data signal and the other carries the inverted data signal. The receiver then creates the original data signal by creating the difference between those two. That sounds needlessly complicated at first, but the data wires use symmetrical voltage levels, and thus, injected common mode noises equally exist on both lines and therefore get rejected by the differential receiver inputs which makes the system pretty interference-free. Of course, there are more electrical properties but, before boring you to death, and since you can easily look those up online let’s continue with the coding. Now, the given protocol seems simple enough. Just the start command followed by the address of the module, the actual 10 numbers I want to display, and then a stop command. To control the display, I want to first use the Arduino Nano, which luckily comes with a USART interface. If we ignore the letter ‘S’, it stands for Universal Asynchronous Serial Receiver Transmitter which certainly sounds promising when it comes to functioning with the RS485 interface. So, as a simple test, I set the baud rate of the Arduino to 9,600 just like I did for the control PCB and typed in the serial data with the last numbers to display being ‘1234’. After uploading the code to the Arduino, we can hook up an oscilloscope to the serial transmit pin of it in order to find out that it sends out the data we just typed in, in software. And, while this does look promising, we still have the problem that this one data line does not match the RS485 standard. That is when such a MAX485 break-out board comes in to play. This IC can basically turn our microcontroller serial data into RS485 standardized serial data. So, I hooked it up to my Arduino according to this schematic which only utilizes the write functionality of the IC, and not the read functionality, created a twisted wire pair through the help of my electric drill, soldered one side of it to the control PCB’s ‘A’ and ‘B’ line and hooked up the other side to the MAX485 breakout board, and finally, after all this theory it was time to power the control boards as well as the Arduino in order to find out that code does in fact work Brilliant! And if we look at the RS485 data lines with the oscilloscope we can see the non-inverted and inverted data signals pretty clearly. Now, the manufacturer also sent me a bit of example code to display any digit I want which I used to create a simple counter mode. After uploading the code, and me being quiet for a few seconds, you can enjoy the true beauty of mechanical displays. Needless to say, I do love the sound and look of it which is why I decided to use it as a subscriber counter for my channel All I had to do was to connect the serial interface of an ESP8266 to the MAX485 breakout board and merging the Arduino YouTube API library with the 7-segment control board code in order to create this rather lengthy piece of software. After uploading it we can not only see through the serial monitor that the ESP grabbed my YouTube data successfully but we can also see that the 7-segment display shows my subscriber number correctly as well! And with that being said, I hope you enjoyed this small mechanical display RS485 UART adventure and learned a bit along the way. If so, don’t forget to like share, subscribe, and hitting the notification bell. Stay creative and I will see you next time!

Ex: Exponential Growth of Bacteria (Intro Question)